LEARNING FROM GLOBAL
DISASTER LABORATORIES
PART 6: TSUNAMIS
TSUNAMIS OCCUR MOST OFTEN
AS CIRCUM-PACIFIC EVENTS
• CIRCUM-PACIFIC
NATIONS ARE
PRONE TO
SUBDUCTION-
ZONE EARTH-
QUAKES AN...
TSUNAMIS ALSO OCCUR IN THE
INDIAN OCEAN (e.g., Dec. 26, 2004)
TECTONIC
DEFORMATION
EARTHQUAKE
TSUNAMI
GROUND
SHAKING
FAULT RUPTURE
FOUNDATION
FAILURE
SITE
AMPLIFICATION
LIQUEFACTION
LA...
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO
HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING
EARTHQUAKES
SOIL AMPLIFICATION
PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT
(SURFACE FAULTING...
HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF
INCOMING WAVES
TSUNAMIS
INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE
RUNUP
VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE
RUNUP
INADEQUATE RES...
WE CONTINUE TO OPERATE WITH
A FLAWED PREMISE:
KNOWLEDGE FROM TSUNAMI
DISASTERS, WHICH OCCUR IN
ASSOCIATION WITH GREAT
SUBD...
FACT: TSUNAMIS ARE NOT
ANNUAL EVENTS; THEY ARE ALSO
COMPLEX, SO MOST NATIONS,
WHETHER IMPACTED OR NOT,
USUALLY ARE SLOW TO...
EXAMPLES OF PAST
TSUNAMI DISASTER
LABORATORIES
GREAT SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE-
INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI DISASTER
DECEMBER 26, 2004
230,000 DEAD AFTER
EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI
• INDONESIA (Dec.
26, 2004): M9.3
earthquake
followed by
tsunami waves.
LOCATION
BEFORE AND AFTER THE
DISASTER
• SOURCE OF IMAGES:
SPACE IMAGING/CRISP-
SINGAPORE
• NOTE: A TSUNAMI CAN
TRAVEL AT SPEEDS OF...
BEFORE DECEMBER 26, 2004
EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
AFTER DECEMBER 26, 2004
EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
BEFORE DECEMBER 26, 2004
EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
AFTER DECEMBER 26, 2004
EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
BEFORE DECEMBER 26, 2004
EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
AFTER DECEMBER 26, 2004
EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
DECEMBER 26, 2004 INDONESIA
EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI DISASTER
• TRIGGERED BY A SHALLOW, M 9.3
EARTHQUAKE LOCATED 260 KM (155
MI)...
DECEMBER 26, 2004 INDONESIA
EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI DISASTER
• THERE WAS AN IMMEDIATE NEED
FOR FOOD, WATER, AND HEALTH
CARE SER...
EXAMPLE: 30,000 DEAD AFTER
EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI
• JAPAN (March
2011):
RADIATION RELEASE FROM NUCLEAR
POWER PLANT
• JAPAN (March
2011): The
unthinkable
happened after
the earth-
quake/tsunami.
THE PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING
CENTER HAS A VITAL ROLE IN
ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS
TSUNAMI WAVES:NATON
MYIAGI PREFECTURE
TSUNAMI WAVES: COAST OF
NORTHERN JAPAN
OARAI INUNDATED BY
TSUNAMI
TSUNAMI WAVS: SENDAI
AIRPORT
SENDAI AIRPORT: COVERED
WITH MUD FROM TSUNAMI
SENDAI AIRPORT: COVERED
WITH CARS, MUD, & DEBRIS
TSUNAMI DAMAGE
FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR
FACILITY HAD 3 FAILURES
EVACUATION OF CHILDREN
SEARCH AND RESCUE
THE TSUNAMI TRAVELED
ACROSS THE PACIFIC
TSUNAMI WAVE PATH
EXAMPLE: SURPRISE! DEBRIS FROM
JAPAN’S TSUNAMI NOW IN USA
• RADIOACTIVE
DEBRIS A YEAR
AFTER THE MARCH
2011 EARTHQUAKE
AND ...
EXAMPLE: MASS CARE OF SUR-
VIVORS AFTER QUAKE AND TSUNAMI
• CHILE EARTHQUAKE:
“The race against time”
to save lives and
pr...
LESSON: THE KNOWLEDGE AND TIMING
OF ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS IS VITAL
• The people who know: 1) what to
expect (e.g., strong g...
LESSON: TIMELY, REALISTIC
DISASTER SCENARIOS SAVE LIVES
• The people who have timely,
realistic, advance information that
...
SCHEMATIC OF TSUNAMI
WARNING SYSTEM
LESSON: EMERGENCY RESPONSE
SAVES LIVES
• The “Uncontrollable and
Unthinkable” events will always
hinder the timing of emer...
LESSON: EMERGENCY MEDICAL
PREPAREDNESS SAVES LIVES
• The local community’s capacity for
emergency health care (i,e., copin...
LESSON: EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERED
BUILDINGS SAVE LIVES
• Buildings engineered to withstand
the risks from an earthquake’s
stro...
LESSON: THE INTERNATIONAL
COMMUNITY ALWAYS PROVIDES AID
• The International Community
provides millions to billions of
dol...
YOUR
COMMUNITY
DATA BASES
AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS:
GROUND SHAKING
GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING
TECTONIC DEFORMATION
TSU...
PILLARS OF TSUNAMI DISASTER
RESILIENCE
Anticipatory Preparedness
Adoption and Implementation of a Modern
Earthquake Engine...
THE CHALLENGE:
POLICY CHANGES: CREATE, ADJUST, AND
REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND
PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE
KINDS ...
AN UNDER-UTILIZED GLOBAL
STRATEGY TO CREATE
TURNING POINTS FOR
TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
 USING EDUCATIONAL SURGES
CONT...
MOVING TOWARDS THE MUST-HAPPEN
GLOBAL STRATEGY TO ACHIEVE
TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
• INTEGRATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND
TECH...
EXAMPLE: 2014 TSUNAMI
SCENARIO FOR ALASKA (USGS)
TSUNAMI DISASTERS PART 6: LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES
TSUNAMI DISASTERS PART 6: LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES
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TSUNAMI DISASTERS PART 6: LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES

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We continue to operate with a flawed premise: Knowledge from tsunami disasters, which occur in association with great subduction zone earthquakes in the Pacific and Indian oceans and are very well understood, therefore tsunami disaster resilience should be accomplished relatively easily by vulnerable countries. Unfortunately, the fact of the matter is, tsunamis are not annual events; they are also complex, so most nations, whether impacted or not, usually are slow to adopt and implement policies based on science and recent catastrophic events making tsunami disaster resilience a very elusive goal to achieve. What have we learned from recent past tsunamis to increase survivability? First of all, the timing of anticipatory actions is vital. People who know: 1) what to expect (e.g., strong ground motion, soil effects, tsunami wave run up, ground failure), where and when tsunamis have historically happened, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare for them, will survive. Secondly, timely, realistic disaster scenarios save lives. The people who have timely, realistic, advance information that facilitates reduction of vulnerabilities, and hence the risks associated with strong ground shaking, tsunami wave run up, and ground failure will survive. Thirdly, Emergency preparedness and response eight slides. The “Uncontrollable and Unthinkable” events will always hinder the timing of emergency response operations, especially the search and rescue operations that are limited to “the golden 48 hours.” The local community’s capacity for emergency health care (i,e., coping with damaged hospitals and medical facilities, lack of clean drinking water, food, and medicine, and high levels of morbidity and mortality) is vital for survival. And finally, earthquake engineer building save lives. Buildings engineered to withstand the risks from an earthquake’s strong ground shaking and ground failure that cause damage, collapse, and loss of function, is vital for protecting occupants and users from death and injury. Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance For Disaster Reduction

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TSUNAMI DISASTERS PART 6: LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES

  1. 1. LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES PART 6: TSUNAMIS
  2. 2. TSUNAMIS OCCUR MOST OFTEN AS CIRCUM-PACIFIC EVENTS • CIRCUM-PACIFIC NATIONS ARE PRONE TO SUBDUCTION- ZONE EARTH- QUAKES AND TSUNAMIS
  3. 3. TSUNAMIS ALSO OCCUR IN THE INDIAN OCEAN (e.g., Dec. 26, 2004)
  4. 4. TECTONIC DEFORMATION EARTHQUAKE TSUNAMI GROUND SHAKING FAULT RUPTURE FOUNDATION FAILURE SITE AMPLIFICATION LIQUEFACTION LANDSLIDES AFTERSHOCKS SEICHE DAMAGE/LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS
  5. 5. INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING EARTHQUAKES SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON- STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CAUSES OF DAMAGE GLOBAL “DISASTER LABORATORIES”
  6. 6. HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES TSUNAMIS INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS FLOODING INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI CAUSES OF DAMAGE “DISASTER LABORATORIES”
  7. 7. WE CONTINUE TO OPERATE WITH A FLAWED PREMISE: KNOWLEDGE FROM TSUNAMI DISASTERS, WHICH OCCUR IN ASSOCIATION WITH GREAT SUBDUCTION ZONE EARTHQUAKES IN THE PACIFIC AND INDIAN OCEANS, IS ENOUGH TO MAKE ANY NATION ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES TO FACILITATE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  8. 8. FACT: TSUNAMIS ARE NOT ANNUAL EVENTS; THEY ARE ALSO COMPLEX, SO MOST NATIONS, WHETHER IMPACTED OR NOT, USUALLY ARE SLOW TO ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES DESIGNED TO MOVE THEM TOWARDS TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
  9. 9. EXAMPLES OF PAST TSUNAMI DISASTER LABORATORIES
  10. 10. GREAT SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE- INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI DISASTER DECEMBER 26, 2004
  11. 11. 230,000 DEAD AFTER EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI • INDONESIA (Dec. 26, 2004): M9.3 earthquake followed by tsunami waves.
  12. 12. LOCATION
  13. 13. BEFORE AND AFTER THE DISASTER • SOURCE OF IMAGES: SPACE IMAGING/CRISP- SINGAPORE • NOTE: A TSUNAMI CAN TRAVEL AT SPEEDS OF 800 KM/HR IN THE DEEP OCEAN
  14. 14. BEFORE DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  15. 15. AFTER DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  16. 16. BEFORE DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  17. 17. AFTER DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  18. 18. BEFORE DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  19. 19. AFTER DECEMBER 26, 2004 EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI
  20. 20. DECEMBER 26, 2004 INDONESIA EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI DISASTER • TRIGGERED BY A SHALLOW, M 9.3 EARTHQUAKE LOCATED 260 KM (155 MI) FROM BANDA ACEH, SUMATRA • TSUNAMI WAVES WITH WAVE HEIGHTS OF 4 TO 10 M AND RUNUP OF 3.3 KM OR MORE ON COASTS OF 12 NATIONS • NO WARNING SYSTEM
  21. 21. DECEMBER 26, 2004 INDONESIA EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI DISASTER • THERE WAS AN IMMEDIATE NEED FOR FOOD, WATER, AND HEALTH CARE SERVICES TO PREVENT “A HEALTH-CARE DISASTER” AFTER THE TSUNAMI DISASTER.
  22. 22. EXAMPLE: 30,000 DEAD AFTER EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI • JAPAN (March 2011):
  23. 23. RADIATION RELEASE FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANT • JAPAN (March 2011): The unthinkable happened after the earth- quake/tsunami.
  24. 24. THE PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER HAS A VITAL ROLE IN ISSUING TSUNAMI WARNINGS
  25. 25. TSUNAMI WAVES:NATON MYIAGI PREFECTURE
  26. 26. TSUNAMI WAVES: COAST OF NORTHERN JAPAN
  27. 27. OARAI INUNDATED BY TSUNAMI
  28. 28. TSUNAMI WAVS: SENDAI AIRPORT
  29. 29. SENDAI AIRPORT: COVERED WITH MUD FROM TSUNAMI
  30. 30. SENDAI AIRPORT: COVERED WITH CARS, MUD, & DEBRIS
  31. 31. TSUNAMI DAMAGE
  32. 32. FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR FACILITY HAD 3 FAILURES
  33. 33. EVACUATION OF CHILDREN
  34. 34. SEARCH AND RESCUE
  35. 35. THE TSUNAMI TRAVELED ACROSS THE PACIFIC
  36. 36. TSUNAMI WAVE PATH
  37. 37. EXAMPLE: SURPRISE! DEBRIS FROM JAPAN’S TSUNAMI NOW IN USA • RADIOACTIVE DEBRIS A YEAR AFTER THE MARCH 2011 EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI
  38. 38. EXAMPLE: MASS CARE OF SUR- VIVORS AFTER QUAKE AND TSUNAMI • CHILE EARTHQUAKE: “The race against time” to save lives and protect property starts immediately.
  39. 39. LESSON: THE KNOWLEDGE AND TIMING OF ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS IS VITAL • The people who know: 1) what to expect (e.g., strong ground motion, soil effects, tsunami wave run up, ground failure), 2) where and when they will happen, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare for them will survive.
  40. 40. LESSON: TIMELY, REALISTIC DISASTER SCENARIOS SAVE LIVES • The people who have timely, realistic, advance information that facilitates reduction of vulnerabilities, and hence the risks associated with strong ground shaking, tsunami wave run up, and ground failure will survive.
  41. 41. SCHEMATIC OF TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM
  42. 42. LESSON: EMERGENCY RESPONSE SAVES LIVES • The “Uncontrollable and Unthinkable” events will always hinder the timing of emergency response operations, especially the search and rescue operations that are limited to “the golden 48 hours.”
  43. 43. LESSON: EMERGENCY MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS SAVES LIVES • The local community’s capacity for emergency health care (i,e., coping with damaged hospitals and medical facilities, lack of clean drinking water, food, and medicine, and high levels of morbidity and mortality) is vital for survival.
  44. 44. LESSON: EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERED BUILDINGS SAVE LIVES • Buildings engineered to withstand the risks from an earthquake’s strong ground shaking and ground failure that cause damage, collapse, and loss of function, is vital for protecting occupants and users from death and injury.
  45. 45. LESSON: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ALWAYS PROVIDES AID • The International Community provides millions to billions of dollars in relief to help “pick up the pieces, ” but this strategy is not enough by itself to ensure earthquake disaster resilience.
  46. 46. YOUR COMMUNITY DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS •MONITORING •SCENARIO MAPS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK BOOKS OF KNOWLEDGE •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTION •/EARLY WARNING •EM RESPONSE •RECOSTRUCTION AND RECOVERY TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
  47. 47. PILLARS OF TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE Anticipatory Preparedness Adoption and Implementation of a Modern Earthquake Engineering Building Code Realistic Tsunami Disaster Scenarios Timely Emergency Response (including Emergency Medical Services) Cost-Effective Reconstruction & Recovery
  48. 48. THE CHALLENGE: POLICY CHANGES: CREATE, ADJUST, AND REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE KINDS OF TURNING POINTS NEEDED FOR MOVING TOWARDS TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
  49. 49. AN UNDER-UTILIZED GLOBAL STRATEGY TO CREATE TURNING POINTS FOR TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE  USING EDUCATIONAL SURGES CONTAINING THE PAST AND PRESENT LESSONS TO FOSTER AND ACCELERATE POLICY CHANGES
  50. 50. MOVING TOWARDS THE MUST-HAPPEN GLOBAL STRATEGY TO ACHIEVE TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE • INTEGRATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS WITH POLITICAL SOLUTIONS IN EVERY NATION FOR REALISTIC POLICIES ON PREPAREDNESS, PROTECTION, EARLY WARNING, DISASTER SCENARIOS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE, RECONSTRUCTION, AND RECOVERY
  51. 51. EXAMPLE: 2014 TSUNAMI SCENARIO FOR ALASKA (USGS)

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