3rd e-Newsletter CTiG


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3rd e-Newsletter CTiG

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3rd e-Newsletter CTiG

  1. 1. CTiG -Newslettere Computed Tomography Interest Group (CTiG) c/o Suite 29T026, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia Issue No. 3 Computed Tomography Interest Group December 2012 Official Sponsor:
  2. 2. Computed Tomography Interest Group (CTiG) c/o Suite 29T026, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia A Malaysian delegation led by the Honourable Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department, YB Major General (R) Dato’ Seri Jamil Khair Hj Baharom paid a visit to Hitachi Ltd, Ibaraki and Shimadzu Ltd, Kyoto, Japan between 22nd to 31st December 2012 to observe and demonstrate the potential use of X-ray computed tomography and other high technology analytical measuring instruments at YaPEIM’s Ar-Rahnu microcredit pawnshops and to promote and discuss business opportunities between YaPEIM and these two world-known corporations. The delegation included Director General of YaPEIM Dato’ Dr Abdul Malek Awang Kechil, Senior Director (Investment and Finance) of YaPEIM Mr Mohd Yusof Abdul Rahman and Senior Director (Admin and Research) of YaPEIM/Chief Executive Officer of INPUT/YaPEIM Mr Abibullah Hj Samsudin, Chief Operating Officer of INPUT/YaPEIM Mrs Parihah Hassan and accompanied by the CTiG Chairman, Dr Jaafar Abdullah (Malaysian Nuclear Agency) who has been appointed as a fellow and technical advisor of INPUT/YaPEIM. At Hitachi Ltd, Ibaraki, the delegation was welcomed by Mr Tomoo Tanabe, the General Manager, Overseas Business Development Division and his senior management team. And, at Shimadzu Ltd, Kyoto, the delegation was greeted by Mr Yasunori Tokumasu, the Director of Corporate Marketing and General Manager and his senior corporate and technical staff. During both visits, the positive results of x-ray computed tomography images on gold jewellery samples were evaluated and discussed. In his short remarks upon arrival in a VVIP room at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport on 31st December 2012 midnight, the honourable minister congratulated YaPEIM and delegation for the successful trade visit. Minister visited X-Ray Computed Tomography Systems at Hitachi Ltd and Shimadzu Ltd in Japan
  3. 3. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) By: Maya Genisa, PhD Candidate, School of Dental Sciences, USM. CBCT is cone-beam scanners based on a cone-shaped beam of x-rays rotating around the object of interest giving a volume of data, using a 2-dimensional extended digital array as an area detector. The technique involves a single 360 degree scan in which the x-ray source and reciprocating area detector synchronously move around the patient’s head, which is stabilized with a head holder. CBCT image gathering consist of two phases; the first phase is data acquisition that uses cone shape x-ray beam and the second phase is image reconstruction from computed tomography. The three dimensional images (sagittal, coronal and axial plane) are produced using back projection inversion technique. The detector is an important element of the imaging chain and optimization contributes to dose limitation. Two types of digital detectors have been used for the CBCT (Figure 1). The first type involves conventional image intensifiers (IIs). They consist of an input window, input phosphor, photocathode, vacuum and electron optics, output phosphor and output window. The input phosphor converts the X-rays to optical photons which then are converted to electrons within the photocathode. The electrons are accelerated and focused by a series of electrodes and then strike the output phosphor which converts the electrons to light photons which are then captured by various imaging devices. Most modern image intensifiers have cesium iodide for the input phosphor because it is a very efficient material in absorbing X-rays as shown in Figure 2a. The second type, flat panel detectors (FPDs), are composed of an X-ray detection layer and an active matrix array (AMA) of thin film transistors (TFT). The X-ray detector consists of a phosphor layer such as cesium iodide which converts the X-ray photons to light photons. The intensity of the light emitted by the phosphor is a measure of the intensity of the incident X-ray beam. The AMA has a photosensitive element which produces electrons proportional to the intensity of the incident photons. This electrical charge is stored in the matrix until it is read out and it is converted into digital data sent to the image processor. FPDs have greater sensitivity to X-rays than IIs and therefore have the potential to reduce patient dose. They have higher spatial and contrast resolution and fewer artefacts than IIs but, IIs are cheaper than FPDs (Figure 2b). The main advantages of CBCT technique compared to CT conventional are that CBCT has high spatial and temporal resolution, rapid scan, and dose reduction. Hence CBCT is more suitable for clinical applications and monitoring compared to conventional CT as shown in Table 1. In conclusion, CBCT provides diagnostic information as accurately as CT with the advantage of minimizing both radiation exposure and financial costs to the patient. Computed Tomography Interest Group (CTiG) c/o Suite 29T026, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia Criteria CT Scan CBCT Detector 600 - 4800 1024 Technique Fan Beam Cone Beam Scan Time 20 – 60 s 14 s Dose 1200 – 1500 (µSv) 25 – 60 (µSv) Quality Low High Cost High Low Field of view Wide Limited a b Table 1. The advantages of CBCT compared to conventional CT. Figure 2. Component of detector: (a) image intensifier detector (b) flat detector Figure 1. Experimental set-ups: flat panel detector and image intensifier
  4. 4. From the Editorial Desk…. Chief Editor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zainul Ahmad Rajion Dear Colleagues, First of all, on behalf of the CTiG editorial group, I would like to wish all CTiG members a happy new year 2013. Recently, with the overwhelming responses in number of CTiG memberships, it is important for us to strengthen our potential collaboration. For a start, we can have joint research or joint supervision/co-supervision among institutions and universities to fully utilize our resources. All CTiG members are encouraged to get involved with inter- disciplinary research projects by communicating, sharing ideas and collaborating across disciplines. As a new year has already started, why don’t we set one of our intentions to publish an article in the CTiG newsletter? By publishing our works, other researchers can understand more about our research. On a personal level, it is very satisfying to see the results of your hard work going into print and being read by academics and researchers. Not only for the recognition of our efforts and self-satisfaction, it can also consolidate our knowledge and even lead to new discovery. In other words, publishing is an integral part of the discovery of new ideas. Therefore, I hope that we can see more articles from other members in the next newsletter. Board Members of CTiG 2012/2013 Chairman : Dr. Jaafar Abdullah (ANM) Deputy Chairman : Prof. Dr. Ruzairi Abdul Rahim (UTM) Hon. Secretary : Salzali Mohd (ANM) Deputy Hon. Secretary : Engku Mohd Fahmi Engku Chik(ANM) Hon. Treasurer : Dr. Elmy Johana Mohamad (UTHM) Committee Members : •Prof. Ir. Dr. Mohd Sobri Takriff (UKM) •Assoc. Prof Dr. Zainul Ahmad Rajion (USM) •Assoc. Prof. Ir. Dr. Idris Ismail (UTP) •Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sam’an Malik Masudi (USM) •Mohd Hafiz Fazalul Rahiman (UniMAP) •Dr. Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman (UiTM) •Yasmin Abdul Wahab (UMP) •Suzanna Ridzuan Aw (TATIUC) •Mohd Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos (ANM) •Roslan Yahya (ANM) CTiG e-Newsletter is in the process of collecting related articles on Computed Tomography. The academics, professionals and researchers are welcome to contribute to the success of the e- Newsletter since increase growth in the number of CTiG memberships since 2011. Please contact the Chief Editor, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zainul Ahmad Rajion at zar5057@gmail.com for submission. Computed Tomography Interest Group (CTiG) c/o Suite 29T026, Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia IAEA/RCA Regional Training Course on Monte Carlo Simulations for RPT, CT, SPECT and Design of Radiotracer Experiments in Daejeon, Korea In December 2012, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has organized regional training course hosted by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). This course is a part of the IAEA technical cooperation activities for knowledge and technology transfer to the ASEAN developing country on Monte Carlo simulation for RPT, CT, SPECT and design of radiotracer experiments. The course took place at the International Nuclear Training & Education Centre (INTEC), KAERI, from 3 -7 December 2012 and attended by 21 participants from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. Mr. Mohd Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos who is CTiG member from Malaysia was elected and has been invited to participate the course.