LOCATION
LESSONS LEARNED FROMPAST NOTABLE DISASTERS     PART I: MEXICO
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE MEXICO’S                COMMUNITIES AT RISK                              HURRICANESGOAL: DISAST...
MEXICO CITY: MEXICO’S MEGACITY CAPITOL
RISK ASSESSMENT                                         ACCEPTABLE RISK•NATURAL HAZARDS•BLDG. INVENTORY           RISK•VUL...
TOWARDS DISASTER RESILIENCE            RISK ASSESSMENT          • VULNERABILITY                                      • COS...
HURRICANESMEXICO IS AT RISK FROM HURRICANESFORMING IN THE ATLANTIC,CARIBBEAN, AND GULF OF MEXICO ASWELL AS IN THE EASTERN ...
CAUSES                  OF                DAMAGE                           WIND PENETRATING                           BUIL...
HURRICANE DEAN  THE FIRST NORTH ATLANTIC HURRICANE OF 2007 CAUSED     DEVASTATION FROMCARIBBEAN ISLANDS TO MEXICO A CATEGO...
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT  DISASTER RESILIENCE          • ALL HURICANES          • WITHOUT            ADEQUATE            PROT...
LESSONS LEARNED FOR      DISASTER RESILIENCE• ALL HURRICANES• PROTECTION  MEANS THAT YOU  UNDERSTAND THE  RISKS ASSOCIATED...
COORDINATED PLANNING BY USA,    MEXICO, AND CANADA• President Bush met with the  leaders of Mexico and Canada on  Monday, ...
PEMEX OIL AND GASPLATFORM IN GULF OF MEXICO
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT  DISASTER RESILIENCE          • ALL HURRICANES.          • DISASTER-            INTELLIGENT         ...
PATH OF DEAN: 20-21 AUGUST           2007
ADVANCE PREPARTIONS IN    THE GULF OF MEXICO• The Gulf has 4,000 multi-million  dollar oil and gas platforms and  faciliti...
ADVANCE PREPARTIONS OF FACILITIES AT RISK IN THE GULF• Pemex, Mexico’s oil company, began  evacuating 13,500 workers from ...
FOOD AND WATER GONE;CANCUN, MEXICO: AUGUST 19
REMEMBERING WILMA, TOURISTS  LEAVE CANCUN: AUGUST 19
50,000 TOURISTS LEFT MEXICO        BY AUGUST 20
CHETUMAL: TAKING SHELTER  IN A SCHOOL; AUGUST 20
HURRICANE DEAN AT    LANDFALL: AUGUST 21• Hurricane Dean made landfall at  Majahual, Mexico as a category 5 storm  with wi...
HURRICANE DEAN’S     LANDFALL: AUGUST 21• Hurricane Dean’s landfall at Majahual,  a port popular with cruise liners, was  ...
MAYANS AT RISK: AUGUST 21• Hurricane Dean threatened the  Yucatan’s most vulnerable people —  the Mayans, who have not ben...
LOCATION OF MEXICO’S MAYAN       COMMUNITIES
IMPACTS IN MAJAHUAL• Hundreds of homes collapsed in  Mexico’s second busiest cruise ship  destination.• Steel girders coll...
MAJAHUAL LANDFALL: 270 KM/HR (165 MI/HR) WINDS; AUGUST 21
CHETUMAL: FLOODING ON     AUGUST 21
BACALAR: FLOODING; AUGUST            21
HURRICANE DEAN’S SECONDLANDFALL: TECOLUTLA, MEXICO
THE SECOND LANDFALL IN    MEXICO: AUGUST 22• Hurricane Dean crossed the Bay of  Campeche and made a second landfall  as a ...
PRESIDENT FELIPE CALDERONVISITS CHETUMAL: AUGUST 22
STORM SURGE AND HEAVY    RAINFALL: AUGUST 22• Hurricane Dean’s storm surge flooded  Ciuidad del Carmen, a town of 120,000,...
MAYAN COMMUNITIES     SEVERELY IMPACTED• Mexico’s Mayan communities have  survived many damaging storms and  centuries of ...
EARTHQUAKES     EARTHQUAKES LIKE THESEPTEMBER 19, 1985 QUAKE OCCUR     MAINLY AS A RESULT OFINTERACTIONS OF THE COCOS AND ...
SUBDUCTION: COCOS ANDNORTH AMERICAN PLATES
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE          • ALL NOTABLE            EARTHQUAKES          • PREPAREDNESS            P...
CAUSES                  OF                DAMAGE                          INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO                        ...
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE          • ALL NOTABLE            EARTHQUAKES          • PROTECTION OF            ...
SCHOOL: MEXICO CITY; M8.1QUAKE, SEPTEMBER 19, 1985
MEXICO CITY-- 400 BUILDINGS INOLD LAKE BED ZONE DAMAGED
HOTEL REGIS: COLLAPSE
TSUNAMIS     M8 SUBDUCTION ZONEEARTHQUAKES USUALLY GENERATE          TSUNAMIS
TSUNAMI HAZARD       • TSUNAMIS ARE LONG-         PERIOD WATER         WAVES CAUSED BY         THE VERTICAL UPLIFT        ...
CAUSES                  OF                DAMAGE                         HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF                          ...
FLOODS    FLOODS ARE TYPICALLY   ASSOCIATED WITH STRONGTHUNDERSTORMS OR HURRICANES
70 % OF MEXICO’S TABASCOSTATE UNDER WATER: NOV 2, 2007
CAUSES               OF RISK                            LOSS OF FUNCTION OF                         STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLA...
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS EXPLOSIVE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONSARE ASSOCIATED WITH SUBDUCTION            ZONES.
ACTIVE VOLCANOES
EXPLOSIVE VOLCANOES OCCUR   IN SUBDUCTION ZONES
ERUPTION OF POPOCATEPLPLACES MEXICO CITY AT RISK
CAUSES                 OF RISK                             LATERAL BLAST                           PYROCLASTIC FLOWS      ...
LANDSLIDESLARGE VOLUME LANDSLIDES ARE TYPICALLY ASSOCIATED WITHEARTHQUAKE GROUND SHAKING  AND HURRICANES RAINFALL
LANDSLIDE FOLLOWING HEAVY RAINS IN MEXICO: JULY 2007
CAUSES                   OF                 DAMAGE                           SITING AND BUILDING ON                       ...
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE         • ALL NATURAL           HAZARDS         • CAPACITY FOR           INTELLIGE...
LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE         • ALL NATURAL           HAZARDS         • CAPACITY FOR           RECOVERY ...
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25 years of notable disasters in mexico 1985 2010 lessons learned for preparedness, mitigation and preparedness

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ALL NATURAL HAZARDS. Capacity for intelligent emergency response, recovery and reconstructionis is essential for community resilience. Presentation courtesy of Dr Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction

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25 years of notable disasters in mexico 1985 2010 lessons learned for preparedness, mitigation and preparedness

  1. 1. LOCATION
  2. 2. LESSONS LEARNED FROMPAST NOTABLE DISASTERS PART I: MEXICO
  3. 3. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE MEXICO’S COMMUNITIES AT RISK HURRICANESGOAL: DISASTERRESILIENCE EARTHQUAKESENACT AND IMPLEMENT TSUNAMISPOLICIES HAVING HIGHBENEFIT/COST FOR FLOODSCOMMUNITY RESILIENCE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS LANDSLIDES
  4. 4. MEXICO CITY: MEXICO’S MEGACITY CAPITOL
  5. 5. RISK ASSESSMENT ACCEPTABLE RISK•NATURAL HAZARDS•BLDG. INVENTORY RISK•VULNERABILITY UNACCEPTABLE RISK•LOCATION GOAL: DISASTER MEXICO’S RESILIENCE DATA BASES AND INFORMATION COMMUNITIES POLICY OPTIONS • PREPAREDNESSHAZARDS: •PROTECTIONGROUND SHAKINGGROUND FAILURE •EARLY WARNINGSURFACE FAULTINGTECTONIC DEFORMATION •EMERGENCY RESPONSETSUNAMI RUN UP •RECOVERY andAFTERSHOCKS RECONSTRUCTION
  6. 6. TOWARDS DISASTER RESILIENCE RISK ASSESSMENT • VULNERABILITY • COST • EXPOSURENSTURAL EXPECTED POLICYHAZARDS • EVENT LOSS • BENEFIT ADOPTION •CONSEQUENCES POLICY ASSESSMENT
  7. 7. HURRICANESMEXICO IS AT RISK FROM HURRICANESFORMING IN THE ATLANTIC,CARIBBEAN, AND GULF OF MEXICO ASWELL AS IN THE EASTERN PACIFIC
  8. 8. CAUSES OF DAMAGE WIND PENETRATING BUILDING ENVELOPE UPLIFT OF ROOF SYSTEM FLYING DEBRIS STORM SURGEHURRICANES IRREGULARITIES IN “DISASTER ELEVATION AND PLANLABORATORIES” SITING PROBLEMS FLOODING AND LANDSLIDES
  9. 9. HURRICANE DEAN THE FIRST NORTH ATLANTIC HURRICANE OF 2007 CAUSED DEVASTATION FROMCARIBBEAN ISLANDS TO MEXICO A CATEGORY 2-3 STORM ON 17 AUGUST 2007A CATEGORY 4 STORM ON 18 AUGUST 2007 A CATEGORY 5 STORM ON 20 AUGUST
  10. 10. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL HURICANES • WITHOUT ADEQUATE PROTECTION, HIGH VELOCITY WIND WILL LIFT THE ROOF OFF OF MANY BUILDINGS.
  11. 11. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE• ALL HURRICANES• PROTECTION MEANS THAT YOU UNDERSTAND THE RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH VELOCITY WIND AND PLAN IN ADVANCE.
  12. 12. COORDINATED PLANNING BY USA, MEXICO, AND CANADA• President Bush met with the leaders of Mexico and Canada on Monday, August 20th to continue coordinated planning of mutual assistance before the arrival of Hurricane Dean.
  13. 13. PEMEX OIL AND GASPLATFORM IN GULF OF MEXICO
  14. 14. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL HURRICANES. • DISASTER- INTELLIGENT COMMUNITIES USE TIMELY EARLY WARNING BASED ON CRITICAL INFORM- ATION TO IMPROVE THE ODDS FOR SURVIVAL.
  15. 15. PATH OF DEAN: 20-21 AUGUST 2007
  16. 16. ADVANCE PREPARTIONS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO• The Gulf has 4,000 multi-million dollar oil and gas platforms and facilities that are at risk from hurricane Dean’s strong winds and high waves.• Hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 flooded oil refineries, toppled oil rigs, and cut pipelines.
  17. 17. ADVANCE PREPARTIONS OF FACILITIES AT RISK IN THE GULF• Pemex, Mexico’s oil company, began evacuating 13,500 workers from its oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico on Monday, August 20.• Petroleos Mexicanos evacuated all 18,000 offshore workers and shut down production rigs on the Bay of Campeche.• This action resulted in a loss of revenue from daily production of 2.7 million barrels of oil and 2.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas
  18. 18. FOOD AND WATER GONE;CANCUN, MEXICO: AUGUST 19
  19. 19. REMEMBERING WILMA, TOURISTS LEAVE CANCUN: AUGUST 19
  20. 20. 50,000 TOURISTS LEFT MEXICO BY AUGUST 20
  21. 21. CHETUMAL: TAKING SHELTER IN A SCHOOL; AUGUST 20
  22. 22. HURRICANE DEAN AT LANDFALL: AUGUST 21• Hurricane Dean made landfall at Majahual, Mexico as a category 5 storm with winds of 165 mi/hr.• Just before landfall, Dean had a minimum central pressure of 906 millibars, the third lowest pressure after the 1935 Labor Day Hurricane in the Florida Keys and Hurricane Gilbert in 1988.
  23. 23. HURRICANE DEAN’S LANDFALL: AUGUST 21• Hurricane Dean’s landfall at Majahual, a port popular with cruise liners, was “good luck” for the people of Mexico.• This location was a sparsely populated coastline that had already been evacuated, so none of the major resorts took a direct hit, and after a few hours, dean became a CAT 2 storm.
  24. 24. MAYANS AT RISK: AUGUST 21• Hurricane Dean threatened the Yucatan’s most vulnerable people — the Mayans, who have not benefited from tourism or oil production.• They are poor, living simple lives, in wooden slat houses susceptible to wind damage that are located in low- lying areas prone to flooding.
  25. 25. LOCATION OF MEXICO’S MAYAN COMMUNITIES
  26. 26. IMPACTS IN MAJAHUAL• Hundreds of homes collapsed in Mexico’s second busiest cruise ship destination.• Steel girders collapsed and wooden structures splintered from the force of the wind.• About one-half the concrete dock washed away in the storm surge.
  27. 27. MAJAHUAL LANDFALL: 270 KM/HR (165 MI/HR) WINDS; AUGUST 21
  28. 28. CHETUMAL: FLOODING ON AUGUST 21
  29. 29. BACALAR: FLOODING; AUGUST 21
  30. 30. HURRICANE DEAN’S SECONDLANDFALL: TECOLUTLA, MEXICO
  31. 31. THE SECOND LANDFALL IN MEXICO: AUGUST 22• Hurricane Dean crossed the Bay of Campeche and made a second landfall as a category 2 storm on Wednesday, August 22.• Landfall was at Tecolutla, a fishing town in the state of Veracruz on the Central Mexican coast, about 660 km (400 mi) from the border with Texas.
  32. 32. PRESIDENT FELIPE CALDERONVISITS CHETUMAL: AUGUST 22
  33. 33. STORM SURGE AND HEAVY RAINFALL: AUGUST 22• Hurricane Dean’s storm surge flooded Ciuidad del Carmen, a town of 120,000, with waist deep sea water.• Heavy rain fall accompanying Dean, now a category 1 storm, caused rivers to rise rapidly in a region that experienced flooding and landslides in 1999.
  34. 34. MAYAN COMMUNITIES SEVERELY IMPACTED• Mexico’s Mayan communities have survived many damaging storms and centuries of oppression, but surviving Hurricane Dean’s impacts on their livelihood was one of their greatest challenge ever.• The greatest impact was NOT the thousands of destroyed Mayan homes, but the loss of food.
  35. 35. EARTHQUAKES EARTHQUAKES LIKE THESEPTEMBER 19, 1985 QUAKE OCCUR MAINLY AS A RESULT OFINTERACTIONS OF THE COCOS AND NORTH AMERICAN PLATES
  36. 36. SUBDUCTION: COCOS ANDNORTH AMERICAN PLATES
  37. 37. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES • PREPAREDNESS PLANNING FOR THE INEVITABLE GROUND SHAKING IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  38. 38. CAUSES OF DAMAGE INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATIONEARTHQUAKES AND PLAN “DISASTER TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUPLABORATORIES” POOR DETAILING AND WEAK CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FRAGILITY OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
  39. 39. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL NOTABLE EARTHQUAKES • PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  40. 40. SCHOOL: MEXICO CITY; M8.1QUAKE, SEPTEMBER 19, 1985
  41. 41. MEXICO CITY-- 400 BUILDINGS INOLD LAKE BED ZONE DAMAGED
  42. 42. HOTEL REGIS: COLLAPSE
  43. 43. TSUNAMIS M8 SUBDUCTION ZONEEARTHQUAKES USUALLY GENERATE TSUNAMIS
  44. 44. TSUNAMI HAZARD • TSUNAMIS ARE LONG- PERIOD WATER WAVES CAUSED BY THE VERTICAL UPLIFT OF THE OCEAN FLOOR DURING A M8.0 OR GREATER EARTHQUAKE.
  45. 45. CAUSES OF DAMAGE HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF TSUNAMIS BUILDINGS “DISASTER FLOODINGLABORATORIES” INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI
  46. 46. FLOODS FLOODS ARE TYPICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH STRONGTHUNDERSTORMS OR HURRICANES
  47. 47. 70 % OF MEXICO’S TABASCOSTATE UNDER WATER: NOV 2, 2007
  48. 48. CAUSES OF RISK LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN INUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURE & CONTENTS: FLOODS DAMAGE FROM WATER DISASTER WATER BORNE DISEASESLABORATORIES (HEALTH PROBLEMS) EROSION AND MUDFLOWS CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER
  49. 49. VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS EXPLOSIVE VOLCANIC ERUPTIONSARE ASSOCIATED WITH SUBDUCTION ZONES.
  50. 50. ACTIVE VOLCANOES
  51. 51. EXPLOSIVE VOLCANOES OCCUR IN SUBDUCTION ZONES
  52. 52. ERUPTION OF POPOCATEPLPLACES MEXICO CITY AT RISK
  53. 53. CAUSES OF RISK LATERAL BLAST PYROCLASTIC FLOWS FLYING DEBRIS VOLCANIC VOLCANIC ASH ERUPTIONS LAVA FLOWSCASE HISTORIES LAHARS TOXIC GASES
  54. 54. LANDSLIDESLARGE VOLUME LANDSLIDES ARE TYPICALLY ASSOCIATED WITHEARTHQUAKE GROUND SHAKING AND HURRICANES RAINFALL
  55. 55. LANDSLIDE FOLLOWING HEAVY RAINS IN MEXICO: JULY 2007
  56. 56. CAUSES OF DAMAGE SITING AND BUILDING ON UNSTABLE SLOPES SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO FALLS SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO TOPPLES SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE LANDSLIDES TO SPREADS SOIL AND ROCKCASE HISTORIES SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOWS PRECIPITATION THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE SHAKING GROUND SHAKING THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE
  57. 57. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL NATURAL HAZARDS • CAPACITY FOR INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  58. 58. LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE • ALL NATURAL HAZARDS • CAPACITY FOR RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.

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