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Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell
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Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell

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  • 1. Tracing Networks<br />Introduction to ontology-based database and software application<br />Yi Hong<br />Department of Computer Science<br />University of Leicester<br />
  • 2. Semantic Web<br />2<br />Tracing Networks programme<br />“Semantic web is an evolution to the current web and provide new information representation feature.”<br /><ul><li>Current web
  • 3. Document-centric
  • 4. Human readers
  • 5. Syntax (Schema)
  • 6. HTML, XML etc.
  • 7. Semantic web
  • 8. Knowledge representation
  • 9. Machine readable
  • 10. Semantics (Ontology)
  • 11. RDF, OWL etc </li></li></ul><li>Ontology<br />3<br />What is an ontology?<br />“An ontology is a formal specification of a conceptualization” <br /> -Thomas Gruber <br />Describes<br />Specified by<br />Ontology<br />Concepts<br />Domain<br />Modelled by <br />Domain ontology <br />e.g. (CIDOC-CRM for archaeology, Gene, GXO for Genetics)<br />
  • 12. Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br /> Image on a ceramic vessel found at Sopron-Várhely<br />4<br />Example : Image tagging and search for human representation database<br />(provided by Katharina)<br />
  • 13. 5<br />Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Data<br />Object ID: 15 <br />Inventory number: 443<br />Excavation site: Sopron-Várhely(N47.66519, E16.518044 Hungary)<br />Human figure (individuals) <br />rider<br />wagon guide<br />wagon rider<br />Animal<br />2 horses<br />1 horse<br />Material:<br />ceramic<br />Technology:<br />Incised<br />`<br />etc.<br />……….<br />(60+ attributes)<br />
  • 14. 6<br />Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Relational database (MS Access 2007)<br />tables, fields (columns)<br />primary-foreign <br />key pairs<br />Database schema <br />Entity-relationship diagram <br />Data<br />Data<br />
  • 15. Relational vs Ontology-based database<br />Data storage<br />Ontology<br />(class, property, individual)<br />Data Structure <br />Database Schema <br />(table, field, key)<br />records<br />triples (RDF graph)<br />Basic elements<br />Ontology-based Database (Triple store) <br />Relational Database<br />Database <br />products<br />MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, <br />MS Access etc<br />Jena SDB, virtuoso universal server, RDF/OWL document<br />7<br />
  • 16. Ontology<br />Semantics<br />Class <br />Property <br />Individual<br />8<br />individual<br />has value for<br />is instance of<br />class<br />property<br />restrict<br />
  • 17. Ontology<br />A Triple is:<br /> Basic element in the ontology world.<br />contains three parts: subject, predicate and object. <br />Predicate<br />Subject<br />Object<br />
  • 18. Ontology<br />A Triple is:<br /> Basic element in the ontology world.<br />contains three parts: subject, predicate and object. <br />was found in<br />Leicester<br />Ceramic pot<br />
  • 19. Ontology<br />RDF Graph<br /> A set of triples become a graph<br /> An ontology-based database is a graph<br />was found in<br />Leicester<br />Ceramic pot<br />
  • 20. Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Ontology<br />(Protégé Ontology Editor)<br />Country<br />Material<br />…….<br />isLocatedIn<br />wasMadeFrom<br />wasFoundAt<br />Site<br />……s.<br />…….<br />Object<br />Appears On<br />Animal<br />hasScene<br />contains<br />…….<br />subClassOf<br />Appears On<br />Scene<br />Horse<br />Appears On<br />IndividualFigure<br />http://protege.stanford.edu/<br />12<br />
  • 21. Relational vs Ontology-based database<br />Search<br />Graph pattern<br />Text-based keywords+ options<br />Query <br />Interface<br />generate<br />generate<br />Query <br />language<br />SPARQL<br />SQL<br />query<br />query<br />Ontology-based Database (Triple store) <br />Relational Database<br />Database<br />13<br />
  • 22. Why use ontology?<br />14<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  • 23. Ambiguous semantics
  • 24. Labelling objects rather than relationship</li></ul>Tags: cat , mouse,<br />
  • 25. Why use ontology?<br />15<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  • 26. Ambiguous semantics
  • 27. Labelling objects rather than relationship</li></ul>Tags: cat , mouse,<br />
  • 28. Why use ontology?<br />16<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  • 29. Ambiguous semantics
  • 30. Labelling objects rather than relationship</li></ul>Tags: cat , mouse,<br />
  • 31. Why use ontology?<br />17<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  • 32. Ambiguous semantics
  • 33. Labelling objects rather than relationship</li></ul>Who is chasing who?<br />Tags: cat , mouse,<br />chase?<br />
  • 34. Why use ontology?<br />18<br />Problem with traditional keyword search<br />Difficult to describe complex and arbitrary query<br />Unable to perform automatic reasoning<br />rider<br />Query: <br />“Display images with an animal and a person on them, along with what is happening between them"<br />horse<br />
  • 35. Why use ontology?<br />Single user Mode vs Collaborative Mode <br />Degree of uncertainty <br />User credibility and expertise<br />Degree of uncertainty = CF<br />Domain-specific expertise index = E(d)<br />probably a fox ?<br />definitely a horse!<br />Is a <br />horse<br />Tagged area<br />95%<br />19<br />
  • 36. Query results visualisation-Geo-mapping<br /><ul><li>Keyhole Markup Language (KML/KMZ)
  • 37. http://code.google.co m/apis/kml/documentation/</li></ul>XML-based language.<br />Supports place marks, images, polygons, 3D models, textual descriptions<br />Compatibility<br />Google Map<br />Google Maps for Mobile <br />Google Earth<br />ESRI ArcGIS Explorer,<br />20<br />
  • 38. Query results visualisation- Statistical charts<br />Google Chart API<br />http://code.google.com/apis/chart/<br />Interactive Flash<br />Javascript arrays or XML files<br />Compatibility<br />Most mainstream browsers<br />Internet Explorer<br />Firefox<br />Safari<br />Chrome<br />21<br />
  • 39. 22<br />Ontology-based software demo<br />Semantic tagging<br />Query by graph pattern<br />Integration with Google earth <br />Statistical charts<br />
  • 40. System Architecture<br />23<br />
  • 41. Links<br />A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology <br />By Stanford University<br />http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/papers/ontology-tutorial-noy-mcguinness-abstract.html<br />Protégé Ontology editor<br />http://protege.stanford.edu/ (Version 3.4.* )<br />Protégé tutorial http://owl.cs.manchester.ac.uk/tutorials/protegeowltutorial/<br />CIDOC-CRM ontology<br />An ontology for culture and heritage domain<br />http://www.cidoc-crm.org/<br />KML guide and tutorial<br />http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/kml_tut.html<br />24<br />
  • 42. Q & A<br />25<br />Thank you<br />Predicate<br />Object<br />Subject<br />

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