2/3rd of Indian population is engaged in agricultural activities. Food grains are the most important agricultural products made in India India exports agro product s like tea, coffee, spices, etc.
Primitive Subsistence Farming Practiced on small patches of land Primitive tools like hoe, dao and digger sticks are used Family and community labour is used Farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility,, soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to crops grown. Practiced in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Manipur, etc
Intensive Subsistence Farming Practiced in areas of high population pressure on land. Labour intensive farming Biochemical fertilizers and pesticides used Irrigation used for water supply Results in high production Commercial Farming High Yielding variety of seeds used Chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher production. Used in Haryana, Punjab.
Different crops are grown in different Cropping seasons The three cropping seasons are rabi, kharif and zaid Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December. Crops include wheat, barley peas, gram and mustard. Productivity depends on winter monsoon.
Kharif crops Are sown in onset of monsoon and harvested in Sep-Oct Crops include paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur, moong, urad,etc Zaid Crops Grown between kharif and Rabi Crops Crops watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fooder.
Rice Staple food crop of a majority of people in India Second largest producer of rice in the world. It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature and humidity with annual rainfall of above 100 cm. Grown in plains of North and North Eastern India, coastal plains and deltaic regions. Canal irrigation and tube wells made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and West Uttar Pradesh and Parts of Rajasthan.
Wheat Second most important cereal crop. Main food crop in the north an north-western part of the country. Requires cool growing season and bright sunshine during ripening and 50-70 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season. Grown in Ganga-Satluj plains in North West and black soil region in the Deccan. Major wheat producing states are Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of MP
Millets Jowar, bajra and ragi are important millets grown in India. Jowar is third most important food crop with respect to area and production and grown Karnataka, AP and MP. Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil and grown in Rajasthan, UP, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana. Ragi is a crop of dry region and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soil and is grown in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.
Maize Used for both food and fodder. Requires temperature between 21C and 27C. Requires alluvial soil. HYV seeds, fertilizers and irrigation have contribute to increased production Major maize-producing states are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and MP
Pulses India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world Major pulses grown are tur, urad, moong, masur, peas and gram. Being leguminous crops they help restore soil fertility. Grown in MP, UP, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
Sugarcane India is 2nd largest producer after Brazil Requires 27C temperature and annual rainfall between 75cms to 100cms. It is a source of sugar, gur, khandsari and molasses. Grown in UP, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, AP, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.
Oil Seeds India is the largest producer of oil seeds in the world. They include groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum(til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower. Used to make edible oil as well as in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.
Tea Tea is an important beverage crops. Introduced in India by the British. Requires frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensuring continuous growth of tender leaves. Requires abundant and cheap labor. Major tea-producing states are Assam, Darjeeling and Jalpaiuri district, West Bengal, TN and Kerala.
Coffee India produces about 4% of the world’s coffee production. Arabica variety is grown in India that was brought from Yemen. Grown in Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu. India produces about 4% of the world’s coffee production. Arabica variety is grown in India that was brought from Yemen. Grown in Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerela and Tamilnadu.
Horticulture Crops India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. Mangoes are grown in Maharashtra, AP, UP and WB. Oranges are grown in Nagpur and Cheerapunjee. Bananas are grown in Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu Lichi and Guava are grown in UP and Bihar Pineapple are grown in Meghalaya Grapes are grown in AP and Maharashtra Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts are gown in J&K and Himachal Pradesh. India produces about 13% of worlds vegetable pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.
Rubber It is an equatorial crop grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more that 200 cm and temperature above 24 C Rubber in an important industrial raw material. Mainly grown in Kerala , TN, Karnataka, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Garo Hills Meghalaya. India is the 5th largest producer of world’s natural rubber.
Fiber Crops Cotton, Jute, Hemp and natural silk. Silk is obtained from cocoons of silkworms fed in green leaves specially mulberry. Cotton India is 3rd largest producer of Cotton in the world. Used to make cotton textile. Requires black soil, light temperature, light irrigation/rainfall, 210 days of bright sunshine and 6 to 8 months to mature. Grown in Maharashtra, Gujarat, MP, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and UP.
Jute Known as golden fiber. Grows well on well-drained fertile soil of the flood plains where soils is renewed every year. High temperature is required during the time of growth. WB, Orissa, Bihar, Assam and Meghalaya are the major jute producing states. Used to make gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn carpets and other artifacts.
Collectivisation Consolidation of holdings Cooperation and abolition of zamindari Agricultural Reforms:- 1.The Green Revolution 2.The White Revolution
Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and diseases Establishment of Grameen (village) banks, and cooperative societies. Banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
Kisan Credit Card(KCC) Personal Insurance Accident Scheme. Special weather Bulletins and agricultural programmes were introduced on TV and Radio Announcement of minimum support price.
By Raj Quadros, X-A, 25St. Anthony High School, Majorda-Goa
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