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What Is Linked Data, and What Does it Mean for Libraries? ALAO TEDSIG Spring Meeting
 

What Is Linked Data, and What Does it Mean for Libraries? ALAO TEDSIG Spring Meeting

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  • First, I’d like to start by telling you a little bit about my motivation for presenting about Linked Data and libraries. First, I just think it’s a really interesting idea to think about and in a time where it seems like everyone is debating the future of libraries, I get really fascinated thinking about Linked Data and what it could mean for our library data.
  • I’ll be taking breaks for questions, but definitely feel free to stop me if you have a question as we’re going along.
  • Query languages are “computer languages used to make queries into databases and information systems.” --Wikipedia.
  • Allows you to link your blog content to other semantically-related content.
  • There are a number of different ways in which our data is in a silo, compared to other data on the Web. It exists in our catalogs, which are not always accessible. It exists in MARC format, which is used by no one else.
  • But I think that one of the major ways in which our information is in a silo of its own is because we insist on thinking about bibliographic records instead of bibliographic data.
  • The elements of author, title, etc., only really have meaning in the context of the record.
  • MARC format, our encoding standard, is set up to exchange records, not data.
  • Partnership between the Archives of Michigan, the Internet Archive, Freebase, Digital Scholarship Lab at the University of Richmond, and LookBackMaps.Does anyone know of any other examples, either of data that is out there, or particular projects?
  • Ask for input from audience

What Is Linked Data, and What Does it Mean for Libraries? ALAO TEDSIG Spring Meeting What Is Linked Data, and What Does it Mean for Libraries? ALAO TEDSIG Spring Meeting Presentation Transcript

  • What is Linked Data, and What Does It Mean for Libraries?
    Emily Dust Nimsakont
    ALAO TEDSIG Spring Meeting
    May 27, 2011
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mklingo/245562110/
  • This is an overview…
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/magnusvk/4090803400/
  • What is Linked Data?
    How do we create Linked Data?
    Examples of Linked Data
    What does Linked Data mean for libraries?
    Are there drawbacks to Linked Data?
    What’s next?
    What can I do?
  • What is Linked Data?
  • Wikipedia says…
    “Linked Data describes a method of publishing structured data, so that it can be interlinked and become more useful. It builds upon standard web technologies, such as HTTP and URIs - but rather than using them to serve web pages for human readers, it extends them to share information in a way that can be read automatically by computers.”
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linked_Data
  • The inventor of the Web said…
    “I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers.”
    Tim Berners-Lee, 1999
  • Linked Datavs.Semantic Webvs.Web 3.0
  • web of documentsvs.web of data
  • resource
    links to
    resource
    resource
    links to
    links to
    resource
    links to
    resource
  • data
    links to
    data
    data
    data
    links to
    data
    data
    links to
    data
    data
    data
    links to
    data
    data
    data
  • hypertextvs.hyperdata
  • HTML
    <h1>This is a heading.</h1>
    <p>This is a paragraph.</p>
  • RDF/XML
    <rdf:Descriptionrdf:about="http://www.recshop.fake/cd/Empire Burlesque">  <cd:artist>Bob Dylan</cd:artist>  <cd:country>USA</cd:country>  <cd:company>Columbia</cd:company>  <cd:price>10.90</cd:price>  <cd:year>1985</cd:year></rdf:Description>
    http://www.w3schools.com/rdf/rdf_example.asp
  • Relationships are key
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/brenda-starr/3509344100/
  • People can understand relationships between things.
    But machines should be able to understand these relationships too.
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ksawyer/2075159262/
  • We are used to connecting pieces of information based on their context.
    Title: A Christmas Carol
    Author: Charles Dickens
    Linked Data makes the relationships explicit.
  • Data instead of documents
    Encoded meaning
    Relationships are key
    So what?
  • Linked Data makes the Web into a database.
  • “Linked Open Data turns the Web into an API.”
    Corey A. Harper
    as quoted in
    http://www.slideshare.net/eby/why-libraries-should-embrace-linked-data
  • Linked Data allows you to customize the Web.
  • “Link your data to other people’s data to provide context.”
    Michael Hausenblas
    http://webofdata.wordpress.com/2011/05/22/why-we-link/
  • Questions?
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lwr/12364944/
  • How do we create Linked Data?
  • Linked Data principles
    Tim Berners-Lee, “Linked Data-Design Issues.”http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • URIs
    For Linked Data, we need to be able to identify things uniquely
    Uniform Resource Identifiers do this already
  • URIs
    Using HTTP URIs is one of the principles of Linked Data
    http://www.example.com/thing1
  • URIs
    URIs are like control numbers (LCCN, ISBN, etc.).
  • RDF
    Resource Description Framework
    Describes relationships based on triples (statements):
    subject-predicate-object
    http://www.w3.org/RDF
  • RDF
    predicate
    object
    subject
    has author
    A Christmas Carol
    Charles Dickens
  • RDF statements
    The subject and predicate must be URIs.
    The object can be a URI or a value.
  • RDF graphs
    A Christmas
    Carol
    has author
    has publisher
    Charles Dickens
    Penguin
  • RDF
    <rdf:Descriptionrdf:about="http://www.recshop.fake/cd/Empire Burlesque">  <cd:artist>Bob Dylan</cd:artist>  <cd:country>USA</cd:country>  <cd:company>Columbia</cd:company>  <cd:price>10.90</cd:price>  <cd:year>1985</cd:year></rdf:Description>
    http://www.w3schools.com/rdf/rdf_example.asp
  • Vocabularies
    Specific terms to be used to describe resources
    Sound familiar?
  • Vocabularies
    Dublin Core
    Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)
    RDF Schema (RDFS)
    Friend of a Friend (FOAF)
    Web Ontology Language (OWL)
  • <rdf:RDFxmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:skos="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#">
    <skos:prefLabel> Knitting</skos:prefLabel>
  • SPARQL
    SPARQL is a query language (like SQL) used to search the semantic web
    SPARQL endpoints are provided for Linked Data resources
  • Link to other resources
    Relationship Links
    Identity Links
    Vocabulary Links
  • Questions?
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lwr/12364944/
  • Are there examples of Linked Data/Semantic Web?
  • DBpedia
    http://dbpedia.org
  • Faviki
    http://www.faviki.com
  • Zemanta
    http://www.zemanta.com
  • FreeBase
    http://www.freebase.com
  • Questions?
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lwr/12364944/
  • What could Linked Data mean for Libraries?
  • Part I:What could Linked Data mean for Library Data?
  • Getting rid of silos
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/eirikref/727551264/
  • “Our services must not only be on the Web, but need to be of the Web.”
    • Karen Coyle
    RDA Vocabularies for a Twenty-First-Century Data Environment
    Library Technology Reports
    February 2010
  • World Wide Web
    Library Catalogs
  • More open standards
  • bibliographic recordsvs. bibliographic data
  • Bibliographic Record
    In traditional cataloging, a record is one package.
    Author
    Title
  • Bibliographic Record
    Bibliographic Record
    Bibliographic Record
    Records can be exchanged, but there is no way to exchange the individual pieces of information within a record.
  • With Linked Data, a bibliographic record is made up of many pieces of data.
    Bibliographic Record
    And the relationships between these pieces of data are defined.
    Person
    Is author of
    Title
  • The boundaries of the record can be dissolved…
    Bibliographic Record
    Person
    Is author of
    Title
  • …and the data can interact with other information on the Web.
    Bibliographic Record
    Person
    Is author of
    Title
  • Are there examples of Linked Data in libraries?
  • Library of Congress Authorities and Vocabularies
    http://id.loc.gov/
  • Library of Congress Authorities and Vocabularies
    http://id.loc.gov/
  • RDA Metadata Registry
    http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm
  • Virtual International Authority File
    http://viaf.org
  • Dewey Summaries
    http://dewey.info
  • So there’s a bunch of data out there.Now what?
  • http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/
  • Extensible Catalog
    http://www.extensiblecatalog.org
  • What does Linked Data look like?
    “That is kind of like asking what electricity looks like: it doesn’t so much look like anything, as it makes certain things possible.”
    Karen Coyle
    Visualizing Linked Data
    http://kcoyle.blogspot.com/2011/04/visualizing-linked-data.html
  • What does Linked Data look like?
    http://openlibrary.org
  • Civil War Data 150
    http://www.civilwardata150.net
  • Part II:What Could Linked Data Mean for Librarians?
  • Different workflows
    Catalogers could use URIs for things like authors’ names or subject headings.
    If information changed, the URI could be changed and automatically update the information in our catalogs.
  • Evaluating metadata
    Metadata could come from various sources.
    “Professional cataloging might be more of a job of aggregating and improving harvested or contributed metadata, rather than developing new metadata, like MARC records, for resources.”
    -Virginia Schilling
    “The Catalogers’ Revenge: Unleashing the Semantic Web”
    PNLA Quarterly 74:3, 2010
    http://unllib.unl.edu/LPP/PNLA%20Quarterly/schilling74-3.pdf
  • Federated searching
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/zsrlibrary/4575294736/
  • New homes for librarians’ skills?
    “Someday there will be a Dewey Decimal number for everything – not just for books.”
    http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/206230/the_internet_needs_a_dewey_decimal_system.html
  • Are There Drawbacks to Linked Data?
  • Training and Software Development
    “Nobody but the geekily inclined is going to be willing to invest the time and effort necessary to code semantically tagged web pages from scratch.”
    Virginia Schilling
    “The Catalogers’ Revenge: Unleashing the Semantic Web.”
    PNLA Quarterly 74:3 (Spring 2010).
  • Access to the Data
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/webwizzard/3931165612/
  • Different Standards and Vocabularies
    http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/~jenlrile/metadatamap/
  • Reliability of Data
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/katiew/320161805
  • What’s next?
  • Library Linked Data Incubator Group
    http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/
  • International Linked Open Data in Libraries, Archives, and Museums Summit - June 2-3, 2011
    http://lod-lam.net
  • Linked Data at ALA Annual 2011
  • What can I do?
  • 5 Stars of Open Linked Data
    ★Available on the web (whatever format), but with an open license
    ★★Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. Excel instead of image scan of a table)
    ★★★Availableas (2) plus non-proprietary format (e.g. CSV instead of Excel)
    ★★★★All the above plus, Use open standards from W3C (RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point at your stuff
    ★★★★★All the above, plus: Link your data to other people’s data to provide context
    http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • Laura Smart, California Institute of Technology
    Managing Metadata
    http://library.caltech.edu/laura/
  • Resources
    Jeffrey T. Pollock. Semantic Web for Dummies.
    Toby Segaran, Colin Evans, and Jamie Taylor. Programming the Semantic Web.
    Tom Heath and Christian Bizer. Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space.
    Karen Coyle. “Understanding the Semantic Web: Bibliographic Data and Metadata” and “RDA Vocabularies for a Twenty-First-Century Data Environment.” Library Technology Reports, ALA TechSource.
  • Linked Data is on the horizon.
    And it has the potential to greatly change how libraries work.
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/quinet/52740846/sizes/z/
  • Thank you!
    Emily Dust Nimsakont
    emily.dust.nimsakont@nebraska.gov
    http://www.delicious.com/enimsakont/linkeddata+tedsig
    http://www.slideshare.net/enimsakont