PRESENTATION ON SATKHIRA REGIONSUBMITTED BYMD. NOOR ALIMD. SOHEL RANAMD. TOUFICK IMAMK. M. FERDOUS MAHMUDMOHAMMAD RUBAIAT ISLAM
AT A GLANCE REVIEW ON SATKHIRA REGION NATURAL RESOURCE ECOSYSTEM BIODIVERSITY POLLUTION SOCIAL ISSUE CLIMATE CHANGE
FIELD WORK?Implementation of analyzed knowledge in the fieldTo increase the problem solving capacity of the studentsOur environment is very complex in natureEnvironmental problems are also complex and therefore field investigation helps someone to understand them more easily and effectively
WHY SATKHIRA?South-western district of Bangladesh under Khulna DivisionAffected by huge number of natural hazards like the other coastal areaThreatened biodiversity due to over extraction of biological resourcesHighly practiced Coastal aquacultureHigh Salinity problemLevel of arsenic contamination in the aquifer is extremely high
SATKHIRA – AT A GLANCE LOCATION: - Between 22.35°N & 89.08°E BOUNDARY: - Jessore District in the north Bay of Bengal to the south Khulna District in the east Pargana District of West Bengal in the west AREA: - 3858.33 km² POPULATION: - 1,843,194 MALE = 50.54% Female = 49.46%
SATKHIRA – AT A GLANCE MAIN OCCUPATION: - 1% pisiculture 2% 2% 2% Industry Agriculture 36.9% 4% 4% Fishing Agricultural laborers 26.74% 37% 8% Transport commerce 13.32% 13% Wage laborers 27% Service service 4.37% Others wage laborers 3.72% Business Agricultural labour transport 2.46% LITERACY RATE: - Average literacy 30.35% Males = 39.7% Females = 21% MAIN EXPORTS: - Shrimp, Paddy, Jute, Wheat, Betel Leaf, Leather and Jute products.
FIELD OBJECTIVESBehind any work, there must be some aim andobjectives. Major aims and objectives are- Investigate environmental change in ecosystem Identify the potentiality of tourism Study socio-economic condition of Satkhira District Environmental problem, pollution and their mitigation Change in biodiversity due to human activity Study about potential resources Identify potential hazard and disaster
NATURAL RESOURCE These are the abiotic or biotic products and goods provided by nature which has economic, aesthetic or other values. The Renewable and non renewable resources of study area can be categorizes as followings: - Forest Resource Water Resource Land Resource Food Resource Energy Resource Mineral Resource
FOREST RESOURCE One type of Renewable resources Used directly and indirectly Direct use of forest products are - Fruits: - Mango, Jackfruit, Berry, Banana etc. Medicine: - Basak, Kalomegh, Shatomuli etc. Fuel wood: - Many trees and shrubs. Small timber for building huts and houses. Indirect Uses of the forest includes- Building material and furniture for urban sector. Medicinal products collected and processed. Gums and resins processed into a variety of products. Raw material for industrial products and chemicals for example: - paper, pulp, juice, soft drinks, alcohols, particle board, thread etc.
WATER RESOURCEIt is a Renewable resource. Industrial production Agricultural activities. Shrimp, crab and salt cultivation Drinking water in that area is really a valuable resource. Salinity in land for irrigation of saline water. Sea water intrusion problems
LAND RESOURCERenewable if properly maintained. Used as construction materials. Sundarban is the habitat of many species. Mostly used as agricultural land (70%). Used to grow paddy, jute, sugarcane, vegetables etc. Some salt, shrimp and crab culture. highly potential and cultivable lands are losing their fertility due to influence of coastal aqua culture. Land degradation due to deforestation and tide.
FOOD RESOURCE Fruits provided by local trees- Mango, coconut, Jackfruit, Berry, Lichi, Guava, Banana etc. Rice is widely cultivated (20% land) mainly Aman, Aus, Boro etc. Vegetables are grown- cauliflower, Bean, Cabbage, Radish etc. Spices- Pepper, Onion, Ginger, turmeric, cassia etc. Coastal aquaculture (45% land) - Crab, Shrimp, Salt etc. Dairy and poultry products from cow, goats, hen, duck etc. Sundarban provide honey and many processed food items. Food for forest animals and fishes.
MINERAL AND ENERGY RESOURCEThe energy and minerals are limited in the area- Electricity is not available in every house. Most of the people use petroleum (Kerosene, diesel, petrol) products. The fuel woods, leaves are widely used for cooking purpose. Wax from Sundarban areas. The residues from agricultural activity, cow dung are used. The presence and extraction of mineral resource is very limited. The petroleum, coal and peat are absent in geology. Some heavy minerals may be found in sandy deposits, not economical
ECOSYSTEMSBiotic and abiotic compounds of a particular area and theircorrelation. Three components- Producers: - Kadam, Barai, Coconut, Mango, Paddy, Simul, Sundari and Gewa, grasses and Palms(golpata), Phytoplanktons in aquatic body . Consumers : - Primary consumers: - Insects, rodents, rabbit, deer, cow, buffalo, goat; Humans, small crustaceans, mollusks, etc. in the aquatic habitat. Secondary consumers: - These are carnivores and omnivores. Examples of secondary consumers are sparrow, crow, fox, wolves, dogs, cats, snakes, Humans etc. Tertiary consumer: - Tigers, hawk, vulture, sometimes human. Decomposers: -Mainly fungi, bacteria and earthworms.
ECOSYSTEMS (CONTINUED)Different interactions among components create different foodchain and web.
CLASSIFICATION OF ECOSYSTEM Aquatic Ecosystem Brackish Fresh water Marine water Ecosystem Ecosystem Ecosystem Deep andPond and River and Esturian and Manmade shallow Lake Streem sea coasts Ecosystem ocean
ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDThe pyramid of number, biomass and energy show the same trend asfollowing: Tertiary carnivore Secondary carnivores Primary carnivores Herbivores Autotrophs
BIODIVERSITYBiodiversity is the variation of plant and animal species in a particulararea including genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. Can be used in different ways by local people. Productive use: - Breeding, disease resistant strains, drugs etc. Consumptive use: - Timber, Fruit, fodder etc. Aesthetic value: - Sundarban and its beauty. Future options: - Many species can be used in future researches. The diversity differ among different community and Ecosystems. The diversity can be classified as: - Local Biodiversity Mangrove Biodiversity
LOCAL BIODIVERSITYFlora: - Major plant species found in this area are as follows-Local name Scientific name Local name Scientific nameMango Mangifera indica Raintry kory Samanea samanSil Koroi Albizia lucida Kadam Anthrocephalus chinensisBlackberry Syzygium cumini Mahagani Swietenia mahagoniJackfruite Artocarpous heterophyllus Barai Zizyphys manuritianaSimul Bombax ceiba Coconut Cocos nuciferaLitchi Litchi chinensis Paddy Oryza sativaSarisa Brassica campestris Tall Borassus fiabillifer
LOCAL BIODIVERSITY(CONTINUED)• FAUNA: - Among various animal species, these followings are significant- LOCAL NAME Cow Dog Gulls Wild cat Hen Crow Spotted Doves Crabs Goat Monkey Fox Shrimp Deer Pigeon Cat Snail Harriers Jungle Crows Squirrel Snakes Ducks Gray Herons Monkey Butterfly
MANGROVE BIODIVERSITYFloral composition: - Almost all mangrove plant species are evergreen, dwarf, shrubby or tall trees, The prominent species is Sundari (Heritiera fomes) and Gewa (Excoecaria agallocha). All of them are ecologically adopted by various morphologic and geologic features (areal root, viviparous germination) The major type of species includes: -GENERAL NAME SCIENTIFIC NAME GENERAL NAME SCIENTIFIC NAMESundari Heritiera fomes Passur Xylocarpus mekongensisGewa E agallocha Dhundul X. granatumGoran Ceriops decandra Bain Avicennia alba, A. marina, A. officinalesGolpata Nipa fruticans Rhizophores RizophoraceaeKeora Sonneratia apetala Hantal Phoenix pelludosa Ora S. caseolaris
MANGROVE BIODIVERSITY(CONTINUED)Faunal composition: - Sundarban mangrove forest is the single largest home of the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris). The number will be 450 but experts believe that it is more or less 200. According to different sources, there are 375 species of wild animals in the Sundarbans. Of them, 10 are amphibians, 63 are reptiles, 261 are birds, and 41 are mammals and The forest department of Bangladesh are claiming that there are 200 Crocodiles, 80 thousand Deer, 175 Fish species.
MANGROVE BIODIVERSITY(CONTINUED) 20 thousand boars, 40 thousand monkeys, 20 thousand otters, more than 50 thousand birds and snakes. Among 175 species of fish : - 53 of Pelagic 124 of Demersal 24 Shrimps 7 species of Crab 2 of Gastropods, 6 of Molluskes, 8 of lobster 3 species of Turtle.Extinct species during the last two centuries are Javan Rhino, Wild buffalo, Swampdeer and barking deer.
MANGROVE BIODIVERSITY(CONTINUED) Mammals: -Royal bangle tiger, Monkey, Wild boars, spotted deer, Porcupines and Rhesus macaque. Reptiles: - The King cobra, the common cobra, Banded krait, Russells, Python, Chequered Kil-Back, Dhaman , Green Whip Snake. Birds: - Herons, Egrets, Cormorants, Storks, Green Pigeons, Sand Pipers, Large and Small Spoonbills, Darters, Seagulls, Teal, Partridges, great variety of Wild Geese and Ducks. Fishes: - Whale Shark, Tiger Shark, Hammer Headed Shark, Saw fish, Guitar fish Crustaceans: -Fiddler Crab (Uca spp), trilobite (Tachypleus gigus ), Horse Shoe Crab. Insects: -Honey bee (Apis dorssta)
HEALTH AND SANITATION Small percentage of hygienic latrine usage Houses are mainly made of mud Arsenic contamination in ground water is present. In a few areas 60-80% tube wells are contaminated Majority of areas contain 20-30% contaminated
HAZARDS Tropical cyclone Storm Surge Coastal erosion River bank erosion Sea water intrusion Salinity Increase Arsenic contamination
MITIGATIONMITIGATIONgovernment, non-government and international organizationsare working on arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh Household level arsenic removals : Deep tube well Use of pond water Sand filter Rainwater harvesting during the monsoon. Treated surface water surface large-scale arsenic removal plants can be built to remove arsenic from the water supply in municipal areas
CLIMATE CHANGEFig:-Conceptual model of theeffect of climate change onthe hydrologic cycle andphenomena associated withmany climate extremes
CLIMATE CHANGEObserved climate change and its impact during the past century Temperature and rainfall Change in river course Sea-level rise Impact on water resources Change in seasonal variation
Figure : Observed and projected decline in per capita averageannual freshwater availability and growth of population from 1951to 2050.
Pollutionis not intense as the industrial areas such as Dhaka, Narsingdi etc. pollutionthat occurs includes: - Air Pollution Water Pollution Land Pollutionnatural & anthropogenic activities are responsible for the generation of airpollutants. Among the air pollutants these are identified: -Dust and particulate matters from millsAutomobile emission due to fossil fuel burning.Gases produced from burning of wood, plant and biomass.secondary pollutants(The acid rain which produce H2SO4, HNO3, H2CO3 etc. )
Water pollutiondifferent Point source and Non-point sources pollutants are responsible forwater pollution.Water pollution results from-• Disease causing agents such as virus, bacteria, protozoa etc.( For example E. coli, Streptococcus etc. )• High BOD due to discharging organic effluents in water.• Due to acid rain and soil erosion that wash away soil nutrients and accumulate in water bodies• Use of fertilizer, pesticides in agricultural causing death of aquatic organisms.• Different dissolved salts and acidic/alkaline substances• Some toxic heavy metals (As, Hg, Pb, Cr, etc.)
LAND POLLUTIONLand of the area is historically very fertile.Land pollution results from- The practice of solid waste disposal over the land area The practice of over cultivation and application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides degradation of land resources many natural disasters such as cyclone, tsunami, storm surge, thunder storm etc. Loss of fertility due to change in the drainage pattern of the area