MSc. Thesis Presentation

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Thesis presentation of my MSc. in Strategic Leadership towards Sustainability

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MSc. Thesis Presentation

  1. 1. A Strategic Approach to Sustainable Development throughOfficial Development Assistance<br />A<br />S<br />Antonios Balaskas, Eduardo Lima, Tyler Seed<br />May 2009<br />B<br />T<br />E<br />L<br />STABLE<br />
  2. 2. OUTLINE<br />IntroMethodsResultsDiscussionConclusion<br />
  3. 3. INTRO<br />Global sustainability challenges<br /><ul><li>Climate crisis leading to migration movements
  4. 4. Conflicts motivated by natural resources depletion
  5. 5. Diminished ecosystem services
  6. 6. Rising of commodities prices, etc.</li></ul>Official Development Assistance<br />Over 50 years wealthy countries have donated financial resources to recipients for the purpose of development and poverty reduction.<br />Amount of resources: 100 billion dollars per year.<br />
  7. 7. History of Official Development Assistance (ODA)<br />
  8. 8. Development Assistance Architecture<br />Multi-purpose<br />International Organizations<br />Regular contributions<br />Multilateral<br />Channel<br />Sector or thematic<br />International Organizations<br />Specific<br />funds<br />Official Bilateral Donors<br />Private Donors<br />Bilateral Channel<br />(through agency<br />or similar)<br />Development <br />Assistance<br />Types<br />Other <br />Donor Countries<br />Implementation<br /><ul><li>Technical cooperation
  9. 9. Projects and Programs</li></ul>Recipient Countries<br /><ul><li>Emergency
  10. 10. Debt Relief</li></ul>Adapted from The World Bank 2008, 14-15<br />
  11. 11. Scope of the Research<br />Official Bilateral Donors<br />Bilateral Channel<br />(through agency<br />or similar)<br />Development <br />Assistance<br />Types<br /><ul><li>Technical cooperation
  12. 12. Projects and Programs</li></ul>Recipient Countries<br />
  13. 13. ODA Effectiveness Challenges<br />Need for recipient country ownership.<br />Aid fragmentation.<br />Aid conditionality and its sometimes undermining effect on normal democratic processes.<br />Aid dependence.<br />Gap between donor commitments and expenditure (predictability).<br />
  14. 14. MDGs and Paris Declaration<br />represent efforts to address the challenges.<br />Millennium Development Goals a set of 8 goals related primarily to poverty reduction<br />Paris Declaration focused on improving the quality/effectiveness of cooperation and coordination between donors and recipients<br />Ownership<br />Alignment<br />Harmonization<br />Managing for results<br />Mutual accountability<br />
  15. 15. “It is increasingly understood that global poverty, economic development, social aspects and environmental concerns need to be seen in a broader and holistic perspective.”<br />(Progress on EU Sustainable Development Strategy<br />Final Report, 2008)<br />&quot;There is a strong need for strategic, longer-term approaches, which are taken forward by developing countries themselves – with the support of donors.&quot; (Progress on EU Sustainable Development Strategy, 110)<br />
  16. 16. Research Question<br />In what ways can application of the SSD approach support bilateral donor country agencies in orienting official development assistance to best foster sustainable development in recipient countries?<br /><ul><li>Secondary questions:</li></ul>How would a donor agency work to foster and stimulate strategic development towards sustainability in recipient countries?<br />How do donor agencies currently plan and make decisions related to sustainable development in recipient countries?<br />What are the gaps between the hypothetical model and current ODA donor agency approaches to sustainable development? <br />
  17. 17. METHODS<br />
  18. 18. Preliminary<br />Answers to Primary Research Question<br />Formulation of Final Answers to the Primary Research Question<br />Expert Feedback<br />Literature Review<br />Assessment of Agencies against FSSDA<br />Agencies´ info into 5LF<br />Preliminary FSSDA<br />Revision of the FSSDA<br />Addressing Secondary <br />Research Questions <br />2 and 3<br />Addressing Secondary <br />Research Question 1<br />30 experts (professors, high-level staff from agencies and multilateral organizations, recipient countries representatives, NGOs workers, consultants and researchers).<br />What we sent:<br /><ul><li>Intro to SSD: FSSD, backcasting, four SPs;
  19. 19. Initial FSSDA model: how FSSD would be used in the ODA;
  20. 20. Detailed questions (based on initial answers for the research questions – based on the literature review and analysis of the agencies).</li></ul>Feedback was organized.<br /><ul><li>International agreements related to ODA;
  21. 21. Agencies´ materials;
  22. 22. Reports and evaluations by multilateral organizations;
  23. 23. Peer-reviewed articles;
  24. 24. Inputs from independent research centres and universities;
  25. 25. Refamiliarization with published SSD literature.
  26. 26. USAID, CIDA, EC-DGD, SIDA, DFID, NORAD, BMZ and Dutch MFA;
  27. 27. Policies, strategies, goals and practices were reviewed and organized into a generic 5LF.
  28. 28. Explains how the FSSD could be used by ODA agencies.
  29. 29. A result of the authors' initial research and understandings of the ODA system and SSD.
  30. 30. FSSDA: to support ODA agencies in using aid to foster strategic development towards sustainability.
  31. 31. The organized policies, strategies and goals were evaluated against the model provided by the FSSDA</li></ul>How would a donor agency work to foster and stimulate strategic development towards sustainability in recipient countries?<br />2. How do donor agencies currently plan and make decisions related to sustainable development in recipient countries?<br />3. What are the gaps between the hypothetical model and current ODA donor agency approaches to sustainable development? <br />In what ways can application of the SSD approach support bilateral donor country agencies in orienting official development assistance to best foster sustainable development in recipient countries?<br />
  32. 32. RESULTS<br />
  33. 33. Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development Assistance (FSSDA)<br />Answering secondary question #1:<br />How would a donor agency work to foster and stimulate strategic development towards sustainability in recipient countries?<br />
  34. 34. FSSDA<br />System Level:<br />Society within the biosphere, including the ecological and social laws/rules/norms.<br />The key structures, institutions, relationships and tools relevant to the ODA System.<br />The key structures, institutions, cultural aspects and capacity of the governance system in recipient country as well as the needs, beliefs and attitudes of the people within that country.<br />Perceived root causes of the poverty at the individual, societal, international and global levels.<br />
  35. 35. FSSDA<br />Success Level:<br />Sustainability Principles + Principles for an Attractive Society<br />=<br />Vision (an attractive and sustainable society)<br />Society within the biosphere, existing in compliance with the conditions for socio-ecological sustainability.<br />Positive Principles for an Attractive Society: the definition of principles affirmatively defining an attractive future society should be a product of dialogue between donors and recipients (involving all possible stakeholders).<br />
  36. 36. FSSDA<br />Strategic Guidelines Level:<br />Guidelines for Strategic Planning<br />Backcasting (ABCD/Prioritization Considerations).<br />Political consensus: e.g. relevant international agreements (MDGs, Paris Declaration, etc.).<br />Inclusion and cooperation of all parties and stakeholders, etc.<br />Guidelines for Behaviour: donor agencies possess behavioral guidelines for working with recipients<br />Ensuring participation;<br />Maintaining transparency and honesty;<br />Guaranteeing responsibility and accountability;<br />Communicating effectively through dialoguing;<br />Building capacity and developing leadership: strengthening the social fabric.<br />
  37. 37. FSSDA<br />Actions Level:<br />General mechanisms of execution: budget support, NGO cooperation, Civil Society cooperation, implementation, grants, technical assistance, inter-agency cooperation, etc.<br />Sectors of implementation: Rural development, territorial planning, agriculture and food security; Energy security; Trade and regional integration; Infrastructure, communications and transport; Democracy, good governance, human rights, rights of children and indigenous peoples, gender equality; Political consensus building; etc.<br />
  38. 38. FSSDA<br />Tools Level:<br />Support the actions (level 4) and strategy (level 3) to achieve success (level 2) in the system (level 1).<br />International agreements that apply to ODA effectiveness and strategy;<br />Country strategy papers (like National Sustainable Development Strategies, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers);<br />Evaluation methodologies,;<br />Indicators and statistics;<br />Etc…<br />
  39. 39. ODA Agencies Assessment<br />Answering secondary questions:<br /> #2: How do donor agencies currently plan and make decisions related to sustainable development in recipient countries?<br />#3: What are the gaps between the hypothetical model (FSSDA) and current ODA donor agency approaches to sustainable development? <br />
  40. 40. ODA Agencies Assessment<br /><ul><li>Five Level Framework to organize information.
  41. 41. FSSDA to analyze operation and organization.
  42. 42. Agencies analyzed:
  43. 43. US: USAID,
  44. 44. Canada: CIDA,
  45. 45. European Union: ECDGD,
  46. 46. Sweden: SIDA,
  47. 47. UK: DFID,
  48. 48. Norway: NORAD,
  49. 49. German: BMZ,
  50. 50. Netherlands: Dutch MFA.</li></li></ul><li>ODA Agencies Assessment<br />System Level:<br />Agencies differ widely in the expression and scope of their system understandings. But can be understood to exist along a spectrum of comprehensiveness.<br />Generally lack recognition of society&apos;s place within the biosphere, or principles, rules and laws governing the biosphere.<br />Specific social forces or trends like globalization, lack of democracy, are identified as the causes of poverty, inequalities, or environmental unsustainability (does not reflect a holistic perspective).<br />Several of the examined agencies exhibit a growing awareness of the importance of interdependence, either between society and biosphere, or between different sections of global society.<br />
  51. 51. ODA Agencies Assessment<br />Success Level:<br />More often than a vision of success, agencies identify directions in which progress should be made.<br /><ul><li>No agency identified the ultimate target of development as the creation of sustainable societies.
  52. 52. For the most part agencies are oriented towards lessening poverty and hunger, and promoting economic growth (MDGs).
  53. 53. Those few agencies that recognize the need to live within environmental limits do not identify those limits concretely.
  54. 54. Some specifically mention the importance of promoting donor country values.</li></li></ul><li>ODA Agencies Assessment<br />Strategic Guidelines Level:<br />Planning strategies vary widely but none currently bear strong resemblance to a backcasting methodology of the kind recommended by the FSSDA.<br />Common to several agency behavioural guidelines are: the importance of maintaining transparency, effective participation, knowledge sharing, supporting local drivers and capacity.<br />Efforts to balance economic, social and environmental considerations in development.<br />Possess a very wide range of prioritization support.<br />Recognizes downstream problems rather than framing upstream causes of socioecological unsustainability.<br />
  55. 55. ODA Agencies Assessment<br />Actions Level:<br />General mechanisms of execution: budget support, NGO cooperation, Civil Society cooperation, implementation, grants, technical assistance, inter-agency cooperation, etc.<br />Sectors of implementation: Rural development, territorial planning, agriculture and food security; Energy security; Trade and regional integration; Infrastructure, communications and transport; Democracy, good governance, human rights, rights of children and indigenous peoples, gender equality; Political consensus building; etc.<br />
  56. 56. ODA Agencies Assessment<br />Tools Level:<br />International agreements that apply to ODA effectiveness and strategy;<br />Country strategy papers (like National Sustainable Development Strategies, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers);<br />Evaluation methodologies,;<br />Indicators and statistics;<br />Etc…<br />
  57. 57. Answering the main research question<br />In what ways can application of the SSD approach support bilateral donor country agencies in orienting official development assistance to best foster sustainable development in recipient countries?<br />Pursuing socio-environmental sustainability as solid base from which to build lasting and sustainable economies and societies.<br />Allowing for a great deal of flexibility and creativity in recipient-led development tailored to the needs and wishes of recipients themselves.<br />Approaching environmental unsustainability and barriers to people being able to meet their needs as root causes of poverty.<br />
  58. 58. Providing decision-making support in pursuing poverty reduction from a holistic systems level perspective.<br />Providing an integrated approach to tackling global sustainability threats such as climate change while minimizing other unforeseen negative sustainability impacts.<br />Balancing economic and social considerations while maintaining progress towards a sustainable society.<br />Providing a fairer basis for aid conditionality grounded in four sustainability principles.<br />Placing sustainability as the fundamental goal of development provides context for various proximate development goals (such as the Millennium Development Goals) and the FSSD&apos;s decision-making support allows them to be aligned with each other towards success.<br />
  59. 59. DISCUSSION<br />
  60. 60. Factors affecting the likelihood of future adoption of an SSD approach in ODA agencies<br />Barriers and challenges:<br />ODA agencies are governmental departments subject to the foreign policies of donor country.<br /><ul><li>Lack of administrative and technical capacity in recipient countries.</li></ul>Internal or external political, economic, social and environmental threats including corruption, ethnic tensions, resource scarcity, etc.<br />Sustainability initiatives are often seen as limiting to economic growth.<br />Suspicion based on past donor behavior.<br />
  61. 61. Factors affecting the likelihood of future adoption of an SSD Approach in ODA agencies<br />Opportunities:<br />Donors officially recognize the need for improved aid based on a holistic perspective.<br /><ul><li>Sustainability is already being addressed in the agencies´ agenda.
  62. 62. Experts recognize the value of an FSSD type of model to apply to ODA.</li></ul>SSD is simultaneously flexible and concrete enough to promote recipient ownership and ease donor/recipient alignment.<br />Sustainability principles can be taught as a basis for dialogue concerning the ultimate aims of development in a given country<br />Scientific law is a more neutral, universal and demonstrable foundation for bilateral negotiation than political, economic, and social theory.<br />
  63. 63. Factors affecting the likelihood of future adoption of an SSD Approach in ODA agencies<br />What donors can do?<br />Maintain transparency.<br />Assist recipients in understanding sustainability as the only firm basis for development.<br />Demonstrate willingness to lead by example.<br />.<br />
  64. 64. CONCLUSION<br />
  65. 65. <ul><li>ODA represents an enormous potential force for positive change and progress towards sustainability.
  66. 66. SSD approach such as is outlined in the FSSDA could realize the potential of ODA, and improve the efficacy of development assistance.
  67. 67. The FSSDA can facilitate development assistance planning towards sustainability.
  68. 68. Conditions are in place for acceptance of the new paradigms necessary to building the resilience our global society will need as it faces the challenges to come.</li></li></ul><li>Thank you!<br />UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon: <br />“Dangerous social and political fuses have been lit. Facing crisis on many fronts, the world is coming to grasp the need for a transition -- to sustainable development, to new levels of cooperation...” <br />(Ki-moon 2009)<br />
  69. 69. The end!<br />
  70. 70. Discussion: Feedback from experts<br />Mix of positive and negative answers.<br />General impressions:<br /><ul><li>Holistic approach is strong
  71. 71. Model should be more flexible
  72. 72. SP 4 is considered “problematic”
  73. 73. Could create a common ground for donors and recipients
  74. 74. Concerns to the practical implementation might be difficult
  75. 75. Backcasting was seen as a useful planning method</li></ul>Based on useful critiques, we reviewed our model.<br />
  76. 76. Further research<br />Several possibilities of the FSSD/SSD application to a new field - Official Development Assistance:<br /><ul><li>National Sustainable Development Strategies;
  77. 77. PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers);
  78. 78. Poverty reduction assessment – exploring the links between poverty and sustainability;
  79. 79. The Millennium Development Goals;
  80. 80. Private donors organizations.
  81. 81. Implementation of the FSSDA by a donor agency</li></li></ul><li>Discussion<br />Limitations:<br /><ul><li>No case studies
  82. 82. Time constraints
  83. 83. The difficulty in explaining the SSD in 5 pages</li></ul>How we dealt with this:<br /><ul><li>Feedback with a large number of experts
  84. 84. Several agencies were analyzed</li>

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