2011 TSUNAMI DEBRIS CONTINUOUS
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
REMEMBERING SOME OF
THE LESSONS FROM ONE
OF 2013’S UNEXPECTED
DISASTERS
PART 4: TSUNAMI TRASH
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT INCREASE A
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT INCREASE A
COMMUNITY’S RISK
COMMUNITY’S RISK
GOAL: DISASTER
GOAL: DIS...
EARTHQUAKE

VIBRATION

DAMAGE/LOSS

DAMAGE/ LOSS

REGIONAL
DEFORMATION

DAMAGE/ LOSS

DAMAGE/ LOSS

AMPLIFICATION

DAMAGE/...
TSUNAMIS
• OCCUR IN THE PACIFIC’S
“RING OF FIRE,” THE
INDIAN OCEAN, THE
CARIBBEAN, AND THE
MEDITERRANEAN
• TSUNAMI WAVES C...
CAUSES OF
CAUSES OF
DAMAGE
DAMAGE

INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO
HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING

SOIL AMPLIFICATION
PERMANENT DISPLA...
CAUSES OF
CAUSES OF
DAMAGE
DAMAGE

HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF
INCOMING WAVES
INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE
RUNUP
VERTICAL HEIGHT OF...
THE TOHOKU DISASTER:
MARCH 11, 2011
REGIONAL MAP
THE TOHOKU
QUAKE/TSUNAMIGENIC ZONE
AN OFFSHORE EPICENTER
• It only took seconds for the Pand S-waves to reach Sendai,
and about 15 minutes for the
tsunami wa...
THE TOHOKU DISASTER:
MARCH 11, 2011
• The M9.0 Tohoku earthquake was
huge, but its ground shaking did
NOT cause the disast...
THE TSUNAMI—the beginning
• The tsunami, with wave heights
reaching 40 m in some locations,
slammed the east coast of Japa...
TSUNAMI WAVES:NATON
MYIAGI PREFECTURE
TSUNAMI WAVES: COAST OF
NORTHERN JAPAN
OARAI INUNDATED BY
TSUNAMI
TSUNAMI WAVS: SENDAI
AIRPORT
SENDAI AIRPORT: COVERED
WITH MUD FROM TSUNAMI
SENDAI AIRPORT: COVERED
WITH CARS, MUD, & DEBRIS
TSUNAMI DAMAGE
SOCIETAL IMPACTS
• Four and one-half million left without
electricity.
• One and one-half million without water.
• Metro, ...
ESTIMATES OF THE AMOUNT
OF TSUNAMI TRASH
• According to official estimates, the
2011 tsunami washed about 5 million
tons o...
THE TSUNAMI RACED
ACROSS THE PACIFIC
ACROSS THE PACIFIC
• --- The tsunami waves raced across the
Pacific at 822 -1222 kph (500 to 800
mph) to arrive 5-7 hours ...
FOLLOWED BY A CONTINUUM
OF TRASH ARRIVALS
• --- The trash from the March 11, 2011
tsunami began to reach the west coast
of...
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT
TSUNAMI TRASH
• Studies showed that items like fishing
buoys that catch the wind easily
eventually e...
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT
TSUNAMI TRASH
• Items like boats, docks and
refrigerators that catch some wind,
but are also influen...
TSUNAMI TRASH ARRIVES IN OREGEN
WITH LIFE ABOARD: 15 MONTHS LATER
DESCRIPTION OF THE DOCK
THAT REACHED OREGON
• The dock ripped off a port in Japan
was massive: A 188-ton, 20-meter long
co...
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT
TSUNAMI TRASH
• Items like fishing nets and lines that
move underwater were carried entirely
by curr...
THE TSUNAMI TRASH--- STILL
TRAVELLING
• --- The trash from the March 11, 2011
tsunami is expected to continue
arriving alo...
LESSONS LEARNED FOR
TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
• ALL TSUNAMIS.
• EARLY WARNING IS
ESSENTIAL FOR TIMELY
EVACUATION OF
PEOP...
UNEXPECTED IMPACTS DO
HAPPEN
• Radiation levels at the
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear
facility were 1,000 times normal
levels.
FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR
FACILITY HAD 3 FAILURES
LESSONS LEARNED: EMERGENCY
RESPONSE CAN BECOME A NIGHTMARE!

• The fires and explosions in the
Fukushima Daiichi nuclear f...
Immediately after the
earthquake and tsunami,
the Japanese Government
began implementing its postdisaster response plans i...
EVACUATION
• Approximately 450,000
people were evacuated by
military personnel from
areas damaged in the quake
and in a 33...
EVACUATION OF CHILDREN
JAPAN’S SEARCH AND RESCUE

• Approximately 50,000
members of Japan’s Self
Defense Forces were
mobilized immediately and
se...
LESSONS LEARNED: SEARCH AND
RESCUE CAN BE UNUSUALLY DIFFICULT

• With so many people (about 20,000)
missing over a wide ar...
JAPAN’S SEARCH AND
RESCUE TEAMS
• The Japanese top urban search
and rescue teams, which had
been helping in the search for...
JAPAN’S SEARCH AND RESCUE

• Tokushu Kyuunan Tai, the
search and rescue unit of
Japan’s Coast Guard, was
dispatched to acc...
SEARCH AND RESCUE
SEARCH AND RESCUE:
RIKUZENTAKADA
SEARCH AND RESCUE: SOMA;
FUKUSHIMA PREFECTURE
SEARCH AND RESCUE:
MIYAGI PREFECTURE
All actions were conducted
with knowledge of the high
risk associated with a
significant radiation release
and the unthink...
LESSONS LEARNED: THE “IMPOSSIBLE”
MAY REALLY BE IMPOSSIBLE

• Search and rescue operations,
evacuations, and humanitarian
...
69 COUNTRIES THAT PROMISED
HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE COULD
NOT DELIVER BECAUSE OF THE
PERCEIVED RISKS ASSOCIATED
WITH NUCLEA...
LESSONS LEARNED: MASS CARE
CAN BORDER ON THE IMPOSSIBLE

• Shortages, closed roads,
and lack of fuel made it very
difficul...
LESSONS LEARNED: BE READY TO WORK
AT THE LIMITS OF YOUR CAPABILITY

• Japan’s social, technical,
administrative, political...
TOWARDS TSUNAMI
DISASTER RESILIENCE
THE KEYS TO RESILIENCE:
1) KNOW THE TSUNAMIGENIC SOURCES
IN YOUR REGION,

2) BE PREPARED
3) HAVE A WARNING SYSTEM
4) HAVE ...
TSUNAMI RISK
• TSUNAMI HAZARDS
•INVENTORY
•VULNERABILITY
•LOCATION

DATA BASES
AND INFORMATION

ACCEPTABLE RISK
RISK
UNACC...
CREATING TURNING POINTS FOR
TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE

 USING EDUCATIONAL SURGES CONTAINING
THE PAST AND PRESENT LESSON...
LESSONS LEARNED FOR
TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
• ALL TSUNAMIS
• CAPACITY
BUILDING FOR
TSUNAMI
DISASTER
RESILIENCE IS
NEVE...
2014--2020 IS A GOOD TIME
FOR A GLOBAL SURGE IN
EDUCATIONAL, TECHNICAL,
HEALTH CARE, AND POLITICAL
CAPACITY BUILDING
IN AL...
CREATING TURNING POINTS FOR
TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
INTEGRATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND
TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS WITH POLITICAL
...
INTEGRATION OF TECHNICAL AND POLITICAL
INTEGRATION OF TECHNICAL AND POLITICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
CONSIDERATIONS

OPPORTUNITIES...
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Quantity Of Tsunami Debris Unexpected Fallout From 2011 Japan Earthquake

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According to official estimates, the 2011 tsunami washed about 5 million tons of debris into the ocean. About two-thirds of that quickly sank. The remainder was carried along the coast of Japan and then out into the Pacific Ocean. The trash from the March 11, 2011 tsunami began to reach the west coast of the USA in 2012 and 2013, creating new, complex, and unexpected ecological and environmental problems.

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Quantity Of Tsunami Debris Unexpected Fallout From 2011 Japan Earthquake

  1. 1. 2011 TSUNAMI DEBRIS CONTINUOUS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
  2. 2. REMEMBERING SOME OF THE LESSONS FROM ONE OF 2013’S UNEXPECTED DISASTERS PART 4: TSUNAMI TRASH
  3. 3. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT INCREASE A NATURAL HAZARDS THAT INCREASE A COMMUNITY’S RISK COMMUNITY’S RISK GOAL: DISASTER GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE RESILIENCE ENACT AND IMPLEMENT ENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE COMMUNITY RESILIENCE EARTHQUAKES/TSUNAMIS TYPHOONS FLOODS LANDSLIDES VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
  4. 4. EARTHQUAKE VIBRATION DAMAGE/LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS REGIONAL DEFORMATION DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS AMPLIFICATION DAMAGE/LOSS TSUNAMI FOUNDATION FAILURE FAULT RUPTURE DAMAGE/ LOSS LIQUEFACTION DAMAGE/ LOSS LANDSLIDE DAMAGE/ LOSS AFTERSHOCKS DAMAGE/ LOSS SEICHE DAMAGE/ LOSS
  5. 5. TSUNAMIS • OCCUR IN THE PACIFIC’S “RING OF FIRE,” THE INDIAN OCEAN, THE CARIBBEAN, AND THE MEDITERRANEAN • TSUNAMI WAVES CAN AFFECT DISTANT SHORELINES THOUSANDS OF MILES FROM THE EPICENTER
  6. 6. CAUSES OF CAUSES OF DAMAGE DAMAGE INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) EARTHQUAKES EARTHQUAKES “DISASTER “DISASTER LABORATORIES” LABORATORIES” IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP POOR DETAILING AND WEAK CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FRAGILITY OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  7. 7. CAUSES OF CAUSES OF DAMAGE DAMAGE HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP TSUNAMIS TSUNAMIS “DISASTER “DISASTER LABORATORIES” LABORATORIES” INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS FLOODING INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI
  8. 8. THE TOHOKU DISASTER: MARCH 11, 2011
  9. 9. REGIONAL MAP
  10. 10. THE TOHOKU QUAKE/TSUNAMIGENIC ZONE
  11. 11. AN OFFSHORE EPICENTER • It only took seconds for the Pand S-waves to reach Sendai, and about 15 minutes for the tsunami waves, but what a difference in damage..
  12. 12. THE TOHOKU DISASTER: MARCH 11, 2011 • The M9.0 Tohoku earthquake was huge, but its ground shaking did NOT cause the disaster that killed an estimated 21,000 people … • The tsunami generated by the earthquake did!
  13. 13. THE TSUNAMI—the beginning • The tsunami, with wave heights reaching 40 m in some locations, slammed the east coast of Japan, sweeping away boats, cars, homes and people, before racing across the Pacific, - - -
  14. 14. TSUNAMI WAVES:NATON MYIAGI PREFECTURE
  15. 15. TSUNAMI WAVES: COAST OF NORTHERN JAPAN
  16. 16. OARAI INUNDATED BY TSUNAMI
  17. 17. TSUNAMI WAVS: SENDAI AIRPORT
  18. 18. SENDAI AIRPORT: COVERED WITH MUD FROM TSUNAMI
  19. 19. SENDAI AIRPORT: COVERED WITH CARS, MUD, & DEBRIS
  20. 20. TSUNAMI DAMAGE
  21. 21. SOCIETAL IMPACTS • Four and one-half million left without electricity. • One and one-half million without water. • Metro, trains, and airport shut down. • 1.2 million buildings damaged. • Economic losses estimated at $574 billion and deaths at 21,000.
  22. 22. ESTIMATES OF THE AMOUNT OF TSUNAMI TRASH • According to official estimates, the 2011 tsunami washed about 5 million tons of debris into the ocean. • About two-thirds of that quickly sank. • The remainder was carried along the coast of Japan and then out into the Pacific Ocean
  23. 23. THE TSUNAMI RACED ACROSS THE PACIFIC
  24. 24. ACROSS THE PACIFIC • --- The tsunami waves raced across the Pacific at 822 -1222 kph (500 to 800 mph) to arrive 5-7 hours later in Alaska and Hawaii and other parts of the West Coast of the USA, and 18 hours later along the coast of South America.
  25. 25. FOLLOWED BY A CONTINUUM OF TRASH ARRIVALS • --- The trash from the March 11, 2011 tsunami began to reach the west coast of the USA in 2012 and 2013, creating new, complex, and unexpected ecological and environmental problems.
  26. 26. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT TSUNAMI TRASH • Studies showed that items like fishing buoys that catch the wind easily eventually ended up on the western coast of North America, from Alaska to Oregon.
  27. 27. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT TSUNAMI TRASH • Items like boats, docks and refrigerators that catch some wind, but are also influenced by currents, headed towards the same USA coasts, then on to Hawaii, and are now circling around Hawaii before continuing onward.
  28. 28. TSUNAMI TRASH ARRIVES IN OREGEN WITH LIFE ABOARD: 15 MONTHS LATER
  29. 29. DESCRIPTION OF THE DOCK THAT REACHED OREGON • The dock ripped off a port in Japan was massive: A 188-ton, 20-meter long concrete, steel and styrofoam block, draped in streamers of seaweed and plastered with mussels, barnacles, crabs and more than 100 other marine organisms.
  30. 30. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT TSUNAMI TRASH • Items like fishing nets and lines that move underwater were carried entirely by currents and are now ending up in the Pacific Garbage Patch, a sprawling vortex in the North Pacific where plastic and other trash collects. • Some of this trash may eventually be carried back toward Japan.
  31. 31. THE TSUNAMI TRASH--- STILL TRAVELLING • --- The trash from the March 11, 2011 tsunami is expected to continue arriving along the entire West Coast of North America during 2014. • By 2016, it is estimated that the debris will return again to Hawaii, leaving little time for Hawaii’s beaches, reefs and wildlife to recover from the 2012 hit.
  32. 32. LESSONS LEARNED FOR TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL TSUNAMIS. • EARLY WARNING IS ESSENTIAL FOR TIMELY EVACUATION OF PEOPLE AND SHUTDOWN OF CRITICAL FACILITIES (E.G., NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS).
  33. 33. UNEXPECTED IMPACTS DO HAPPEN • Radiation levels at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility were 1,000 times normal levels.
  34. 34. FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR FACILITY HAD 3 FAILURES
  35. 35. LESSONS LEARNED: EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAN BECOME A NIGHTMARE! • The fires and explosions in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility and radiation levels that were 1,000 times normal levels created a “nightmare emergency response scenario” for the Government of Japan.
  36. 36. Immediately after the earthquake and tsunami, the Japanese Government began implementing its postdisaster response plans in a highly-charged, possible “nightmare nuclear disaster” environment.
  37. 37. EVACUATION • Approximately 450,000 people were evacuated by military personnel from areas damaged in the quake and in a 33 km radius around the nuclear facilities
  38. 38. EVACUATION OF CHILDREN
  39. 39. JAPAN’S SEARCH AND RESCUE • Approximately 50,000 members of Japan’s Self Defense Forces were mobilized immediately and sent to the hardest hit areas.
  40. 40. LESSONS LEARNED: SEARCH AND RESCUE CAN BE UNUSUALLY DIFFICULT • With so many people (about 20,000) missing over a wide area after the tsunami, search and rescue was an unusually difficult, highly-stressed, and politically sensitive operation.
  41. 41. JAPAN’S SEARCH AND RESCUE TEAMS • The Japanese top urban search and rescue teams, which had been helping in the search for Christchurch, New Zealand earthquake victims for two weeks, were ordered to return to Japan..
  42. 42. JAPAN’S SEARCH AND RESCUE • Tokushu Kyuunan Tai, the search and rescue unit of Japan’s Coast Guard, was dispatched to accelerate search and rescue operations..
  43. 43. SEARCH AND RESCUE
  44. 44. SEARCH AND RESCUE: RIKUZENTAKADA
  45. 45. SEARCH AND RESCUE: SOMA; FUKUSHIMA PREFECTURE
  46. 46. SEARCH AND RESCUE: MIYAGI PREFECTURE
  47. 47. All actions were conducted with knowledge of the high risk associated with a significant radiation release and the unthinkable possibility of a nuclear melt down.
  48. 48. LESSONS LEARNED: THE “IMPOSSIBLE” MAY REALLY BE IMPOSSIBLE • Search and rescue operations, evacuations, and humanitarian assistance on local and global scales were all slowed to a crawl by the possibility of a “nightmare nuclear disaster.”
  49. 49. 69 COUNTRIES THAT PROMISED HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE COULD NOT DELIVER BECAUSE OF THE PERCEIVED RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH NUCLEAR RADIATION, THE BAD WEATHER, PROBLEMS ON THE GROUND, AND LACK OF FUEL
  50. 50. LESSONS LEARNED: MASS CARE CAN BORDER ON THE IMPOSSIBLE • Shortages, closed roads, and lack of fuel made it very difficult to meet evacuee’s and survivors’ needs for food, water, electricity, medicine, and urgent healthcare.
  51. 51. LESSONS LEARNED: BE READY TO WORK AT THE LIMITS OF YOUR CAPABILITY • Japan’s social, technical, administrative, political, legal, health care, and economic systems were tested to their limits by the socio-economic impacts of the tsunami, the radiation, and the harsh weather..
  52. 52. TOWARDS TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE
  53. 53. THE KEYS TO RESILIENCE: 1) KNOW THE TSUNAMIGENIC SOURCES IN YOUR REGION, 2) BE PREPARED 3) HAVE A WARNING SYSTEM 4) HAVE AN EVACUATION PLAN 5) ACCELERATE CAPACITY BUILDING BY LEARNING FROM OTHERS’ EXPERIENCES
  54. 54. TSUNAMI RISK • TSUNAMI HAZARDS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION DATA BASES AND INFORMATION ACCEPTABLE RISK RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE COMMUNITIES POLICY OPTIONS HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTION •FORECASTS/WARNINGS •EMERGENCY RESPONSE •RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION
  55. 55. CREATING TURNING POINTS FOR TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE  USING EDUCATIONAL SURGES CONTAINING THE PAST AND PRESENT LESSONS TO FOSTER AND ACCELERATE THE CREATION OF TURNING POINTS
  56. 56. LESSONS LEARNED FOR TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL TSUNAMIS • CAPACITY BUILDING FOR TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE IS NEVER FINISHED.
  57. 57. 2014--2020 IS A GOOD TIME FOR A GLOBAL SURGE IN EDUCATIONAL, TECHNICAL, HEALTH CARE, AND POLITICAL CAPACITY BUILDING IN ALL FIVE PILLARS OF COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE
  58. 58. CREATING TURNING POINTS FOR TSUNAMI DISASTER RESILIENCE INTEGRATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS WITH POLITICAL SOLUTIONS FOR POLICIES ON PREPAREDNESS, PROTECTION, EARLY WARNING, EVACUATION, EMERGENCY RESPONSE, COPING WITH TSUNAMI TRASH, AND RECOVERY
  59. 59. INTEGRATION OF TECHNICAL AND POLITICAL INTEGRATION OF TECHNICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS OPPORTUNITIES FOR TURNING POINTS: For Disaster Resilience on OPPORTUNITIES FOR TURNING POINTS: For Disaster Resilience on local, regional, national, and global scales local, regional, national, and global scales THE KNOWLEDGE BASE Real and Near- Real Time Monitoring Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk Characterization Best Practices for Mitigation Adaptation and Monitoring Situation Data Bases Cause & Effect Relationships Anticipatory Actions for all Events and Situations Interfaces with all Real- and Near RealTime Sources Gateways to a Deeper Understanding APPLICATIONS Relocation/Protection of Offshore Facilitiess Create a Hazard Zonation Map as a Policy Tool EDUCATIONAL SURGES Enlighten Communities on Their Risks Build Strategic Equity Through Disaster Scenarios Implement Modern Codes and Lifeline Standards Involve Multiple Partners in Turning Point Surges Introduce New Technologies Multiply Capability by International Twinning Move Towards A Disaster Intelligent Community Update Knowledge Bases After Each Disaster
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