Lesson 1 HISTORY OFEDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Where Are We Going & Where Have We Been Prepared & Modified by FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL
Educational TechnologyObjectives: History of To identify events and devices of the Education al past that contributed to the Technolo technological revolution. gy To examine the organizations and their viewpoints that have shaped technology use in the classroom today. To prepare for the future in educational technology by analyzing current trends and advances.
Educational Technology History of“Technology is commonly thought of in terms of Education al gadgets, instruments, Technolo gy machines and devices … most (educators) will defer to technology as computers.” (Muffoletto, 1994) TEA
Educational Technology History ofThe history of “Educationaltechnology … can be traced back Education alto the time when tribal priests Technolo gysystemized bodies of knowledge,and early cultures inventedpictographs or sign writing torecord and transmit information.”(Paul Saettler, 1990)
Educational Technology In ancient Greece, the Elder History ofSophist used the term “techne” to Education alrefer the process of applying Technoloknowledge systematically to the gypractical art of instruction. Theyformulated cognitive rules,systematically analyzed subjectmatter designed instructionaltechnologies and devised effectiveinstructional materials.
Educational Technology During the Middle Age History ofAdvent of Scholastic Philosophy, Education alPierre Abelard introduced a Technolo gytechnology of instruction whichwas really a new method ofstructuring and presentingmaterials that helped set the styleof scholastic education.
Educational Technology Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel,Herbart and Montessori contributed their History ofown concept on educational technology Educationimproving educative process. al Technolo John Amos Comenius was gyrecognized as the pioneer of moderninstructional technology by reason ofhis book Orbis Pictus (The World inPicture) which was illustratedtextbooks for children studying Latin &Sciences.
Educational Technology Edward Thorndike and John Dewey History offormulated scientific theory of learningand the scientific method, respectively. Education alThorndike gave emphasis to the use of Technolo gyempirical investigation as a basis for anorganized process of learning. On hispart, Dewey introduced a method ofinstruction in terms scientific method inbroad terms
Educational Technology The 19th century paved in the History ofadvent of effective technological Educationdevelopment including the production al Technoloof textbooks, use of blackboards and gyimprovements in writing implementslike pen and ink. Photography wasinvented, giving a way to a movementcalled “Visual Instruction”.
Educational Technology By 1920, visual media became History ofwidely accepted. Then came thepublication of audio-visual media Education altexts. Technolo gy In 1926, educational filmswere used as instructional media. In 1927, Pressey wrote onprogrammed learning through amachine which tested andconfirmed a learning task.
Educational Technology In 1932, the first instructional History oftelevision program was aired at the EducationState University of Iowa. About the alsame time, the 16 mm sound Technolo gymotion picture was developed andthis served as the educationalworkhorse during the audio-visualmovement of the time.
Educational Technology During World War II, the U.S.government encouraged the History ofimplementation of technology of Education alinstruction for military training Technoloprograms. This gave impetus to a gysystem approach to instruction toinclude: micro-teaching, individualizedinstruction, Language laboratories,behavioral laboratories, behavioralobjectives, computer assistedinstruction and among others
History of “Computers” Abacus---Approximately 3000 BC History of Calculators---1600s Education al Punched Card Devices---1800s Technolo gy First Electronic Computers---1940s Mainframes---1950s Minicomputers---1960s Microcomputers---1970s Microcomputer Systems---1980s Internet---1990s
Ancient Computing History History of The Abacus Mechanical aid used for Education al counting and making Technolo quick calculations. gy Still in use around the world.Find out more about the Abacus in Resources.
Early Computing HistoryBlaise Pascal History ofInvented the first Educationmechanical calculator. al TechnoloThe Pascaline used gycogs and gears to solvemath equations.
MechanicalCalculators History of Joseph Jacquard Education First “programmable” al Technolo machine. gy Used punched cards (binary instructions) to automate weaving loom. Punched cards were a staple of early and modern computer programming.
Electronic Computer Systems History of First Education Generation:1943-1956 Used vacuum tubes in al Technolo electronic circuits. gy Used punch cards to input and externally store data. Up to 4K of memory. Programming in machine language and assembly language. Required a compiler.
First Generation: 1943-1956Electronic Numerical Integrator History of and Calculator (ENIAC) Education al TechnoloWorld’s first electronic gydigital computer.Used to produceWWII ballistic firingtables for the U.S.Defense Department. Check out the ENIAC exhibit.
Second Generation: 1957-1964 History of 1956 IBM 350 RAMAC Education Used transistors, al developed by Bell Labs. Technolo gy Up to 32K of memory. Programming in computer languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL. Visit the Computing History Timeline in Resources.
Third Generation: 1965-1971 History of Used integrated Education circuits. al Technolo Up to 3 million bytes gy of memory. Lower cost, smaller size, and increasing processor speed.
Fourth Generation: 1972-Now History ofMicrocomputer Revolution Begins. Education 1971, Intel develops 4004, the first al Technolo microprocessor chip. gy Altair sold in 1975, the first personal computer. It is a kit that must be assembled. Apple Computer is formed in 1976 and sells 50 Apple I. Advances increase memory size,
Fourth Generation: 1972-Now History ofMicrocomputers Education Personal computers or PCs. al Technolo Usually cost about $2,000 or less. gy Process over 1 billion operations per second. “Stand-alone” or connected to other computers as a network system. TEA
1990’s Connecting the World History ofTim Berners-Lee Education Developed HTML and the World Wide Web al Technolo (WWW) was born. gy
1990’s Connecting the World History ofMarc Andreessen Education al An original developer of Mosaic, the Technolo first browser software able to read gy HTML. Co-founder of Netscape Communications.
The 21st Century Technologies of the Future History of Advanced robotics Education commonplace al Technolo Smart houses gy Wearable computers Holodeck virtual reality Truly individualized educationCheck out Dave Moursund’s view of education in the year 2015, one of the Resources.
The 21st Century Only recently focused on History of computers. Education al Internet current primary trend. Technolo gy Communication with colleagues. Lesson plan preparation. Student resources. Access research and best practices for teaching. TEA 05:34.0
Educational Technology History of Education al Technolo gySource information: NCES 2000 Summer Issue
Educational Technology History ofOur Definition: Education“A combination of the processes aland tools involved in addressing Technolo gyeducational needs and problems,with an emphasis on applying themost current tools: computersand their related technologies.”(M. D. Roblyer, 2000)
Educational Technology History ofHas technology changed how andwhat we teach? Education al Technolo gy
Educational Technology History ofTwo trends of today’s society: Education Explosive increase in number and type al Technolo of technology resources available. gy Dramatic decrease in total cost of ownership (TCO). TEA
Educational TechnologyIBM unveils first PC in 1981. History of Education CPU: Intel 4.77 MHz 8088 al Memory: 64K Technolo gy Storage: Single-sided, 160K 5” floppy disk drive Display: 12 inch monochrome Price: $2880.00 Read about IBM Through the Years in Resources.
Educational Technology History ofChange in educational philosophyof what constitutes basic skills Education al Technolo No longer just three R’s gy “Learning to learn” skills essential Lifelong learning TEA
Four Different Views Association for Educational History of Communications & Technology Education (AECT) al Technolo International Society for gy Performance Improvement (ISPI) International Technology Education Association (ITEA) International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)
Four Different Views History ofAECT Education Audiovisual Media Communications. al Begun in 1923. Technolo gy Initially centered on radio. Quickly extended focus to include instructional film strips and educational television. Today, it includes global satellite broadcasting, two-way audio, and visual communications.
Four Different ViewsAECT History of “Branch of educational theory and Education practice concerned primarily with al the design and use of messages Technolo gy which control the learning process.” (Saettler, 1990, p. 9) Publications: TechTrends Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology Vis it th e AE C T we b s ite from R e s ou rce s .
Four Different Views History ofISPI Education Instructional systems approach al Technolo based on Behaviorist theories gy “Systematic approach to designing, developing, and delivering instruction matched to carefully identified needs.” (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1997)
Four Different Views History ofISPI Education Publications: al Technolo Performance Improvement Journal gy Performance Improvement QuarterlyE xp lore IS P I re s ou rce s at th e IS P I we b s ite .
Four Different Views History ofITEA Education Industry trainers and vocational al Technolo teachers. gy Schools should prepare students for work force Learning about technology as used in the “real world” is essential.
Four Different Views History ofITEA Education Includes robotics, al Technolo manufacturing systems, gy computer-assisted design (CAD). Publications: The Technology Teacher Technology and Children The Journal of Technology Education Find out more at the ITEA web site.
Four Different ViewsISTE History of Primary focus encompassed both Education al instructional and support Technolo applications of computers. gy Begun by trainers and educators who predicted that computers would revolutionize education. Influenced by technical personnel, such as programmers and systems analysts.
Four Different ViewsISTE History of National Educational Education al Technology Standards for Technolo gy Students and Teachers (NETS) Publications: Learning and Leading with Technology (formerly The Computing Teacher) Journal of Research on Computing in Education ISTE’s website is one of the Resources.
Modern Educational Technology History History ofMainframe Computer Systems Education al First instructional use of computers Technolo gy was as a flight simulator used to train pilots at MIT in 1950.
Modern Educational Technology History History ofMainframe Computer Systems Education al First use in public schools taught Technolo gy New York elementary students binary arithmetic in 1959.
Modern Educational Technology History History ofMainframe Computer Systems Education al Federal funds supported many Technolo large-scale projects in gy mainframe computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in schools, colleges, and universities through the middle of 1970’s.
Modern Educational Technology History History ofMainframe Computer Systems Education al Stanford University – first multimedia Technolo learning station, Course writer gy Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO) BYU – Time-shared Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television (TICCIT)
Modern Educational Technology History History ofMainframe Computer Systems Education alDesigned to support personalized Technolo gymastery learning Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) - University of Pittsburgh Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) - American Institutes of Research
Modern Educational Technology History National Education Computing History of Conference (NECC) Education al Created by mainframe programming Technolo gy enthusiasts from universities nationwide. First conference held in1979. Today is the largest educational technology conference in U.S. with attendance of 10,000+ people.
Modern Educational Technology History History ofMicrocomputers in Education Education Introduced in late 1970’s. al Technolo Adopted by public school systems gy during 1980’s. Apple II Commodore PET Radio Shack TRS - 80
Modern Educational Technology History History ofSoftware Education Early courseware developed for al Technolo mainframes were provided by: gy Large hardware manufacturers Software systems companies University development projects New microcomputer software market driven primarily by educators.
Modern Educational Technology History History ofSoftware Education Minnesota Educational Computing al Technolo Consortium (MECC) gy Initially largest provider of educational software. Funded by National Science Foundation. MicroSift, EPIE Provided courseware evaluations.
Modern Educational Technology History History ofSoftware Education Authoring systems al Technolo Response to educators quest for gy input into design of educational software. Allowed educators to develop their own courseware. TEA 15:05.0
Modern Educational Technology History History ofSoftware Education Authoring systems al Technolo Required extensive expertise. gy Extended time commitment. Expanded work investment. TEA
Modern Educational Technology History History ofComputer Literacy Education Originally defined as programming al Technolo skills and tools such as word gy processing. Today’s world can only agree that the term refers to skills that are constantly changing. 15:45.0
Modern Educational Technology HistorySeymour Papert History of Educational theorist mentored by Education al Jean Piaget. Technolo gy Developed programming language for young children based on constructivist theory of education. Raised national consciousness about potential of technology to change the educational system. 16:25.0
Modern Educational Technology History History ofThe Internet and the WWW Education Biggest challenge for the public al Technolo educational system has been how gy to prepare schools physically and train teachers effectively for its use in the classroom. TEA 16:50.0
What We’ve Learned Computer literacy or knowledge of History of computer applications is a moving Education al target. Technolo gy Teaching students technical skills for today is valuable. More important are “learning to learn” tools for tomorrow and years to come. 17:20.0
What We’ve Learned History of Computer-based materials are just one component of resources Education al available to educational system. Technolo gy Integration of technology as a tool to advance learning in the content areas adds to the effectiveness of other resources and teacher created activities. 18:00.0
What We’ve Learned History ofDevelopment of technologymaterials and integration strategies Education alis time intensive and should not be Technolo gya classroom teacher’s primaryresponsibility – You’ve got enoughto do! 18:20.0 TEA
What We’ve Learned Educators must keep pace with History of technological advances. Education al But often times technology Technolo gy changes faster than the educational environment. Business and Industry must do it’s part in providing economical technology solutions. 18:40.0
What We’ve Learned History of Teachers will always be necessary! Education Definition of learning environments al Technolo are changing. gy Identity of classrooms must change. 19:03.0 TEA
What We’ve Learned History of Our models of effective instruction Education must change too! al Technolo Educators must be more than: gy Sage on the Stage Guide on the Side 19:40.0
What We’ve Learned History ofVet in the Net EducationToday’s teacher must be willing to be: al Technolo A participating learner in the classroom. gy One who will take the same risks and not always have the right answer. A veteran learner in a network of learners called the classroom. 20:10.0
Reference“EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY” by Dr. Paz I. Lucido & Dr. History of Milagros L. Borabo Education al Technolo gy Web Linkhttp://www.tcet.unt.edu/weblibrary2/overview 20:10.0