THE ART AND SCIENCE OF MAKING A
COMMUNITY RESILIENT TO EARTHQUAKES
MAKING OUR FUTURE
BETTER THAN OUR PAST
UNDER-
STAND
IDENT-
IFY
HEAR
PERSON-
ALIZE
ACT
PERIOD OF
INTEGRATION
1990-2012
WIND...
COMMUNITIES ARE AT RISK FROM
• FLOODS
• SEVERE
WINDSTORMS
• EARTHQUAKES
• TSUNAMIS
• DROUGHTS
• VOLCANIC
ERUPTIONS
• LANDS...
A COMMUNITY’S BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE MUST
BE RESILIENT TO GROUND SHAKING AND GROUND FAILURE
HAZARDS
THE RISK TO A COMMUNITY’S BUILT
ENVIRONMENT IS DIRECTLY RELATED TO
ITS VULNERABILITIES
EXPOSURE
VULNERABILITIES LO...
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT A CITY AND ITS
BUILT ENVIRONMENT (B.E.)
• CITIES AND
MEGACITIES EXIST
BY GEOLOGIC,
HYDROLOGIC, AND
ATMO...
INADEQUATE BUILDING CODES
EARTHQUAKES
INADEQUATE LIFELINE
STANDARDS
SITING IN LOCATIONS PRONE TO
SURFACE FAULTING, LAND-
S...
INJURIES AND
DEATHS
CONSEQUENCES OF COMMUNITY
VULNERABILITIES
DAMAGE AND
COLLAPSE
LOSS OF
FUNCTION
ECONOMIC LOSS
RISK
EVERY COMMUNITY CAN
MAKE ITS FUTURE BETTER
THAN ITS PAST
GOAL 1: LEARN FROM THE PAST
GOAL 2: REDUCE COMMUNITY
VULNERABILIT...
PAST DISASTERS PROVIDE
A REALITY CHECK
Source: Munich Re and
many past earthquakes
ALL VULNERABILITIES CAN
BE FIXED
ALL VULNERABILITIES ARE
FIXABLE
ALL VULNERABILITIES ARE
FIXABLE
ALL VULNERABILITIES ARE
FIXABLE
• A UTILITY CORRIDOR
IS VULNERABLE TO
LOSS OF FUNCTION
WHEN ROUTED
THROUGH SOILS
THAT ARE
...
IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
• WHAT LEVEL OF CASUALTIES WILL
OCCUR IN A FUTURE EARTHQUAKE IF
THE VULNERABILITIES IN THE B.E.
ARE NO...
INADEQUATE SEISMIC
DESIGN PROVISIONS
(I.E., BUILDING CODES AND
LIFELINE STANDARDS)
MEAN
1) INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO
HORIZO...
NOTABLE PAST DISASTERS
• SAN FRANCISCO
• 1906
EARTHQUAKE
& FIRE
• 3,000
CASUALTIES
• $ 524 M LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)
• $ 18...
NOTABLE PAST DISASTERS
• TOKYO
• 1923
EARTHQUAKE
& FIRE
• 142,807
CASUALTIES
• $ 2,800 M LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)
• $ 590 M
...
NOTABLE PAST DISASTERS
• MANAGUA
• 1972
EARTHQUAKE
• 11,000
CASUALTIES
• $ 800 M LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)
• $ 100 M
INSURED ...
PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS
• TANGSHAN
• 1976
EARTHQUAKE
• 240,000 +
CASUALTIES
• $ 5,600 M LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)
• $ ---0 M
I...
PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS
• MEXICO CITY
• 1985
EARTHQUAKE
• 9,500
CASUALTIES
• $ 4,000 M LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)
• $ 275 M
INS...
PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS
• LOMA PRIETA
(SAN
FRANCISCO)
• 1989
EARTHQUAKE
• 61
CASUALTIES
• $ 5,000 M LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)
...
PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS
• NORTHRIDGE,
CALIFORNIA
• 1994
EARTHQUAKE
• 61
CASUALTIES
• $ 44,000 M
LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)
• $ ...
PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS
• KOBE, JAPAN
• 1995
EARTHQUAKE
• 6,400
CASUALTIES
• $ 100,000 M
LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)
• $ 3,000 M...
PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS
• IZMET, TURKEY
• 1999
EARTHQUAKE
• 17,200
CASUALTIES
• $ 12,000 M
LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)
• $ 600 M...
PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS
• BAM, IRAN
• 2003
EARTHQUAKE
• 40,000
CASUALTIES
• $ ?000 M LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)
• $ --00 M
INSU...
2003 Bam, Iran Earthquake
PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS
• BANDA ACHE,
INDONESIA
• 2004
EARTHQUAKE
& TSUNAMI
• 240,000
CASUALTIES
• $ 4,000 M LOSS
(ORIGINAL...
2004 BANDA ACHE EARTHQUAKE
AND TSUNAMI
2004 BANDA ACHE EARTHQUAKE
AND TSUNAMI
PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS
• SICHUAN
PROVINCE,
CHINA
• 2008
EARTHQUAKE
• 80,000
CASUALTIES
• $ 13,300 M
LOSS
(ORIGINAL
VALUES)...
SICHUAN, CHINA EARTHQUAKE
INADEQUATE BUILDING CODE
TWENTY-ONE DAYS LATER
45,690,000 people were
affected by the disaster.
HAITI EARTHQUAKE: INADEQUATE
BUILDING CODE; JANUARY 12, 2010
TSUNAMI: JAPAN
MARCH 12, 2011
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
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The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities

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The art and science of identifying and eliminating vulnerabilities. Important questions that must be addressed: 1. What level of casualties will occur in a future earthquake if the vulnerabilities in the built environment are not fixed? 2. What level of economic losses will occur in a future earthquake if the vulnerabilities in the built environment. are not fixed? Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities

  1. 1. THE ART AND SCIENCE OF MAKING A COMMUNITY RESILIENT TO EARTHQUAKES
  2. 2. MAKING OUR FUTURE BETTER THAN OUR PAST UNDER- STAND IDENT- IFY HEAR PERSON- ALIZE ACT PERIOD OF INTEGRATION 1990-2012 WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY 2012 PERIOD OF IMPLEMENTATION NOW
  3. 3. COMMUNITIES ARE AT RISK FROM • FLOODS • SEVERE WINDSTORMS • EARTHQUAKES • TSUNAMIS • DROUGHTS • VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS • LANDSLIDES • WILDFIRES
  4. 4. A COMMUNITY’S BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE MUST BE RESILIENT TO GROUND SHAKING AND GROUND FAILURE
  5. 5. HAZARDS THE RISK TO A COMMUNITY’S BUILT ENVIRONMENT IS DIRECTLY RELATED TO ITS VULNERABILITIES EXPOSURE VULNERABILITIES LOCATION RISK
  6. 6. WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT A CITY AND ITS BUILT ENVIRONMENT (B.E.) • CITIES AND MEGACITIES EXIST BY GEOLOGIC, HYDROLOGIC, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONSENT AND THE B.E.’s VULNER- ABILITIES
  7. 7. INADEQUATE BUILDING CODES EARTHQUAKES INADEQUATE LIFELINE STANDARDS SITING IN LOCATIONS PRONE TO SURFACE FAULTING, LAND- SLIDES, & LIQUEFACTION IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN INADEQUATE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SITING ON SOFT SOILS INADEQUATE ANCHORAGE OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CAUSES OF VULNER- ABILITIES “DISASTER LABORATORIES”
  8. 8. INJURIES AND DEATHS CONSEQUENCES OF COMMUNITY VULNERABILITIES DAMAGE AND COLLAPSE LOSS OF FUNCTION ECONOMIC LOSS RISK
  9. 9. EVERY COMMUNITY CAN MAKE ITS FUTURE BETTER THAN ITS PAST GOAL 1: LEARN FROM THE PAST GOAL 2: REDUCE COMMUNITY VULNERABILITIES THAT INCREASE RISK FOR PEOPLE, PROPERTY, AND INFRASTRUCTURE
  10. 10. PAST DISASTERS PROVIDE A REALITY CHECK Source: Munich Re and many past earthquakes
  11. 11. ALL VULNERABILITIES CAN BE FIXED
  12. 12. ALL VULNERABILITIES ARE FIXABLE
  13. 13. ALL VULNERABILITIES ARE FIXABLE
  14. 14. ALL VULNERABILITIES ARE FIXABLE • A UTILITY CORRIDOR IS VULNERABLE TO LOSS OF FUNCTION WHEN ROUTED THROUGH SOILS THAT ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO LIQUEFACTION.
  15. 15. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS • WHAT LEVEL OF CASUALTIES WILL OCCUR IN A FUTURE EARTHQUAKE IF THE VULNERABILITIES IN THE B.E. ARE NOT FIXED? • WHAT LEVEL OF ECONOMIC LOSSES WILL OCCUR IN A FUTURE EARTHQUAKE IF THE VULNER- ABILITIES IN THE B.E. ARE NOT FIXED?
  16. 16. INADEQUATE SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISIONS (I.E., BUILDING CODES AND LIFELINE STANDARDS) MEAN 1) INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING 2) COLLAPSE OF BUILDINGS AND LOSS OF FUNCTION OF LIFELINES
  17. 17. NOTABLE PAST DISASTERS • SAN FRANCISCO • 1906 EARTHQUAKE & FIRE • 3,000 CASUALTIES • $ 524 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 180 M INSURED LOSS
  18. 18. NOTABLE PAST DISASTERS • TOKYO • 1923 EARTHQUAKE & FIRE • 142,807 CASUALTIES • $ 2,800 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 590 M INSURED LOSS
  19. 19. NOTABLE PAST DISASTERS • MANAGUA • 1972 EARTHQUAKE • 11,000 CASUALTIES • $ 800 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 100 M INSURED LOSS
  20. 20. PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • TANGSHAN • 1976 EARTHQUAKE • 240,000 + CASUALTIES • $ 5,600 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ ---0 M INSURED LOSS
  21. 21. PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • MEXICO CITY • 1985 EARTHQUAKE • 9,500 CASUALTIES • $ 4,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 275 M INSURED LOSS
  22. 22. PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • LOMA PRIETA (SAN FRANCISCO) • 1989 EARTHQUAKE • 61 CASUALTIES • $ 5,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 1,000 M INSURED LOSS
  23. 23. PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • NORTHRIDGE, CALIFORNIA • 1994 EARTHQUAKE • 61 CASUALTIES • $ 44,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 15,300 M INSURED LOSS
  24. 24. PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • KOBE, JAPAN • 1995 EARTHQUAKE • 6,400 CASUALTIES • $ 100,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 3,000 M INSURED LOSS
  25. 25. PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • IZMET, TURKEY • 1999 EARTHQUAKE • 17,200 CASUALTIES • $ 12,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 600 M INSURED LOSS
  26. 26. PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • BAM, IRAN • 2003 EARTHQUAKE • 40,000 CASUALTIES • $ ?000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ --00 M INSURED LOSS
  27. 27. 2003 Bam, Iran Earthquake
  28. 28. PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • BANDA ACHE, INDONESIA • 2004 EARTHQUAKE & TSUNAMI • 240,000 CASUALTIES • $ 4,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ ?--00 M INSURED LOSS
  29. 29. 2004 BANDA ACHE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI
  30. 30. 2004 BANDA ACHE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI
  31. 31. PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • SICHUAN PROVINCE, CHINA • 2008 EARTHQUAKE • 80,000 CASUALTIES • $ 13,300 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ --00 M INSURED LOSS
  32. 32. SICHUAN, CHINA EARTHQUAKE INADEQUATE BUILDING CODE
  33. 33. TWENTY-ONE DAYS LATER 45,690,000 people were affected by the disaster.
  34. 34. HAITI EARTHQUAKE: INADEQUATE BUILDING CODE; JANUARY 12, 2010
  35. 35. TSUNAMI: JAPAN MARCH 12, 2011

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