• Genre from French, genre French pronunciation: "kind" or "sort", from Latin: genus (stem gener-), Greek: genos, is the term for any category of literature or other forms of art or entertainment, e.g. music, whether written or spoken, audial or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria.
• Genres are formed by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented and the use of old ones are discontinued.
• Often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions.
• History• This concept of genre originated from the classification systems created by Aristotle and Plato.
• Plato divided literature into the three classic genres accepted in Ancient Greece: poetry, drama, and prose.
• Poetry is further subdivided into epic, lyric, and drama. The divisions are recognized as being set by Aristotle and Plato; however, they were not alone.
• Many genre theorists contributed to these universally accepted forms of poetry. Similarly many theorists continued to philosophize about genre and its uses, which caused genre as Plato and Aristotle knew it to evolve and further expand.
Visual arts• The term "genre" is much used in the history and criticism of visual art, but in art history has meanings that overlap rather confusingly.
• Genre painting is a term for paintings where the main subject features human figures to whom no specific identity attaches - in other words, figures are not portraits, characters from a story, or allegorical personifications.
• These are distinguished from staffage: incidental figures in what is primarily a landscape or architectural painting.
• Genre painting may also be used as a wider term covering genre painting proper, and other specialized types of paintings such as still-life, landscapes, marine paintings and animal paintings.
• The concept of the "hierarchy of genres" was a powerful one in artistic theory, especially between the 17th and 19th centuries. It was strongest in France, where it was associated with the Académie française which held a central role in academic art.
The genres in hierarchical order are:• History painting, including narrative religious mythological and allegorical subjects• Portrait painting• Genre painting or scenes of everyday life• Landscape (landscapists were the "common footmen in the Army of Art" according to the Dutch theorist Samuel van Hoogstraten) and cityscape• Animal painting• Still life
Film Genre• In film theory, genre refers to the method based on similarities in the narrative elements from which films are constructed.
• Most theories of film genre are borrowed from literary genre criticism. As with genre in a literary context, there is a great deal of debate over how to define or categorize genres.
• Besides the basic distinction in genre between fiction and documentary (from which hybrid forms emerged founding a new genre, docufiction), film genres can be categorized in several ways.
• Fictional films are usually categorized according to their setting, theme topic, mood, or format. The setting is the milieu or environment where the story and action takes place
• The theme or topic refers to the issues or concepts that the film revolves around. The mood is the emotional tone of the film.
• Format refers to the way the film was shot (e.g., anamorphic widescreen) or the manner of presentation (e.g.: 35 mm, 16 mm or 8 mm). An additional way of categorizing film genres is by the target audience.
• Some film theorists argue that neither format nor target audience are film genres.
• Film genres often branch out into subgenres, as in the case of the courtroom and trial- focused subgenre of drama known as the legal drama.
• They can be combined to form hybrid genres, such as the melding of horror and comedy in the Evil Dead films.
Definition• Martin Loop argues that Hollywood films are not pure genres, because most Hollywood movies blend the love-oriented plot of the romance genre with other genres.
• Staiger classifies Andrew Tutors ideas that the genre of film can be defined in four ways.
• The "idealist method" judges films by predetermined standards. The "empirical method" identifies the genre of a film by comparing it to a list of films already deemed to fall within a certain genre.
• The Apriori method uses common generic elements which are identified in advance. The "social conventions" method of identifying the genre of a film is based on the accepted cultural consensus within society. Jim Colins claims that since the 1980s, Hollywood films have been influenced by the trend towards "ironic hybridization", in which directors combine elements from different genres as with the Western/Science fiction mix in Back to the Future Part III.
• Genre is always a vague term with no fixed boundaries. Many words also cross into multiple genres. Recently, film theorist Robert Stam challenged whether genres really exist, or whether they are merely made up by critics.
• Stam has questioned whether "genres [are] really out there in the world or are they really the construction of analysts?". As well, he has asked whether there is a "... finite taxonomy of genres or are they in principle infinite?" and whether genres are "...timeless essences ephemeral, time-bound entities? Are genres culture- bound or trans-cultural?". Stam has also asked whether genre analysis should aim at being descriptive or prescriptive. While some genres are based on story content (the war film), other are borrowed from literature (comedy, melodrama) or from other media (the musical). Some are performer-based (the Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers films) or budget-based (blockbusters), while others are based on artistic status (the art film), racial identity (Black cinema), location (the Western), or sexual orientation (Queer Cinema)
• Many genres have built-in audiences and corresponding publications that support them, such as magazines and websites. Films that are difficult to categorize into a genre are often less successful as such film genres are also useful in areas of, criticism and consumption Hollywood story consultant originality and surprise." Some screenwriters use genre as a means of determining what kind of plot or content to put into a screenplay. They may study films of specific genres to find examples.
• This is a way that some screenwriters are able to copy elements of successful movies and pass them off in a new screenplay. It is likely that such screenplays fall short in originality. As Truby says, "Writers know enough to write a genre script but they haven’t twisted the story beats of that genre in such a way that it gives an original face to it".
• Screenwriters often attempt to defy the elements found in past works, as originality and surprise are seen as elements that make for good film stories.For example, European- filmed spaghetti westerns changed the western film genre by eschewing many of the conventions of earlier Westerns.
• There are other methods of dividing films into groups besides genre. For example auteur critics group films according to their directors. Some groupings may be casually described as genres although the definition is questionable.For example, while independent films are sometimes discussed as if they are a genre in-and-of themselves, independent productions can belong to any genre. Similarly, art films are referred to as a genre, even though an art film can be in a number of genres.
• Genre can also be distinguished from film style, which concerns the choices made about cinematography, editing, and sound.A particular style can be applied to any genre.
• Whereas film genres identify the manifest content of film, film styles identify the manner by which any given films genre(s) is/are rendered for the screen. Style may be determined by plot structure, scenic design, lighting, cinematography, acting, and other intentional artistic components of the finished film product.
• Others argue that this distinction is too simplistic, since some genres are primarily recognizable by their styles.
• Many film historians and film critics debate whether film noir is a genre or a style of film- making often emulated in the periods heyday.Indeed, film noir films from the 1940s and 1950s were made in a range of genres, such as gangster films, police procedural dramas, and thrillers.
• Categorization• Film genres can be categorized according to the setting of the film.
• Nevertheless, films with the same settings can be very different, due to the use of different themes or moods.
• For example, while both The Battle of Midway and All Quiet on the Western Front are set in a wartime context, the first examines the themes of honor, sacrifice, and valour, and the second is an anti-war film which emphasizes the pain and horror of war.
• While there is an argument that film noir movies could be deemed to be set in an urban setting, in cheap hotels and underworld bars, many classic noirs take place mainly in small towns, suburbia, rural areas, or on the open road.
• The editors of filmsite.org argue that animation, childrens films, and so on are non- genre-based film categories.
• The non-genre based categories they list include childrens films, family films, cult films, documentary films, pornographic films and silent films.
• Linda Williams argues that horror, melodrama, and pornography all fall into the category of "body genres", since they are each designed to elicit physical reactions on the part of viewers.
• Horror is designed to elicit spine-chilling, white-knuckled, eye-bulging terror; melodramas are designed to make viewers cry after seeing the misfortunes of the onscreen characters; and pornography is designed to elicit sexual arousal.
• References• Bawarshi, Anis. "The Ecology of Genre." Ecocomposition: Theoretical and Pedagogical Approaches. Eds. Christian R. Weisser and Sydney I. Dobrin. Albany: SUNY Press, 2001. 69-80.• Bitzer, Lloyd F. "The Rhetorical Situation." Philosophy and Rhetoric 1:1 (1968): 1- 14.• Bleich, David. "The of Language and the Pedagogy of Exchange." Pedagogy 1.1 (2001): 117-141.• Charaudeau, P.; Maingueneau, D. & Adam, J. Dictionnaire danalyse du discours Seuil, 2002.• Coe, Richard. "An Arousing and Fulfillment of Desires: The Rhetoric of Genre in the Process Era - and Beyond." Genre and the New Rhetoric. Ed. Aviva Freedman and Peter Medway. London: Taylor & Francis, 1994. 181-190.• Keith, Barry. Film Genre: From Iconography to Ideology. Wallflower Press: 2007• Stam, Robert. Film Theory: An Introduction. Malde, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2000. 14.