The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities
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The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities

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The art and science of identifying and eliminating vulnerabilities. Important questions that must be addressed: 1. What level of casualties will occur in a future earthquake if the vulnerabilities ...

The art and science of identifying and eliminating vulnerabilities. Important questions that must be addressed: 1. What level of casualties will occur in a future earthquake if the vulnerabilities in the built environment are not fixed? 2. What level of economic losses will occur in a future earthquake if the vulnerabilities in the built environment. are not fixed? Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities The Art And Science Of Identifying And Eliminating Vulnerabilities Presentation Transcript

  • THE ART AND SCIENCE OF MAKING A COMMUNITY RESILIENT TO EARTHQUAKES
  • MAKING OUR FUTURE BETTER THAN OUR PAST UNDER- STAND IDENT- IFY HEAR PERSON- ALIZE ACT PERIOD OF INTEGRATION 1990-2012 WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY 2012 PERIOD OF IMPLEMENTATION NOW
  • COMMUNITIES ARE AT RISK FROM • FLOODS • SEVERE WINDSTORMS • EARTHQUAKES • TSUNAMIS • DROUGHTS • VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS • LANDSLIDES • WILDFIRES
  • A COMMUNITY’S BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE MUST BE RESILIENT TO GROUND SHAKING AND GROUND FAILURE
  • HAZARDS THE RISK TO A COMMUNITY’S BUILT ENVIRONMENT IS DIRECTLY RELATED TO ITS VULNERABILITIES EXPOSURE VULNERABILITIES LOCATION RISK
  • WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT A CITY AND ITS BUILT ENVIRONMENT (B.E.) • CITIES AND MEGACITIES EXIST BY GEOLOGIC, HYDROLOGIC, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONSENT AND THE B.E.’s VULNER- ABILITIES
  • INADEQUATE BUILDING CODES EARTHQUAKES INADEQUATE LIFELINE STANDARDS SITING IN LOCATIONS PRONE TO SURFACE FAULTING, LAND- SLIDES, & LIQUEFACTION IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN INADEQUATE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SITING ON SOFT SOILS INADEQUATE ANCHORAGE OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CAUSES OF VULNER- ABILITIES “DISASTER LABORATORIES”
  • INJURIES AND DEATHS CONSEQUENCES OF COMMUNITY VULNERABILITIES DAMAGE AND COLLAPSE LOSS OF FUNCTION ECONOMIC LOSS RISK
  • EVERY COMMUNITY CAN MAKE ITS FUTURE BETTER THAN ITS PAST GOAL 1: LEARN FROM THE PAST GOAL 2: REDUCE COMMUNITY VULNERABILITIES THAT INCREASE RISK FOR PEOPLE, PROPERTY, AND INFRASTRUCTURE
  • PAST DISASTERS PROVIDE A REALITY CHECK Source: Munich Re and many past earthquakes
  • ALL VULNERABILITIES CAN BE FIXED
  • ALL VULNERABILITIES ARE FIXABLE
  • ALL VULNERABILITIES ARE FIXABLE
  • ALL VULNERABILITIES ARE FIXABLE • A UTILITY CORRIDOR IS VULNERABLE TO LOSS OF FUNCTION WHEN ROUTED THROUGH SOILS THAT ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO LIQUEFACTION.
  • IMPORTANT QUESTIONS • WHAT LEVEL OF CASUALTIES WILL OCCUR IN A FUTURE EARTHQUAKE IF THE VULNERABILITIES IN THE B.E. ARE NOT FIXED? • WHAT LEVEL OF ECONOMIC LOSSES WILL OCCUR IN A FUTURE EARTHQUAKE IF THE VULNER- ABILITIES IN THE B.E. ARE NOT FIXED?
  • INADEQUATE SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISIONS (I.E., BUILDING CODES AND LIFELINE STANDARDS) MEAN 1) INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING 2) COLLAPSE OF BUILDINGS AND LOSS OF FUNCTION OF LIFELINES
  • NOTABLE PAST DISASTERS • SAN FRANCISCO • 1906 EARTHQUAKE & FIRE • 3,000 CASUALTIES • $ 524 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 180 M INSURED LOSS
  • NOTABLE PAST DISASTERS • TOKYO • 1923 EARTHQUAKE & FIRE • 142,807 CASUALTIES • $ 2,800 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 590 M INSURED LOSS
  • NOTABLE PAST DISASTERS • MANAGUA • 1972 EARTHQUAKE • 11,000 CASUALTIES • $ 800 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 100 M INSURED LOSS
  • PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • TANGSHAN • 1976 EARTHQUAKE • 240,000 + CASUALTIES • $ 5,600 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ ---0 M INSURED LOSS
  • PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • MEXICO CITY • 1985 EARTHQUAKE • 9,500 CASUALTIES • $ 4,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 275 M INSURED LOSS
  • PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • LOMA PRIETA (SAN FRANCISCO) • 1989 EARTHQUAKE • 61 CASUALTIES • $ 5,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 1,000 M INSURED LOSS
  • PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • NORTHRIDGE, CALIFORNIA • 1994 EARTHQUAKE • 61 CASUALTIES • $ 44,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 15,300 M INSURED LOSS
  • PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • KOBE, JAPAN • 1995 EARTHQUAKE • 6,400 CASUALTIES • $ 100,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 3,000 M INSURED LOSS
  • PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • IZMET, TURKEY • 1999 EARTHQUAKE • 17,200 CASUALTIES • $ 12,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ 600 M INSURED LOSS
  • PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • BAM, IRAN • 2003 EARTHQUAKE • 40,000 CASUALTIES • $ ?000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ --00 M INSURED LOSS
  • 2003 Bam, Iran Earthquake
  • PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • BANDA ACHE, INDONESIA • 2004 EARTHQUAKE & TSUNAMI • 240,000 CASUALTIES • $ 4,000 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ ?--00 M INSURED LOSS
  • 2004 BANDA ACHE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI
  • 2004 BANDA ACHE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI
  • PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS • SICHUAN PROVINCE, CHINA • 2008 EARTHQUAKE • 80,000 CASUALTIES • $ 13,300 M LOSS (ORIGINAL VALUES) • $ --00 M INSURED LOSS
  • SICHUAN, CHINA EARTHQUAKE INADEQUATE BUILDING CODE
  • TWENTY-ONE DAYS LATER 45,690,000 people were affected by the disaster.
  • HAITI EARTHQUAKE: INADEQUATE BUILDING CODE; JANUARY 12, 2010
  • TSUNAMI: JAPAN MARCH 12, 2011