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  • Reason for cheating In Pakistan is that they maybe more religious and the administration may be more strict. Younger students tend to cheat more often., honest Add UK studies Graph US 4.7% Good grades20% work load, friends help, laziness
  • Always 11.7,sometimes 33.7,often 10.2,never 44.2
  • In this comparative bar diagram there is less difference between the students of 3 colleges about the scenario. SMC touching the 90% line followed by 87.5% of DMC and DIMC in the last with 77.8%. This chart clearly shows that there is more sense of competition among the students of DIMC then any of the two colleges. 32.1%
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    2. 3. Variation of Academic Misconduct among Medical Students along their Course of Undergraduate Studies Research Group G Dow International Medical College November 16 th , 2011
    3. 4. <ul><li>Research Supervisor : </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Kamran Hafeez </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant professor orthopedic surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Dow International Medical College </li></ul><ul><li>Dow University Hospital </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Research Members: </li></ul><ul><li>Farah Naz </li></ul><ul><li>Talha Baig </li></ul><ul><li>Hassaan Khan Nayaab Gul </li></ul><ul><li>Umer Arif Rubab Waheed </li></ul><ul><li>Nida Shamim Asia Nazar </li></ul><ul><li>Kulsoom Javed Hazel Daniel </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah Ajmal Khan Batool Chatha </li></ul><ul><li>Muzna sikander Dania Rahim </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Misconduct: </li></ul><ul><li>It is a legal term which describes an unacceptable, immoral , or improper behaviour, especially by an employee or professional person. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1 &quot;Misconduct.&quot; Def. 1. The Oxford Dictionary of the English Language British ed. 2011. </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Academic Misconduct: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic misconduct is an act in which a student: </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to claim for the work or efforts of another without authorization or citation. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses unauthorized data for cheating. </li></ul><ul><li>2. University of Wisconsin, Madison; “Division of Student Life”; Student Assistance and Judicial affairs, 10.October 2011 , <> </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Academic Misconduct: </li></ul><ul><li>It includes: </li></ul><ul><li>CHEATING </li></ul><ul><li>using unauthorized materials, information, </li></ul><ul><li> or study aids in any academic exercise 3 </li></ul>3. Anderson RE, Obenshain SS. Cheating by students: findings, reflections and remedies. AcadMed1994;69:323–32.
    8. 9. <ul><li>Most of the students admit cheating at least once in their academic life. 4 </li></ul>4. Helms LB, Helms CM. Forty years of litigation involving medical students and their education. 1: General educational issues. Acad Med 1991;66:1–7.
    9. 10. <ul><li>Dishonesty among students may result in lack of medical knowledge and cause harm to patients. 5 </li></ul>5. Sierles F, Hendrickx I, ‘Circle S. Cheating in medical school.’ J Med Education 1980;124–5. Helms LB, Helms CM. Forty years of litigation involving medical students and their education. 1: General issues. Acad Med 1991;66:1–7.
    10. 11. <ul><li>Learning to become a physician requires not only the development of medical knowledge and practical skills, but also high ethical and moral standards including academic integrity. 6 </li></ul>6 Rozance CP. “Cheating in medical schools”: implications for students and patients. JAMA 1991; 266: 2453–6.
    11. 12. Rationale: <ul><li>Due to lack of research on this subject matter it was a good opportunity to conduct the survey. </li></ul><ul><li>To highlight the importance of administrative </li></ul><ul><li>management . </li></ul><ul><li>Results may be helpful as baseline data and useful for comparing their attitudes and behavior to academic misconduct across the years. </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Our purpose of this research was to assess the level of cheating among medical students and their perspective towards different ways of misconduct. </li></ul><ul><li>To compare the level of cheating in different years of medical study. </li></ul>
    13. 14. Methodology
    14. 15. Methodology <ul><li>September 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dow International Medical College. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dow Medical College. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sindh Medical College. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cross-sectional study. </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous self administered questionnaire. </li></ul><ul><li>Students of all five years were included. </li></ul>
    15. 17. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. <ul><li>SPSS Version 17.0. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive study. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample size = 132 (2500 MBBS students of DUHS). Through openepi online software. </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient sampling. </li></ul><ul><li>Chi square test was used to compare significant difference between groups. </li></ul><ul><li>P<0.05. </li></ul>
    16. 18. RESULTS
    17. 19. Institution TOTAL = 274
    18. 20. YEAR OF STUDY
    19. 21. Gender
    20. 22. Have you ever cheated during any exam? Chi 2 test value= 5.54, p= 0.236
    21. 23. Have you ever cheated during any exam? Chi 2 test value= 4.408 P = 0.036
    22. 24. How often do you cheat during exam?
    23. 25. Have you ever copied answers from a friend during an exam? Chi 2 test value= 9.610 P = 0.048
    24. 26. Chi 2 test value= 8.206 P = 0.084 Do you use mobile phone to exchange answers during an exam?
    25. 27. How often do you try to Find out questions in advance?
    26. 28. How often do you try to Find out questions in advance? Chi 2 test value= 25.8, P = 0.011
    27. 29. Have you ever marked answers on the question paper during the OSCE/OSPE?
    28. 30. Do you ask the teacher for help during OSCE/OSPE? yes Chi 2 test value= 19.56, P = 0.01
    29. 31. Do you tell your friends the questions which were asked in first shift of osce/ospe? Chi 2 test value= 2.957, P = 0.51
    30. 32. Have you ever copied assignments/presentations from your seniors/class mates?
    31. 33. Have you ever copied assignments/presentations from your seniors/class mates? Chi 2 test value= 18.31 P = 0.106
    32. 34. Why do you prefer copying assignments/presentations?
    33. 35. DISCUSSION <ul><li>The best predictor of whether someone was likely to cheat in medical school was whether they had cheated before, although the data strongly support the role of environmental factors. </li></ul><ul><li>A medical school reflects the society in which it is located and cannot be expected to operate in isolation from it. </li></ul>
    34. 36. <ul><ul><li>Our study showed there was less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cheating comparable with UK and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Croatia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to emphasize codes of honor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve grades. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work load. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of time/interest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laziness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Our study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More honest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrations may be more strict. </li></ul></ul>1-Sheriff DS, Sheriff SO, Manopriya M. Higher education on a pedestal of academic dishonesty. Eubios J Asian Int Bioethics 2000;10:6-8 accessed on 20 May 2004 2-Harbak M, Vujaklija A, Vodopivec I, Hren D, Marusic M et al. Academic misconduct among medical students in a post-communist country . Med edu. 2004;38:276-285 3-Bjorklund.M,and wenestang CG. Academic cheating:frequency,method,and causes Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 199 9 Cheating
    35. 37. Copying assignments/presentation <ul><li>Lack of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-creative assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Laziness. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-productive. </li></ul><ul><li>Other priorities. </li></ul>
    36. 38. Q. Do you tell your friends the questions which were asked in first/previous shift in the OSPE/OSCE? Important topics Nature of questions Out of good will
    37. 39. Do you try to find out about test questions in advance? <ul><li>Smart study. </li></ul><ul><li>Short cut. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra advantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Laziness. </li></ul><ul><li>Habitual. </li></ul>
    38. 40. Finding out test questions in advance <ul><li>U.K students do not have access to past papers & examination department. </li></ul><ul><li>Having a doctor in the family was a significant predictor for approving the use of private connections to pass an examination and for arranging with administrative personnel to be assigned to a lenient examiner. </li></ul>
    39. 41. Do you ask the teacher for help during OSCE/OSPE? <ul><li>New comers. </li></ul><ul><li>First exam. </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd year clinical exam-first time. </li></ul><ul><li>5 th year- scared of last exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Way more tougher than undergrad level. </li></ul><ul><li>Good relationship with teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Rare cases. </li></ul>
    40. 42. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>More studies are required to find out different factors responsible for the cheating. </li></ul><ul><li>Realistically, dishonest behavior cannot be completely eliminated before improvements are made in other sectors of society, but educational and disciplinary actions could improve medical student integrity and promote responsible and trustworthy doctors as instigators of social change. </li></ul>
    41. 43. CONCLUSION <ul><li>55.1% of students have admitted of using unfair means during exam. </li></ul><ul><li>37.9% of students admitted that they have copied answers from a friend during exam. </li></ul><ul><li>62.5% of students admitted that they have tried to find out about questions in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>22.5% of students ask for help to their teachers during exam. </li></ul>
    42. 44. Thank you