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PART 4 TROPICAL CYCLONES LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES 2014
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PART 4 TROPICAL CYCLONES LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES 2014

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Knowledge From Cyclone Disasters, Which Occur Annually In Parts Of The Pacific And Indian Oceans, Is Enough To Make Any Nation Susceptible To Cyclones Adopt And Implement Policies That Will …

Knowledge From Cyclone Disasters, Which Occur Annually In Parts Of The Pacific And Indian Oceans, Is Enough To Make Any Nation Susceptible To Cyclones Adopt And Implement Policies That Will Facilitate Its Disaster Resilience. The people who know: 1) what to expect (e.g., storm surge, high-velocity winds, rain, flash floods, and landslides,), 2) where and when it will happen, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare will survive. Integration Of Scientific And Technical Solutions With Political Solutions For Policies On Preparedness, Protection, Early Warning, Emergency Response, And Recovery Presentation Courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance For Disaster Reduction

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  • 1. LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES PART 4: CYCLONES
  • 2. FACT: SEVERAL NATIONS NEED TO BE CYCLONE DISASTER RESILIENT • INDIA, BANGLADESH, and MYANMAR--- with some of the world’s poorest of the poor • AUSTRALIA
  • 3. COMMUNITY DATA BASES AND INFORMATION •SEVERE WINDSTORMS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION RISK ASSESSMENT RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK CYCLONE DISASTER RESILIENCE •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTIONS •EARLY WARNING •EMERGENCY RESPONSE •RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS Wind profile Storm Hazards: -Wind pressure -Surge -Rain -Flood -Waves -Salt water -Missiles -Tornadoes Ocean Gradient Wind
  • 4. WIND AND WATER PENETRATE BUILDING ENVELOPE CYCLONES UPLIFT OF ROOF SYSTEM FLYING DEBRIS PENETRATES WINDOWS STORM SURGE HEAVY PRECIPITATION IN A SHORT TIME FLASH FLOODING (MUDFLOWS) LANDSLIDES (MUDFLOWS) CAUSES OF RISK GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES
  • 5. PILLARS OF CYCLONE DISASTER RESILIENCE Preparedness Adoption and Implementation of a Modern Wind Engineering Building Code Timely Early Warning and Evacuation Timely Emergency Response (including Emergency Medical Services) Casualty insurance to underwrite losses Cost-Effective Recovery
  • 6. WE CONTINUE TO OPERATE WITH A FLAWED PREMISE: KNOWLEDGE FROM CYCLONE DISASTERS, WHICH OCCUR ANNUALLY IN PARTS OF THE PACIFIC AND INDIAN OCEANS, IS ENOUGH TO MAKE ANY NATION SUSCEPTIBLE TO CYCLONES ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES THAT WILL FACILITATE ITS DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 7. FACT: IT USUALLY TAKES MULTIPLE CYCLONE DISASTERS BEFORE A STRICKEN NATION WILL ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES THAT MOVE IT TOWARDS CYCLONE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 8. TYPICAL SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS • A community’s (worst case--the Capital) functions are shut down for a time • Downed trees • Flooded streets • Power outages • Roofs ripped off
  • 9. TYPICAL SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS • Major roads blocked by debris • Bridges washed out or impassible • Sea wall, levees, etc., damaged • Airport closed; planes damaged on the runway • Landslides
  • 10. TYPICAL SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS • Region- and locale-specific damage to food crops and “money crops” (i.e., exportable goods)
  • 11. EXAMPLES OF PAST CYCLONE DISASTERS
  • 12. INDIA CYCLONE PHALIN—One of Many OCTOBER 12, 2013
  • 13. CYCLONE PHALIN”S IMPACT AREA
  • 14. AUSTRALIA Cyclone TRACY: 1974 Cyclone LARRY: 2006 Cyclone HAMISH: 2009
  • 15. AUSTRALIA
  • 16. IMPACTS OF CYCLONE TRACY • Cyclone Tracy devastated the city of Darwin in Australia’s Northern Territory from Christmas Eve to Christmas Day, 1974.
  • 17. IMPACTS OF TRACY • Tracy killed 71 people, caused AS837 million in damage (1974 dollars) and destroyed more than 70 percent of Darwin's buildings, including 80 percent of the houses.
  • 18. IMPACTS OF TRACY • More than 30,000 of Darwin’s 47,000 inhabitants were evacuated tom Adelaide, Whvalla, Alice, Springs, and Sydney. • Many never returned to Darwin.
  • 19. IMPACTS OF CYCLONE LARRY • Throughout Queensland, Cyclone Larry resulted in A$1.5 billion ($1.1 billion USD) in damage, making Larry,at that time the costliest tropical cyclone to ever impact Australia, surpassing 1974’s Cyclone Tracy’s losses.
  • 20. CYCLONE HAMISH’S IMPACTS • Hamish, a CAT 4 storm with 290 kph (175 mph) winds, disrupted coal exports and slowed the tourist industry. • A major oil spill occurred and polluted the beaches.
  • 21. CYCLONE NARGIS STRIKES MYANMAR (BURMA) MAY 2-8, 2008 INADEQUATE ADVANCE WARNING MILITARY JUNTA SLOW TO ALLOW AID INITIAL DEATH TOLL UNDER- ESTIMATED; REACHED 140,000 THOUSANDS OF HOMES DESTROYED ONE MILLION LEFT HOMELESS
  • 22. PATH OF CYCLONE NARGIS: MAY 2-3, 2008 :
  • 23. A BAD TIME FOR CYCLONE NARGIS • NARGIS STRUCK JUST DAYS BEFORE A REFERENDUM ON A NEW CONSTITUTION. • MYANMAR, ALSO KNOWN AS BURMA, HAS BEEN UNDER MILITARY RULE SINCE 1962.
  • 24. BUDDHIST NEW YEAR: A BAD TIME FOR A CYCLONE • MANY PEOPLE ACROSS THE GEOGRAPHIC REGION WERE IN MYANAMAR CELEBRATING WATER FESTIVAL AS PART OF THE BUDDHIST NEW YEAR. • THE INFLUX OF VISITORS INCREASED LOSS OF LIFE AND EXACERBATED THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE PHASE.
  • 25. People were completely unprepared for what happened.
  • 26. LESSON: THE TIMING OF ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS IS VITAL • The people who know: 1) what to expect (e.g., storm surge, high- velocity winds, rain, flash floods, and landslides,), 2) where and when it will happen, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare will survive.
  • 27. CYCLONE NARGIS WARNINGS WERE INADEQUATE • Advance warnings grossly underestimated the arrival time, the wind speeds, and the storm surge. • Storm surge and torrential rain caused local flooding.
  • 28. CYCLONE NARGIS FLOODED YANGON, THE CAPITAL
  • 29. CYCLONE NARGIS: FLOODING IN YANGOON:
  • 30. CYCLONE NARGIS: • The storm's 120 mph winds blew the roofs off hospitals, downed trees, cut electricity to 6.5 million in Yangoon, the capital, and destroyed 90% of the housing in some villages.
  • 31. CYCLONE NARGIS: DOWNED TREES IN YANGOON:
  • 32. CYCLONE NARGIS: DOWNED TREES:
  • 33. CYCLONE NARGIS: DOWNED POWER LINES IN YANGOON:
  • 34. CYCLONE NARGIS: DAMAGED CARS IN YANGOON
  • 35. CYCLONE NARGIS: DEBRIS IN YANGOON
  • 36. BUDDHIST MONKS CLEARING ROAD
  • 37. USING A BUCKET OF WATER FOR A SHOWER
  • 38. SURVIVORS: TEMPORARY HOUSING, MAY 10
  • 39. TAKING SHELTER IN A BUDDHIST TEMPLE
  • 40. SURVIVORS: TEMPORARY HOUSING, MAY 10
  • 41. GENERAL THAN SHWE IN- SPECTING TEMPORARY HOUSING,
  • 42. SURVIVORS: FLOODED RICE FIELDS, MAY 16
  • 43. SURVIVORS: BOGALE, MAY 21
  • 44. SURVIVORS: SETTING UP ELECTRICAL GENERATOR, MAY 22
  • 45. SURVIVORS: REBUILDING WITH FEW MATERIALS, MAY 22
  • 46. SURVIVORS: WAITING FOR FOOD THAT WAS SLOW COMING, MAY 27
  • 47. FOOD, BUT WITHOUT ANYONE TO DISTRIBUTE IT, MAY 27
  • 48. NEED FOR INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE: • THE INITIAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE WAS SLOW, PARTLY BECAUSE THE EXTENT OF THE DISASTER WAS GROSSLY UNDERESTIMATED.
  • 49. DELAY IN RECEIVING INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE: • THE RULING MILITARY JUNTA ASKED FOR INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE, - - - • ALTHOUGH, SEVERAL NATIONS RESPONDED IMMEDIATELY, THE RULING MILITARY JUNTA WAITED 7 DAYS BEFORE ALLOWING VERY LIMITED ASSISTANCE TO BEGIN.
  • 50. INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE: • UN agencies such as UNICEF and other organizations such as World Food Program were working with the America Red Cross and other international NGO’s to determine the extent of the needs and to help meet them, as allowed by the ruling military junta.
  • 51. INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE SLOWED: • Australia, China, France, Germany, Singapore, Indonesia, USA, and others responded immediately, but were denied approval to start delivery of aid for several days.
  • 52. LESSONS FROM CYCLONE NARGIS AUGUST 6, 2008 BASED ON ARTICLE PREPARED BY JOHN HOLMES UNITED NATIONS UNDERSECRETARY FOR HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND EMERGENCY RELIEF COORDINATOR
  • 53. FACTS ABOUT CYCLONE NARGIS WORST CYCLONE IN MYANMAR’S HISTORY ONE OF THE WORST CYCLONE DISASTER IN ASIA DURING PAST 15 YEARS 140,000 DEAD 2.4 MILLION SERIOUSLY AFFECTED
  • 54. LESSONS FROM CYCLONE NARGIS First, no nation, rich or poor, can go it alone when confronted by a natural disaster of the magnitude of a Cyclone Nargis.
  • 55. LESSONS FROM CYCLONE NARGIS Second, we must stay focused on the goal: assisting people in crisis; .. helping vulnerable people in need, not on the politics.
  • 56. LESSONS FROM CYCLONE NARGIS Third, Nargis showed us a new model of humanitarian partnership, adding the special position and capabilities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to those of the United Nations in working to build trust with the government.
  • 57. LESSONS FROM CYCLONE NARGIS Fourth, Nargis demonstrated once again the importance of disaster risk reduction and preparedness: simple in concept, low-cost measures such as local evacuation plans, shelters, and community early-warning systems.
  • 58. LESSONS FROM CYCLONE NARGIS Fifth, Nargis demonstrated the extraordinary resilience of the Myanmar people.