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  • There are a number of different ways in which our data is in a silo, compared to other data on the Web. It exists in our catalogs, which are not always accessible. It exists in MARC format, which is used by no one else.
  • But I think that one of the major ways in which our information is in a silo of its own is because we insist on thinking about bibliographic records instead of bibliographic data.
  • The elements of author, title, etc., only really have meaning in the context of the record.
  • MARC format, our encoding standard, is set up to exchange records, not data.


  • 1. What is Linked Data, and What Does It Mean for Libraries? Emily Dust Nimsakont NLA/NEMA Conference October 15, 2010 Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mklingo/245562110/
  • 2. What is Linked Data, and What Does It Mean for Libraries? Emily Dust Nimsakont NLA/NEMA Conference October 15, 2010 Could Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mklingo/245562110/
  • 3. This is an overview… Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/magnusvk/4090803400/
  • 4. What is Linked Data?
  • 5. Wikipedia says…
    • “ The term Linked Data is used to describe a method of exposing, sharing, and connecting data via dereferenceable URIs on the Web.”
    • http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linked_Data
  • 6. Linked Data vs. Semantic Web vs. Web 3.0
  • 7.
    • “ I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers.”
    • Tim Berners-Lee, 1999
  • 8. hypertext vs. hyperdata
  • 9. web of documents vs. web of data
  • 10. Currently the Web is a system of interconnected documents.
  • 11. People use hyperlinks to navigate from one document to another.
  • 12. resource resource resource resource resource links to links to links to links to
  • 13. documents vs. things
  • 14. HTML
    • <h1>This is a heading.</h1>
    • <p>This is a paragraph.</p>
  • 15. RDF/XML
    • <rdf:Description rdf:about=&quot;http://www.recshop.fake/cd/Empire Burlesque&quot;>   <cd:artist>Bob Dylan</cd:artist>   <cd:country>USA</cd:country>   <cd:company>Columbia</cd:company>   <cd:price>10.90</cd:price>   <cd:year>1985</cd:year> </rdf:Description>
    • http://www.w3schools.com/rdf/rdf_example.asp
  • 16. Relationships are key Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/brenda-starr/3509344100/
  • 17.
    • People can understand relationships between things.
    • But machines should be able to understand these relationships too.
    Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ksawyer/2075159262/
  • 18.
    • We are used to connecting pieces of information based on their context.
    • Title: A Christmas Carol
    • Author: Charles Dickens
    • Linked Data makes the relationships explicit.
    • Charles Dickens is the author of A Christmas Carol .
  • 19. Linked Data makes the Web into a database.
  • 20. Linked Data principles
    • Tim Berners-Lee, “Linked Data-Design Issues.” http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html
  • 21. URIs
    • For Linked Data, we need to be able to identify things uniquely
    • Uniform Resource Identifiers do this already
  • 22. URIs
    • Using HTTP URIs is one of the principles of Linked Data
    • http://www.example.com/thing1
  • 23. URIs
    • URIs are like control numbers (LCCN, ISBN, etc.).
  • 24. RDF
    • Resource Description Framework
    • Written in XML
    • Describes relationships based on triples:
    • subject-predicate-object
    • http://www.w3.org/RDF
  • 25. RDF subject object Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol is author of predicate
  • 26. RDF statements
    • The subject and predicate must be URIs.
    • The object can be a URI or a value.
  • 27. RDF
    • RDF is not encoded in web pages directly.
    • Web browsers can’t read RDF.
    • Software is needed to translate markup into RDF.
  • 28. Ontologies
    • An ontology is a vocabulary of specific terms to be used to describe resources.
    • Sound familiar?
  • 29. What could Linked Data mean for Libraries?
  • 30. Part I: What could Linked Data mean for Library Data?
  • 31. Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/eirikref/727551264/ Getting rid of silos
  • 32.
    • “ Our services must not only be on the Web, but need to be of the Web.”
    • - Karen Coyle
  • 33. Library Catalogs World Wide Web
  • 34. More open standards
    • Our data standards are either not used by those outside libraries (MARC)
    • Or not very semantically rich (Dublin Core)
    • But Linked Data could get us to use standards that are both of these things.
  • 35. bibliographic records vs. bibliographic data
  • 36. In traditional cataloging, a record is one package. Author Title Bibliographic Record
  • 37. Records can be exchanged, but there is no way to exchange the individual pieces of information within a record. Bibliographic Record Bibliographic Record Bibliographic Record
  • 38. Person Is author of Title Bibliographic Record With Linked Data, a bibliographic record is made up of many pieces of data. And the relationships between these pieces of data are defined.
  • 39. Person Is author of Title Bibliographic Record The boundaries of the record can be dissolved…
  • 40. Person Is author of Title Bibliographic Record … and the data can interact with other information on the Web.
  • 41. Are there examples of Linked Data in libraries?
  • 42. Library of Congress Authorities and Vocabularies
    • http:// id.loc.gov /
  • 43. Library of Congress Authorities and Vocabularies
    • http:// id.loc.gov /
  • 44.  
  • 45. RDA Metadata Registry http:// metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm
  • 46. Virtual International Authority File http :// viaf.org
  • 47. Extensible Catalog http:// www.extensiblecatalog.org
  • 48. So there’s a bunch of data out there. Now what?
  • 49. http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/
  • 50. Library Linked Data Incubator Group
    • http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/
  • 51. Part II: What Could Linked Data Mean for Librarians?
  • 52. Different workflows
    • Catalogers could use URIs for things like authors’ names or subject headings.
    • If information changed, the URI could be changed and automatically update the information in our catalogs.
  • 53. Evaluating metadata
    • Metadata could come from various sources.
    • “ Professional cataloging might be more of a job of aggregating and improving harvested or contributed metadata, rather than developing new metadata, like MARC records, for resources.”
    • -Virginia Schilling
    • “ The Catalogers’ Revenge: Unleasing the Semantic Web”
    • PNLA Quarterly 74:3, 2010
  • 54. New homes for librarians’ skills?
    • Example:
    • The Internet Needs a Dewey Decimal System
    • http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/206230/the_internet_needs_a_dewey_decimal_system.html
  • 55. Are There Drawbacks to Linked Data?
  • 56. Training and Software Development
    • “ Nobody but the geekily inclined is going to be willing to invest the time and effort necessary to code semantically tagged web pages from scratch.”
    • Virginia Schilling
    • “ The Catalogers’ Revenge: Unleashing the Semantic Web.”
    • PNLA Quarterly 74:3 (Spring 2010).
  • 57. Bandwidth and Accessibility Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/webwizzard/3931165612/
  • 58. Metadata Standards
    • http:// www.dlib.indiana.edu/~jenlrile/metadatamap /
  • 59. Linked Data is on the horizon. And it has the potential to greatly change how libraries work. Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/quinet/52740846/sizes/z/
  • 60. Questions? Photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/lwr/12364944/
  • 61. Thank you!
    • Emily Dust Nimsakont
    • [email_address]
    • http://www.delicious.com/enimsakont/linkeddata/nla2010
    • http://www.slideshare.net/enimsakont