VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS.
LEARNING FROM GLOBAL
DISASTER LABORATORIES
GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF 1,500
ACTIVE VOLCANOES
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
are awesome manifestations
of heat flowing as a result of
mantle hot spots (e.g., Hawaii
and Iceland) o...
ACTIVE VOLCANOES
VOLCANO HAZARDS
(AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)
• VERTICAL PLUME
• TEPHRA AND ASH
• LATERAL BLAST
• PYROCLASTIC FLOWS
VOLCANO HAZARDS
(AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)
• LAVA FLOWS
• LAHARS (aka volcanic
landslides)
• EARTHQUAKES (related to ...
COMMUNITYDATA BASES
AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS:
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING
TECTONIC DEFORMATION
TSUNAMI R...
LATERAL BLAST
VOLCANIC
ERUPTIONS
PYROCLASTIC FLOWS
FLYING DEBRIS
VOLCANIC ASH
LAVA FLOWS
LAHARS
TOXIC GASES
CAUSES
OF RISK...
WE CONTINUE TO OPERATE WITH
A FLAWED PREMISE:
KNOWLEDGE FROM DISASTERS
RELATED TO EXPLOSIVE VOLCANIC
ERUPTIONS IS ENOUGH T...
FACT: IT USUALLY TAKES
MULTIPLE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
BEFORE A STRICKEN NATION
WILL ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT
POLICIES THAT MOVE IT...
FACT (continued)
• BUT, THE INTERVAL OF TIME
BETWEEN EXPLOSIVE VOLCANIC
ERUPTIONS CAN BE AS LONG AS 500
OR MORE YEARS.
FACT:
MOST UNAFFECTED NATIONS DON’T
EVEN TRY TO LEARN ANYTHING NEW
FROM ANOTHER NATION’S
VOLCANIC DISASTERS AND DON’T
CONS...
ELEVEN OF THE WORLD’S
NOST DANGEROUS
VOLCANOES
THE NEXT ERUPTION OF THESE 11
ACTIVE VOLCANOES IS LIKELY TO BE
DEVASTATING ...
WHAT MAKES THESE 11
VOLCANOES DANGEROUS
• Eyjafjallajökull
and Katla
(ICELAND)
• Chaiten
• Krakatau
• Merapi
• Vesuvius
• ...
THEIR LOCATION NEAR CITIES AND
INTERNATIONAL AIRLINE ROUTES
An eruption of any one of these
eleven volcanoes is certain to...
Eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull
Volcano in Southern Iceland
A Threat to North American-
European Air Traffic
MARCH 20, 20...
The Eyjafjallajökull and Katla
Volcanoes: Southern Iceland
The Eyjafjallajökull (AYA-feeyapla-
yurkul) volcano in Southern Iceland,
part of the volcanic process that
originally form...
EUROPEAN AIR TRAFFIC
DISRUPTED: APRIL 15, 2010
An eruption of the Katla
volcano, located under the
massive Myrdalsjokull icecap,
could cause disastrous local
flooding, e...
VOLCANO CHAITEN ERUPTS:
CHILE: MAY 3, 2008
CHAITEN ERUPTED AFTER 8,000-
10,000 YEAR DORMANCY
•THE 1,200 M (3,550 FT) VOLCANO
SENT ASH HIGH INTO THE SKY.
• “VOLCANIC ...
The Historic 1883 Krakatoa
Eruption!
Anak Krakatoa—Son of Krakatoa
KRAKATAU
• 26-27 August, 1883; The big one!
http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/Krakatau.html
MOUNT MERAPI:
INDONESIA
INDONESIA’S MOUNT MERAPI
ERUPTED ON MAY & JUNE, 2006
• Mount Merapi
emitted lava,
debris, and a
pyroclastic flow
on May 15...
EXPLOSIVENESS OF JUNE 8
ERUPTION SENT 15,000 FLEEING
MOUNT VESUVIUS: ITALY; A
THREAT TO NAPLES
MOUNT FUJI: JAPAN; A THREAT
TO TOKYO
MT. PINATUBO: THE
PHILIPPINES; JUNE 15, 1991
Pinatubo was the second largest
volcanic eruption of the 20th
century and the largest to impact
a densely populated area.
MOUNT RAINIER: THREAT TO
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON (USA)
MOUNT RAINIER: LAHAR
SIMULATION
MOUNT RAINIER: LAHAR
SIMULATION
MOUNT RAINIER: LAHAR
SIMULATION
NEVADA DEL RUIZ:
COLOMBIA; A 1988 DISASTER
The lahar generated by the
eruption of Nevada del Ruiz
buried 25,000 people in the
city of Armero as they slept.
POPOCATEPL: MEXICO; A
THREAT TO MEXICO CITY
“POPO” AND MEXICO CITY
RUMBLINGS OF ERUPTION OF
“POPO” ON JULY 4, 2013
Africa's most active
volcano.
NYIRANGONGO: DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
OF CONGO; A THREAT TO GOMA
ERUPTION OF NYIRANGONGO:
JANUARY 2, 2010
WARNING:
The other 1,489 active
volcanoes can also
have dangerous
eruptions anytime.
ERUPTION OF PUYEHUE IN
CHILE: FEB, 2012
ERUPTION OF CHAPARRASTIQUE
IN EL SALVADOR: DEC., 2013
RUSSIA’S VOLCANO PLOSKY
TOLBACHIK
PLOSKY TOLBACHIK SPEWS
ASH: JAN. 6, 2013
LESSON: THE KNOWLEDGE AND TIMING
OF ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS IS VITAL
• The people who know: 1) what
hazards to expect (e.g., ...
LESSON: TIMELY, REALISTIC
DISASTER SCENARIOS SAVE LIVES
• The people who have timely,
realistic, advance information that
...
LESSON: TIMELY EARLY WARNING
SAVES LIVES
• The people who have timely,
accurate, advance information that
facilitates evac...
LESSON: EMERGENCY RESPONSE
SAVES LIVES
• The timing of emergency response
operations, especially the
evacuations and the s...
LESSON: EMERGENCY MEDICAL
PREPAREDNESS SAVES LIVES
• The local community’s capacity for
emergency health care (i,e., copin...
LESSON: EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERED
BUILDINGS SAVE LIVES
• Buildings engineered to withstand
the risks from a vertical plume, as...
LESSON: THE INTERNATIONAL
COMMUNITY ALWAYS PROVIDES AID
• The International Community
provides millions to billions of
dol...
YOUR
COMMUNITY
DATA BASES
AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS:
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING
TECTONIC DEFORMATION
TSU...
PILLARS OF VOLCANO DISASTER
RESILIENCE
Preparedness
Adoption and Implementation of a Realistic
Building Code
Realistic Vol...
THE CHALLENGE:
POLICY CHANGES: CREATE, ADJUST, AND
REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND
PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE
KINDS ...
AN UNDER-UTILIZED GLOBAL
STRATEGY
To Create Turning Points for
Volcano Disaster Resilience
 USING EDUCATIONAL SURGES CONT...
MOVING TOWARDS THE MUST-
HAPPEN GLOBAL STRATEGY
To Achieve Volcano Disaster
Resilience
INTEGRATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND
TECH...
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VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS. LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES

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VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS are awesome manifestations of heat flowing as a result of mantle hot spots (e.g., Hawaii and Iceland) or explosive eruptions in subduction zones (e.g., the Pacific Rim). LESSON: THE KNOWLEDGE AND TIMING OF ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS IS VITAL. The people who know: 1) what hazards to expect (e.g., vertical ash plume, lateral blast, lava flow, lahar), 2) where and when they will happen, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare for them will survive. The people who have timely, realistic, advance information that facilitates reduction of vulnerabilities, and hence the risks associated with the vertical ash plume, pyroclastic flows, tephra, lava flows, and lahars will survive. The people who have timely, accurate, advance information that facilitates evacuation to get our of harm’s way of pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and lahars will survive. The International Community provides millions to billions of dollars in relief to help “pick up the pieces, ” but this strategy is not enough by itself to ensure earthquake disaster resilience. THE CHALLENGE: CREATE, ADJUST, AND REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE KINDS OF TURNING POINTS NEEDED FOR MOVING TOWARDS VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENCE. Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance For Disaster Reduction

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VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS. LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES

  1. 1. VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS. LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES
  2. 2. GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF 1,500 ACTIVE VOLCANOES
  3. 3. VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS are awesome manifestations of heat flowing as a result of mantle hot spots (e.g., Hawaii and Iceland) or explosive eruptions in subduction zones (e.g., the Pacific Rim).
  4. 4. ACTIVE VOLCANOES
  5. 5. VOLCANO HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS) • VERTICAL PLUME • TEPHRA AND ASH • LATERAL BLAST • PYROCLASTIC FLOWS
  6. 6. VOLCANO HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS) • LAVA FLOWS • LAHARS (aka volcanic landslides) • EARTHQUAKES (related to the internal movement of lava) • “VOLCANIC WINTER”
  7. 7. COMMUNITYDATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS •HAZARD MAPS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION RISK ASSESSMENT RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENCE •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTION •EMERGENCY RESPONSE •RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS
  8. 8. LATERAL BLAST VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS PYROCLASTIC FLOWS FLYING DEBRIS VOLCANIC ASH LAVA FLOWS LAHARS TOXIC GASES CAUSES OF RISK DISASTER LABORATORIES
  9. 9. WE CONTINUE TO OPERATE WITH A FLAWED PREMISE: KNOWLEDGE FROM DISASTERS RELATED TO EXPLOSIVE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS IS ENOUGH TO MAKE ANY NATION WITH PEOPLE AND ASSETS AT RISK ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES TO BECOME DISASTER RESILIENT
  10. 10. FACT: IT USUALLY TAKES MULTIPLE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS BEFORE A STRICKEN NATION WILL ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES THAT MOVE IT TOWARDS DISASTER RESILIENCE
  11. 11. FACT (continued) • BUT, THE INTERVAL OF TIME BETWEEN EXPLOSIVE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS CAN BE AS LONG AS 500 OR MORE YEARS.
  12. 12. FACT: MOST UNAFFECTED NATIONS DON’T EVEN TRY TO LEARN ANYTHING NEW FROM ANOTHER NATION’S VOLCANIC DISASTERS AND DON’T CONSIDER THEM TO BE A BASIS FOR CHANGING EXISTING POLICIES
  13. 13. ELEVEN OF THE WORLD’S NOST DANGEROUS VOLCANOES THE NEXT ERUPTION OF THESE 11 ACTIVE VOLCANOES IS LIKELY TO BE DEVASTATING LOCALLY, REGIONALLY, AND GLOBALLY
  14. 14. WHAT MAKES THESE 11 VOLCANOES DANGEROUS • Eyjafjallajökull and Katla (ICELAND) • Chaiten • Krakatau • Merapi • Vesuvius • Pinatubo • Mount Rainier • Nevada del Ruiz • Popocatepl • Nyirangongo (CONGO)
  15. 15. THEIR LOCATION NEAR CITIES AND INTERNATIONAL AIRLINE ROUTES An eruption of any one of these eleven volcanoes is certain to be devastating to people, their property, their health, the economy, and, sometimes, the regional air space.
  16. 16. Eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Southern Iceland A Threat to North American- European Air Traffic MARCH 20, 2010
  17. 17. The Eyjafjallajökull and Katla Volcanoes: Southern Iceland
  18. 18. The Eyjafjallajökull (AYA-feeyapla- yurkul) volcano in Southern Iceland, part of the volcanic process that originally formed Iceland, erupted a few minutes before midnight on Saturday, March 20th
  19. 19. EUROPEAN AIR TRAFFIC DISRUPTED: APRIL 15, 2010
  20. 20. An eruption of the Katla volcano, located under the massive Myrdalsjokull icecap, could cause disastrous local flooding, explosive blasts, and eruption clouds that would disrupt air traffic between Europe and the USA.
  21. 21. VOLCANO CHAITEN ERUPTS: CHILE: MAY 3, 2008
  22. 22. CHAITEN ERUPTED AFTER 8,000- 10,000 YEAR DORMANCY •THE 1,200 M (3,550 FT) VOLCANO SENT ASH HIGH INTO THE SKY. • “VOLCANIC EARTHQUAKES WERE TRIGGERED IN THE AREA. •1,500 RESIDENTS EVACUATED, MOSTLY BY BOAT
  23. 23. The Historic 1883 Krakatoa Eruption! Anak Krakatoa—Son of Krakatoa
  24. 24. KRAKATAU • 26-27 August, 1883; The big one! http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/Krakatau.html
  25. 25. MOUNT MERAPI: INDONESIA
  26. 26. INDONESIA’S MOUNT MERAPI ERUPTED ON MAY & JUNE, 2006 • Mount Merapi emitted lava, debris, and a pyroclastic flow on May 15, but this one was not devastating.
  27. 27. EXPLOSIVENESS OF JUNE 8 ERUPTION SENT 15,000 FLEEING
  28. 28. MOUNT VESUVIUS: ITALY; A THREAT TO NAPLES
  29. 29. MOUNT FUJI: JAPAN; A THREAT TO TOKYO
  30. 30. MT. PINATUBO: THE PHILIPPINES; JUNE 15, 1991
  31. 31. Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century and the largest to impact a densely populated area.
  32. 32. MOUNT RAINIER: THREAT TO SEATTLE, WASHINGTON (USA)
  33. 33. MOUNT RAINIER: LAHAR SIMULATION
  34. 34. MOUNT RAINIER: LAHAR SIMULATION
  35. 35. MOUNT RAINIER: LAHAR SIMULATION
  36. 36. NEVADA DEL RUIZ: COLOMBIA; A 1988 DISASTER
  37. 37. The lahar generated by the eruption of Nevada del Ruiz buried 25,000 people in the city of Armero as they slept.
  38. 38. POPOCATEPL: MEXICO; A THREAT TO MEXICO CITY
  39. 39. “POPO” AND MEXICO CITY
  40. 40. RUMBLINGS OF ERUPTION OF “POPO” ON JULY 4, 2013
  41. 41. Africa's most active volcano.
  42. 42. NYIRANGONGO: DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO; A THREAT TO GOMA
  43. 43. ERUPTION OF NYIRANGONGO: JANUARY 2, 2010
  44. 44. WARNING: The other 1,489 active volcanoes can also have dangerous eruptions anytime.
  45. 45. ERUPTION OF PUYEHUE IN CHILE: FEB, 2012
  46. 46. ERUPTION OF CHAPARRASTIQUE IN EL SALVADOR: DEC., 2013
  47. 47. RUSSIA’S VOLCANO PLOSKY TOLBACHIK
  48. 48. PLOSKY TOLBACHIK SPEWS ASH: JAN. 6, 2013
  49. 49. LESSON: THE KNOWLEDGE AND TIMING OF ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS IS VITAL • The people who know: 1) what hazards to expect (e.g., vertical ash plume, lateral blast, lava flow, lahar), 2) where and when they will happen, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare for them will survive.
  50. 50. LESSON: TIMELY, REALISTIC DISASTER SCENARIOS SAVE LIVES • The people who have timely, realistic, advance information that facilitates reduction of vulnerabilities, and hence the risks associated with the vertical ash plume, pyroclastic flows, tephra, lava flows, and lahars will survive.
  51. 51. LESSON: TIMELY EARLY WARNING SAVES LIVES • The people who have timely, accurate, advance information that facilitates evacuation to get our of harm’s way of pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and lahars will survive.
  52. 52. LESSON: EMERGENCY RESPONSE SAVES LIVES • The timing of emergency response operations, especially the evacuations and the search and rescue operations (limited to “the golden 48 hours)” will save lives
  53. 53. LESSON: EMERGENCY MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS SAVES LIVES • The local community’s capacity for emergency health care (i,e., coping with damaged hospitals and medical facilities, lack of clean drinking water, food, and medicine, and high levels of morbidity and mortality) is vital for survival.
  54. 54. LESSON: EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERED BUILDINGS SAVE LIVES • Buildings engineered to withstand the risks from a vertical plume, ash, pyroclastic flows, and tephra that cause damage, collapse, and loss of function, is vital for protecting occupants from death and injury.
  55. 55. LESSON: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ALWAYS PROVIDES AID • The International Community provides millions to billions of dollars in relief to help “pick up the pieces, ” but this strategy is not enough by itself to ensure earthquake disaster resilience.
  56. 56. YOUR COMMUNITY DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS •MONITORING •HAZARD MAPS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK BOOKS OF KNOWLEDGE •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTION •EM RESPONSE •RECOSTRUCTION AND RECOVERY VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENCE
  57. 57. PILLARS OF VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENCE Preparedness Adoption and Implementation of a Realistic Building Code Realistic Volcanic Eruption Disaster Scenarios Timely Emergency Response (including Evacuations, S and R, and Medical Services) Cost-Effective Reconstruction & Recovery
  58. 58. THE CHALLENGE: POLICY CHANGES: CREATE, ADJUST, AND REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE KINDS OF TURNING POINTS NEEDED FOR MOVING TOWARDS VOLCANO DISASTER RESILIENCE
  59. 59. AN UNDER-UTILIZED GLOBAL STRATEGY To Create Turning Points for Volcano Disaster Resilience  USING EDUCATIONAL SURGES CONTAINING THE PAST AND PRESENT LESSONS TO FOSTER AND ACCELERATE POLICY CHANGES
  60. 60. MOVING TOWARDS THE MUST- HAPPEN GLOBAL STRATEGY To Achieve Volcano Disaster Resilience INTEGRATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS WITH POLITICAL SOLUTIONS FOR REALISTIC POLICIES ON PREPAREDNESS, PROTECTION, DISASTER SCENARIOS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE, RECONSTRUCTION, AND RECOVERY

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