STRATEGIES FOR BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENT DURING 2013
PART 4: MAKE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE DISASTER RESILIENT
STRATEGY: “CONCENTRATEYOUR POLITICAL AND TECHNICALRESOURCES ON ACHIEVING ONE BIG OBJECTIVE -- SUCH AS DISASTER RESILIENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS” [Credit: The late George Ritchie, UK]
WHAT HISTORY TEACHES • THE FRAGILITY OF A CITY’S LIFELINES (I.E, INFRASTRUCTURE) WILL PREVENT THE CITY FROM BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENT.
LOSS OF FUNCTION OF A TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM CAN PARALYZE LOCAL, REGIONAL, ANDINTERNATIONAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS• Provide an essential function to society by moving people and goods from point “A” to point “B”• Represent a substantial share of a country’s GDP (11% for USA.)
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS• Types: Roads, railroads, mass transit, water-borne and air transport systems, and pipelines• Scales: urban, regional, national, and international.
ELEMENTS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS• Built infrastructure • Operations side• roads, runways, • vehicles, traffic airports, terminals, safety and control, railways, stations, power, commun- canals, ports, traffic ications and control centers, signaling, maintenance and maintenance, operation facilities, transportation pipelines, etc. operators, etc.
FEATURES THAT AFFECT RESILIENCY They extend over broad geographical areas They have large numbers of components that are subject to either POINT or AREA failures.
FEATURES THAT AFFECT RESILIENCY (Continued) Roadways and railways frequently follow river valleys (easier and cheaper to build) Utilities, including pipelines, often follow right-of-ways (reduces legal problems and costs)
FEATURES THAT AFFECT RESILIENCY (Continued)Multiple entities have responsibility for or oversight of the systemTypically owned by public entities and publicly fundedUsually self insured
FEATURES THAT AFFECT RESILIENCY (Continued)Different modes of trans- portation interact with each other and other elements of the city’s built environment (hence, the name, Lifeline Systems”).
HIGHWAY SYSTEMSFlooding from tropical storms,hurricanes, and typhoons, andtsunamis,Landslides (rock falls, spreads,slides, flows)Earthquakes (ground shaking)
TSUNAMI ARRIVAL: SENDAI, JAPAN; MARCH 11, 2011
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS ACCEPTABLE RISK •NAT. HAZARDS •INVENTORY RISK •VULNERABILITY UNACCEPTABLE RISK •LOCATION VULNERABILITY REDUCTON DATA BASES YOUR AND INFORMATION COMMUNITY SOCIETAL RESILIENCEHAZARDS: •LIFELINE STANDARDSGROUND SHAKING •SITING AND ROUTINGGROUND FAILURESURFACE FAULTING •EMERGENCY REPAIRSTECTONIC DEFORMATION • RECONSTRUCTIONTSUNAMI RUN UPAFTERSHOCKS •EDUCATIONAL SURGE