Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell

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Tracing Networks: Ontology Software in a Nutshell

  1. 1. Tracing Networks<br />Introduction to ontology-based database and software application<br />Yi Hong<br />Department of Computer Science<br />University of Leicester<br />
  2. 2. Semantic Web<br />2<br />Tracing Networks programme<br />“Semantic web is an evolution to the current web and provide new information representation feature.”<br /><ul><li>Current web
  3. 3. Document-centric
  4. 4. Human readers
  5. 5. Syntax (Schema)
  6. 6. HTML, XML etc.
  7. 7. Semantic web
  8. 8. Knowledge representation
  9. 9. Machine readable
  10. 10. Semantics (Ontology)
  11. 11. RDF, OWL etc </li></li></ul><li>Ontology<br />3<br />What is an ontology?<br />“An ontology is a formal specification of a conceptualization” <br /> -Thomas Gruber <br />Describes<br />Specified by<br />Ontology<br />Concepts<br />Domain<br />Modelled by <br />Domain ontology <br />e.g. (CIDOC-CRM for archaeology, Gene, GXO for Genetics)<br />
  12. 12. Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br /> Image on a ceramic vessel found at Sopron-Várhely<br />4<br />Example : Image tagging and search for human representation database<br />(provided by Katharina)<br />
  13. 13. 5<br />Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Data<br />Object ID: 15 <br />Inventory number: 443<br />Excavation site: Sopron-Várhely(N47.66519, E16.518044 Hungary)<br />Human figure (individuals) <br />rider<br />wagon guide<br />wagon rider<br />Animal<br />2 horses<br />1 horse<br />Material:<br />ceramic<br />Technology:<br />Incised<br />`<br />etc.<br />……….<br />(60+ attributes)<br />
  14. 14. 6<br />Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Relational database (MS Access 2007)<br />tables, fields (columns)<br />primary-foreign <br />key pairs<br />Database schema <br />Entity-relationship diagram <br />Data<br />Data<br />
  15. 15. Relational vs Ontology-based database<br />Data storage<br />Ontology<br />(class, property, individual)<br />Data Structure <br />Database Schema <br />(table, field, key)<br />records<br />triples (RDF graph)<br />Basic elements<br />Ontology-based Database (Triple store) <br />Relational Database<br />Database <br />products<br />MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, <br />MS Access etc<br />Jena SDB, virtuoso universal server, RDF/OWL document<br />7<br />
  16. 16. Ontology<br />Semantics<br />Class <br />Property <br />Individual<br />8<br />individual<br />has value for<br />is instance of<br />class<br />property<br />restrict<br />
  17. 17. Ontology<br />A Triple is:<br /> Basic element in the ontology world.<br />contains three parts: subject, predicate and object. <br />Predicate<br />Subject<br />Object<br />
  18. 18. Ontology<br />A Triple is:<br /> Basic element in the ontology world.<br />contains three parts: subject, predicate and object. <br />was found in<br />Leicester<br />Ceramic pot<br />
  19. 19. Ontology<br />RDF Graph<br /> A set of triples become a graph<br /> An ontology-based database is a graph<br />was found in<br />Leicester<br />Ceramic pot<br />
  20. 20. Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Ontology<br />(Protégé Ontology Editor)<br />Country<br />Material<br />…….<br />isLocatedIn<br />wasMadeFrom<br />wasFoundAt<br />Site<br />……s.<br />…….<br />Object<br />Appears On<br />Animal<br />hasScene<br />contains<br />…….<br />subClassOf<br />Appears On<br />Scene<br />Horse<br />Appears On<br />IndividualFigure<br />http://protege.stanford.edu/<br />12<br />
  21. 21. Relational vs Ontology-based database<br />Search<br />Graph pattern<br />Text-based keywords+ options<br />Query <br />Interface<br />generate<br />generate<br />Query <br />language<br />SPARQL<br />SQL<br />query<br />query<br />Ontology-based Database (Triple store) <br />Relational Database<br />Database<br />13<br />
  22. 22. Why use ontology?<br />14<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  23. 23. Ambiguous semantics
  24. 24. Labelling objects rather than relationship</li></ul>Tags: cat , mouse,<br />
  25. 25. Why use ontology?<br />15<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  26. 26. Ambiguous semantics
  27. 27. Labelling objects rather than relationship</li></ul>Tags: cat , mouse,<br />
  28. 28. Why use ontology?<br />16<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  29. 29. Ambiguous semantics
  30. 30. Labelling objects rather than relationship</li></ul>Tags: cat , mouse,<br />
  31. 31. Why use ontology?<br />17<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  32. 32. Ambiguous semantics
  33. 33. Labelling objects rather than relationship</li></ul>Who is chasing who?<br />Tags: cat , mouse,<br />chase?<br />
  34. 34. Why use ontology?<br />18<br />Problem with traditional keyword search<br />Difficult to describe complex and arbitrary query<br />Unable to perform automatic reasoning<br />rider<br />Query: <br />“Display images with an animal and a person on them, along with what is happening between them"<br />horse<br />
  35. 35. Why use ontology?<br />Single user Mode vs Collaborative Mode <br />Degree of uncertainty <br />User credibility and expertise<br />Degree of uncertainty = CF<br />Domain-specific expertise index = E(d)<br />probably a fox ?<br />definitely a horse!<br />Is a <br />horse<br />Tagged area<br />95%<br />19<br />
  36. 36. Query results visualisation-Geo-mapping<br /><ul><li>Keyhole Markup Language (KML/KMZ)
  37. 37. http://code.google.co m/apis/kml/documentation/</li></ul>XML-based language.<br />Supports place marks, images, polygons, 3D models, textual descriptions<br />Compatibility<br />Google Map<br />Google Maps for Mobile <br />Google Earth<br />ESRI ArcGIS Explorer,<br />20<br />
  38. 38. Query results visualisation- Statistical charts<br />Google Chart API<br />http://code.google.com/apis/chart/<br />Interactive Flash<br />Javascript arrays or XML files<br />Compatibility<br />Most mainstream browsers<br />Internet Explorer<br />Firefox<br />Safari<br />Chrome<br />21<br />
  39. 39. 22<br />Ontology-based software demo<br />Semantic tagging<br />Query by graph pattern<br />Integration with Google earth <br />Statistical charts<br />
  40. 40. System Architecture<br />23<br />
  41. 41. Links<br />A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology <br />By Stanford University<br />http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/papers/ontology-tutorial-noy-mcguinness-abstract.html<br />Protégé Ontology editor<br />http://protege.stanford.edu/ (Version 3.4.* )<br />Protégé tutorial http://owl.cs.manchester.ac.uk/tutorials/protegeowltutorial/<br />CIDOC-CRM ontology<br />An ontology for culture and heritage domain<br />http://www.cidoc-crm.org/<br />KML guide and tutorial<br />http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/kml_tut.html<br />24<br />
  42. 42. Q & A<br />25<br />Thank you<br />Predicate<br />Object<br />Subject<br />

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