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FLOODS PART I. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE
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FLOODS PART I. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE

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Flooding occurs somewhere in the world approximately 10,000 times every day as the consequences of a locale having more water than the local water cycle can process within its physical limits. Floods …

Flooding occurs somewhere in the world approximately 10,000 times every day as the consequences of a locale having more water than the local water cycle can process within its physical limits. Floods occur as the result of: extreme levels of , precipitation in thunderstorms, tropical storms, typhoons, hurricanes, and cyclones; in storm surges, and in tsunami wave run up. We continue to operate with a flawed premise: Knowledge from flood disasters, which occur in association with great subduction zone earthquakes in the Pacific and Indian oceans and are very well understood, therefore flood disaster resilience should be accomplished relatively easily by vulnerable countries. Unfortunately, the fact of the matter is, floods are not annual events; they are also complex, so most nations, whether impacted or not, usually are slow to adopt and implement policies based on science and recent catastrophic events making flood disaster resilience a very elusive goal to achieve. What have we learned from recent past floods to increase survivability? First of all, the timing of anticipatory actions is vital. People who know: 1) what to expect (e.g., strong ground motion, soil effects, flood wave run up, ground failure), where and when floods have historically happened, and 3) what they should (and should not) do to prepare for them, will survive. Secondly, timely, realistic disaster scenarios save lives. The people who have timely, realistic, advance information that facilitates reduction of vulnerabilities, and hence the risks associated with strong ground shaking, flood wave run up, and ground failure will survive. Thirdly, Emergency preparedness and response. The “Uncontrollable and Unthinkable” events will always hinder the timing of emergency response operations, especially the search and rescue operations that are limited to “the golden 48 hours.” The local community’s capacity for emergency health care (i,e., coping with damaged hospitals and medical facilities, lack of clean drinking water, food, and medicine, and high levels of morbidity and mortality) is vital for survival. And finally, earthquake engineer building save lives. Buildings engineered to withstand the risks from an earthquake’s strong ground shaking and ground failure that cause damage, collapse, and loss of function, is vital for protecting occupants and users from death and injury. Presentation courtesy of Dr. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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  • 1. FLOODS. THE GLOBAL DISASTER LABORATORY MODEL: AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR GLOBAL DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 2. FRAMEWORK 1 A COMPREHENSIVE, INTER- DISCIPLINARY DIALOGUE ON GLOBAL DISASTERS AND DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 3. 1. SCOPE FROM VULNERABLE CONTINUUMS TO A DISASTER TO DISASTER RESILIENT COMMUNITIES THROUGH IMPLEMENTATION OF “THE BEST POLICIES AND BEST PRACTICES” OF DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 4. A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that occur when the continuums of: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) recurring events (e.g., floods, earthquakes, ...,) intersect at a point in space and time, when and where the people and community are not ready.
  • 5. THREE DYNAMIC CONTINUUMS • PEOPLE (7+ Billion and counting) • COMMUNITIES • RECURRING EVENTS (AKA Natural Hazards, which are proof of a DYNAMIC EARTH)
  • 6. PEOPLE = INNOVATION 200 NATIONS AND 7+ BILLION PEOPLE NORTH AMERICA CARIBBEAN BASIN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA MEDITER- RANEAN ISLAND NATIONS ASIA SOUTH AMERICA EUROPE
  • 7. INTERSECTION OF THESE CONTINUUMS IS INEVITABLE SOME INTERSECTIONS WILL CAUSE A DISASTER, AND SOME WON’T
  • 8. THE PEOPLE CONTINUUM • 7 + BILLION (DISTRIBUTED THROUGHOUT THE WORLD)
  • 9. LIKE AN INFINITE SERIES: A CONTINUUM OF INNOVATION NEVER ENDS
  • 10. LIKE A CHAIN: A CONTINUUM HAS WEAK LINKS TO IMPROVE
  • 11. FOUR UNIVERSAL WEAK-LINKS • IGNORANCE • APATHY • DISCIPLINARY BOUNDARIES • LACK OF POLITICAL WILL
  • 12. THE COMMUNITY CONTINUUM: (SOCIAL CONSTRUCTS TO BENEFIT THE PEOPLE) • GOVERNMENT • DWELLINGS • SCHOOLS • HEALTH CARE FACILITIES • BUSINESSES • INFRA- STRUCTURE • ETC
  • 13. EACH COMMUNITY MUST BE READY FOR THE INEVITABLE INTERSECTION THAT WILL CHALLENGE ITS STATE-OF-RESILIENCE
  • 14. THE RECURRING - EVENTS CONTINUUM • FLOODS • SEVERE WINDSTORMS • EARTHQUAKES • DROUGHTS • VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS • ETC.
  • 15. RECURRING EARTHQUAKES
  • 16. RECURRING TROPICAL STORMS TYPHOONS, HURRICANES, AND CYCLONES
  • 17. RECURRING FLOODS
  • 18. RECURRING DROUGHT EPISODES
  • 19. RECURRING VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
  • 20. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE IS DEFINED BY ANECTDOTAL, EMPIRICAL, LINEAR, NON-LINEAR, STATISTICAL, FUZZY, PROBABILISTIC, . . . AND THEORETICAL MODELS HAVING DIVIDES, GAPS, AND UNCERTAINTIES
  • 21. FRAMEWORK 2 A COMPREHENSIVE, INTER- DISCIPLINARY INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE END GAME OF DISASTER RESILIENCE IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • 22. POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE Anticipatory Preparedness Adoption and Implementation of a Modern Engineering Building Codes & Standards Timely Early Warning and Evacuation Timely Emergency Response (including Emergency Medical Services) Cost-Effective Recovery/Reconstruction
  • 23. YOUR COMMUNITYDATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS •FLOODS •SEVERE WIND STORMS •EARTHQUAKES …ETC A DISASTER CAUSES FAILURES IN POLICIES FAILURES IN PRACTICES COUNTER MEASURES • BEST POLICIES •BEST PRACTICES DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 24. THE END GAME CHALLENGE BEST POLICIES AND BEST PRACTICES INNIVATIVE ACTIONS: CREATE, ADJUST, AND REALIGN PROGRAMS, PARTNERS AND PEOPLE UNTIL YOU HAVE CREATED THE PARA-DIGM SHIFTS THAT ARE NEEDED FOR MOVING TOWARDS DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 25. BEST POLICIES AND BEST PRACTICES WILL IDENTIFY/CLOSE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDES AND GAPS, AND IDENTIFY/FIX WEAK LINKS IN THE PEOPLE/COMMUNITY CONTINUUMS
  • 26. BEST POLICIES AND BEST PRACTICES WILL CALL FOR INNOVATIVE USE OF TECHNOLOGY AND STRATEGIC PLANNING
  • 27. THE STATE-OF-RESILIENCE WILL INCREASE EXPONEBTIALLY AS --- a) The CAPACITY of the PEOPLE is increased, b) Physical and organizational VULNERABILITIES in the COMMUNITY are eliminated, and c) Each people-community-hazard INTERSECTION is met successfully.
  • 28. FLOODS
  • 29. INNOVATIVE PREPAREDNESS USE GLOBAL FLOOD DISASTER LABORATORIES AS A BASIS FOR PREPARING FROM “A” (Emergency Response) TO “Z” (Recovery and Reconstruction)
  • 30. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
  • 31. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE • REAL TIME WEATHER FORCASTING AND WARNING SYSTEMS • MEASURMENT TECHNOLOGIES (E.G., STREAM GAGUES) • RISK MODELING (E.G., HAZUS, INSURANCE UNDERWRITING) • DATABASES • MAPS: 100-YEAR AND 500-YEAR FLOODS • FLOOD DISASTER SCENARIOS • DRONE PLANES • HAZMAT MANAGEMENT
  • 32. FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCETRATEGIES
  • 33. RISK REDUCTION STRATEGIES FOR FLOODS • PURPOSE • PREVENTION • PROTECTION • URBAN PLANNING • TECHNIQUE • DRAINAGE BASIN MANAGEMENT • FLOOD CONTROL (DIKES, LEVEES, AND DAMS) • HAZARD MAPS (RISK ZONES)
  • 34. DRAINAGE BASIN MANAGEMENT • WETLANDS AND , UPSTREAM RESERVOIRS REDUCE THE VOLUME OF WATER REACHING DOWNSTREAM LOCATIONS
  • 35. PROTECTION USE MODERN ENGINEERING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES TO PROTECT THE PEOPLE AND IMPORTANT INFRASTRUCTURE AND TO FIX PHYSICAL VULNERABILITIES IN THE COMMUNITY
  • 36. DIKES, LEVEES, AND DAMS • BUILDING AND MAINTAINING DIKES, LEVEES, AND DAMS IN CONCERT WITH WETLANDS AND RESERVOIRS CAN CONTROL SERVERITY OF FLOODING .
  • 37. EXAMPLE: THE LEVEE SYSTEM IN QUINCY, IL: FLOOD CONTROL • THE 154-MILE-LONG LEVEE SYSTEM IS DESIGNED TO REDUCE THE LIKELIHOOD AND SEVERITY OF FLOODS ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER.
  • 38. EXAMPLE: THREE GORGES DAM, CHINA: FLOOD CONTROL • THE GREATEST ENGINEERING FEAT IN CHINA SINCE THE GREAT WALL IS DESIGNED TO REDUCE THE LIKELIHOOD AND SEVERITY OF FLOODS ON THE YANGTZE RIVER.
  • 39. THREE GORGES DAM: 2309 M LONG, 190 M HIGH, 15 M THICK
  • 40. YANGTZE RIVER
  • 41. FLOODING: YANGTZE RIVER • Historical records indicate that in 2,100 years, between the early Han Dynasty and late Qing Dynasty, the Yangzte flooded 214 times, an average of once every 10 years.
  • 42. YANGTZE RIVER AND THREE GORGES DAM
  • 43. THREE GORGES DAM • The Three Gorges Dam is located in Central China's Hubei Province, 600 miles southwest of Beijing. • It replaced Brazil's Itaipu Dam as the world's largest hydroelectric and flood-control installation. • After 13 years of work and 35 million cubic yards of concrete, the dam reached its full height of 190 m (606 ft) and width of 2,309 m (7,575 ft) across the Yangtze River.
  • 44. FLOOD CONTROL ON THE THAME RIVER RIVER: LONDON, ENGLAND
  • 45. URBAN PLANNING • LAND USE REGULATIONS BASED ON FLOOD HAZARD MAPS CAN PREVENT UNWISE CON-STRUCTION IN RIVER FLOODPLAINS AND IN COASTAL AREAS.
  • 46. STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE • PURPOSE • SITE MODIFICATION • ALERT/WARNING • MONITORING • • TECHNIQUE • EMBANKMENTS; SANDBAGS • EVACUATION • INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION; WEATHER RADAR
  • 47. STRATEGIES FOR FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE • PURPOSE • RISK ZONES • PREPAREDNESS • TECHNIQUE • STREAM GAGUES; DRONE PLANES • 100-500 YEAR FLOOD MAPS, DISASTER SCENARIOS
  • 48. FORECASTS, ALERTS, AND WARNINGS; EVACUATION • WORKS FOR RIVERINE FLOODS, BUT NOT FOR FLASH FLOODS.
  • 49. SITE MODIFICATION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BASIN • EMPLACING 2.5 MILLION SAND BAGS REDUCED LOSSES IN THE GREAT 1992 FLOOD
  • 50. SAND BAGS: SITE MODIFICATION IN THE FLOOD OF JUNE 12, 2008 IN IOWA
  • 51. FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE STRATEGIES • PURPOSE • CLEAR OUT THE FLOODPLAIN • FACILITATE RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION • TECHNIQUE • FEDERAL BUYOUT PROGRAM • FEDERAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM
  • 52. FLOOD INSURANCE: SPEEDING RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION • FLOOD INSURANCE IS OFFERED FOR PURCHASE BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES
  • 53. BUYOUTS: CLEARING THE FLOODPLAIN • IN THE USA, BUYOUTS OF HOMES IN THE FLOODPLAIN (FOLLOWED BY DEMOLATION OR RELOCATION) REDUCED RISK FROM FLOODING