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Part 2 Earthquakes. Learning from Global Disaster Laboratories in 2014

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We continue to operate with a flawed premise: knowledge from earthquake disasters, which occur annually on a global scale, is enough to make any nation susceptible to earthquakes adopt and …

We continue to operate with a flawed premise: knowledge from earthquake disasters, which occur annually on a global scale, is enough to make any nation susceptible to earthquakes adopt and implement policies that will facilitate its own disaster resilience. Fact: it usually takes multiple earthquake disasters before a stricken nation will adopt and implement policies that move it towards earthquake disaster resilience. Fact: most unaffected nations don’t even try to learn anything new from another nation’s earthquake disasters and certainly don’t consider them to be a basis for changing existing policies. Pillars of earthquake disaster resilience: preparedness
adoption and implementation of a modern earthquake engineering building code; realistic earthquake disaster scenarios; timely emergency response (including emergency medical services); cost-effective reconstruction & recovery. The challenge: policy changes: create, adjust, and realign programs, partners and people until you have created the kinds of turning points needed for moving towards earthquake disaster resilience. Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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  • 1. LEARNING FROM GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORIES PART 2: EARTHQUAKES
  • 2. WE CONTINUE TO OPERATE WITH A FLAWED PREMISE: KNOWLEDGE FROM EARTHQUAKE DISASTERS, WHICH OCCUR ANNUALLY ON A GLOBAL SCALE, IS ENOUGH TO MAKE ANY NATION SUSCEPTIBLE TO EARTHQUAKES ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES THAT WILL FACILITATE ITS OWN DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 3. FACT: IT USUALLY TAKES MULTIPLE EARTHQUAKE DISASTERS BEFORE A STRICKEN NATION WILL ADOPT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES THAT MOVE IT TOWARDS EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 4. FACT: MOST UNAFFECTED NATIONS DON’T EVEN TRY TO LEARN ANYTHING NEW FROM ANOTHER NATION’S EARTHQUAKE DISASTERS AND CERTAINLY DON’T CONSIDER THEM TO BE A BASIS FOR CHANGING EXISTING POLICIES
  • 5. EXAMPLES OF PAST EARTHQUAKE DISASTER LABORATORIES
  • 6. PACIFIC RING OF FIRE • CIRCUM- PACIFIC NATIONS ARE PRONE TO EARTHQUAKES AND TSUNAMIS
  • 7. OTHER EARTHQUAKE- PRONE LOCATIONS
  • 8. TECTONIC DEFORMATION EARTHQUAKE TSUNAMI GROUND SHAKING FAULT RUPTURE FOUNDATION FAILURE SITE AMPLIFICATION LIQUEFACTION LANDSLIDES AFTERSHOCKS SEICHE DAMAGE/LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS
  • 9. INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING EARTHQUAKES SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON- STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CAUSES OF DAMAGE GLOBAL “DISASTER LABORATORIES”
  • 10. EXAMPLE: 240,000 DEAD AFTER “BULLS-EYE” EARTHQUAKE • TANGSHAN, CHINA (1976) EARTHQUAKE: The impossible situation; too late for a race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  • 11. EXAMPLE: 230,000 DEAD AFTER EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI • INDONESIA (2004): The impossible situation; too late for a race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  • 12. EXAMPLE: 88,000 DEAD AS RESULT OF NON-ENGINEERED BUILDINGS • CHINA (MAY 2008): • The impossible situation; too late for a race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  • 13. EXAMPLE: 220,000 DEAD AS RESULT OF NON-ENGINEERED BUILDINGS • HAITI (2010): • The impossible situation; too late for a race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  • 14. EXAMPLE: 30,000 DEAD AFTER EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI • JAPAN (2011): • The impossible situation; too late for a race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  • 15. EXAMPLE: SEARCH AND RESCUE OF SURVIVORS IN COLLAPSED BLDGS. • TURKEY (1999) KOCALEI EARTH- QUAKE): • Timely responses during a forty-eight hour “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 16. BOUMERDES, ALGERIA; 2,226 DEAD (MAY 21, 2003)
  • 17. EXAMPLE: GUJARAT, INDIA 20,800 DEAD (JAN 26, 2001)
  • 18. EL ASNAM, ALGERIA; 3,500 DEAD (OCT. 10, 1980)
  • 19. EXAMPLE: DAMAGE TO ESSENTIAL INFRASTRUCTURE– A SCHOOL • ALASKA (1964): Timely search and rescue during a forty-eight hour “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 20. EXAMPLE: DAMAGE FROM EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI • ALASKA (1964): • Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 21. EXAMPLE: LIQUEFACTION DESTROYED OVER 1,000 BUILDINGS • NIIGATA, JAPAN (1964): • Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 22. EXAMPLE: COLLAPSE OF HIGH-RISE APARTMENT BUILDINGS • MEXICO CITY AFTER 1985 EARTHQUAKE: Timely responses during a forty-eight hour and thirty day “race against time” save lives and protect property
  • 23. EXAMPLE: LOSS OF FUNCTION OF ELEVATED HIGHWAY; DEATHS • LOMA PRIETO, CA (1989): • Timely responses during a forty-eight hour and thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 24. EXAMPLE: LOSS OF FUNCTION • LOMA PRIETA, CA EARTHQUAKE (1989): • Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 25. EXAMPLE: LOSS OF FUNCTION OF ELEVATED EXPRESSWAY • NORTHRIDGE, CA (1994): • Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 26. EXAMPLE: LOSS OF FUNCTION OF ELEVATED EXPRESSWAY (NO DEATHS) • KOBE, JAPAN (1995): “The forty- eight hour and thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  • 27. EXAMPLE: LOSS OF FUNCTION FROM 600 FIRES • KOBE, JAPAN (1995): “The race against time” to save lives and protect property.
  • 28. EXAMPLE: HAZ-MAT RELEASE AND FIRE AFTER EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI • ALASKA (1964): Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 29. EXAMPLE: RADIATION RELEASE FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANT • JAPAN (2011): Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 30. EXAMPLE: SEARCH AND RESCUE TO SAVE TRAPPED SURVIVORS • CHINA (2013): • Timely responses during a forty-eight hour “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 31. EXAMPLE: EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES AFTER EARTHQUAKE • CHINA (2008): Timely responses during a forty-eight hour “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 32. EXAMPLE: EMERGENCY MEDICAL • CHINA (2008): • Timely responses during a forty-eight hour “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 33. EXAMPLE: INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE • PAKISTAN (2005): Timely responses during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 34. EXAMPLE: MASS CARE OF SUR- VIVORS AFTER QUAKE AND TSUNAMI • CHILE EARTHQUAKE: “The race against time” to save lives and protect property starts immediately.
  • 35. EXAMPLE: A TENT CITY FOR SURVIVORS AFTER AN EARTHQUAKE • HAITI (2010): Timely temporary housing during a thirty day “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 36. EXAMPLE: SURPRISE! DEBRIS FROM JAPAN’S TSUNAMI NOW IN USA • SENDAI, JAPAN AFTER THE MARCH 2011 EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI: What will happen to the radioactive debris?
  • 37. EXAMPLE: TAKING CARE OF THE DEAD KILLED IN NON-ENGINEERED BLDGS. • IRPINIA, ITALY EARTHQUAKE (1980): • Timely responses during a forty-eight hour “race against time” to save lives and protect property
  • 38. LESSON: THE KNOWLEDGE AND TIMING OF ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS IS VITAL • The people who know: 1) what to expect (e.g., strong ground motion, oil effects, tsunami wave run up, ground failure), 2) where and when they will happen, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare for them will survive.
  • 39. LESSON: TIMELY, REALISTIC DISASTER SCENARIOS SAVE LIVES • The people who have timely, realistic, advance information that facilitates reduction of vulnerabilities, and hence the risks associated with strong ground shaking, tsunami wave run up, and ground failure will survive.
  • 40. LESSON: EMERGENCY RESPONSE SAVES LIVES • The “Uncontrollable and Unthinkable” events will always hinder the timing of emergency response operations, especially the search and rescue operations that are limited to “the golden 48 hours.”
  • 41. LESSON: EMERGENCY MEDICAL PREPAREDNESS SAVES LIVES • The local community’s capacity for emergency health care (i,e., coping with damaged hospitals and medical facilities, lack of clean drinking water, food, and medicine, and high levels of morbidity and mortality) is vital for survival.
  • 42. LESSON: EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERED BUILDINGS SAVE LIVES • Buildings engineered to withstand the risks from an earthquake’s strong ground shaking and ground failure that cause damage, collapse, and loss of function, is vital for protecting occupants and users from death and injury.
  • 43. LESSON: THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY ALWAYS PROVIDES AID • The International Community provides millions to billions of dollars in relief to help “pick up the pieces, ” but this strategy is not enough by itself to ensure earthquake disaster resilience.
  • 44. FACT MOST OF THE 200 + NATIONS NEED EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE POLICIES THAT ARE BASED ON LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST EARTHQUAKE DISASTER LABORATORIES
  • 45. YOUR COMMUNITY DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS •MONITORING •HAZARD MAPS •INVENTORY •VULNERABILITY •LOCATION RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK BOOKS OF KNOWLEDGE •PREPAREDNESS •PROTECTION •EM RESPONSE •RECOSTRUCTION AND RECOVERY EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 46. PILLARS OF EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE Preparedness Adoption and Implementation of a Modern Earthquake Engineering Building Code Realistic Earthquake Disaster Scenarios Timely Emergency Response (including Emergency Medical Services) Cost-Effective Reconstruction & Recovery
  • 47. THE CHALLENGE: POLICY CHANGES: CREATE, ADJUST, AND REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE KINDS OF TURNING POINTS NEEDED FOR MOVING TOWARDS EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 48. AN UNDER-UTILIZED GLOBAL STRATEGY To Create Turning Points for Earthquake Disaster Resilience  USING EDUCATIONAL SURGES CONTAINING THE PAST AND PRESENT LESSONS TO FOSTER AND ACCELERATE POLICY CHANGES
  • 49. MOVING TOWARDS THE MUST- HAPPEN GLOBAL STRATEGY To Achieve Earthquake Disaster Resilience INTEGRATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS WITH POLITICAL SOLUTIONS IN EVERY NATION FOR REALISTIC POLICIES ON PREPAREDNESS, PROTECTION, DISASTER SCENARIOS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE, RECONSTRUCTION, AND RECOVERY