Combustion Analysis Webinar

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Engineering webinar material dealing with ideal and complete combustion for six different fuels and oxidant is either air and/or oxygen enriched air having different combustion operation condition -- various oxidant to fuel ratio and inlet temperature values.

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Combustion Analysis Webinar

  1. 1. Engineering Software P.O. Box 2134 Kensington, MD 20891 Phone: (301) 919-9670 E-Mail: info@engineering-4e.com http://www.engineering-4e.com Copyright © 1996
  2. 2. Combustion Analysis Webinar Objectives In this webinar, the engineering students and professionals get familiar with the ideal combustion and its h - T diagram, operation and major performance trends. Six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. Performance Objectives: Introduce basic energy conversion engineering assumptions and equations Know basic elements of combustion and its h - T diagram Be familiar with combustion operation Understand general combustion performance trends
  3. 3. This webinar consists of the following single major section: • Combustion -- six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values In this webinar, first overall engineering assumptions and basic engineering equations are provided. Furthermore, basic combustion engineering equations, section material and conclusions are provided. Combustion Analysis Webinar
  4. 4. The combustion analysis presented in this webinar considers ideal combustion operation -- six different fuels (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, coal, oil and gas) react with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. Furthermore, the following assumptions are valid: Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Single species consideration Ideal gas approach is used (pv=RT) Specific heat is not constant Coefficients describing thermodynamic and transport properties were obtained from the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH -- such coefficients conform with the standard reference temperature of 298.15 K (77 F) and the JANAF Tables Engineering Assumptions
  5. 5. Basic Conservation Equations Continuity Equation m = ρvA [kg/s] Momentum Equation F = (vm + pA) out - in [N] Energy Equation Q - W = ((h + v2/2 + gh)m)out - in [kW] Basic Engineering Equations
  6. 6. Ideal Gas State Equation pv = RT [kJ/kg] Perfect Gas cp = constant [kJ/kg*K] Kappa χ = cp/cv [/] For air: χ = 1.4 [/], R = 0.2867 [kJ/kg*K] and cp = 1.004 [kJ/kg*K] Basic Engineering Equations
  7. 7. Combustion Engineering Equations Combustion is ideal, complete with no heat loss and fuel reacts with air and oxygen enriched air as the oxidant at different stoichiometry values (stoichiometry => 1) and oxidant inlet temperature values. Also, Flame Temperature [K] hreactants = hproducts [kJ/kg] Higher Heating Value (HHV) [Btu/lbm] HHV = hreactants - hproducts [kJ/kg]
  8. 8. Combustion Schematic Layout Fuel Oxidant Combustion Products Combustion
  9. 9. Enthalpy vs Temperature -20,000 -10,000 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 500 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 2,000 2,300 2,600 2,900 3,200 3,500 3,800 4,100 4,400 4,700 5,000 Temperature [K] Enthalpy[kJ/kg] O2 N2 C(S) S(S) H2 CO2 SO2 H2O H2O(L) CH4 Combustion
  10. 10. Enthalpy - Temperature h - T Diagram Enthalpy--h[kJ/kg] Temperature -- T [K] Reactants ProductsHHV TflameTreference Combustion
  11. 11. Combustion Oxidant Composition Fuel Composition C [kg/kg] 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.780 0.860 - H [kg/kg] 0.000 1.000 0.000 0.050 0.140 - S [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 1.000 0.030 0.000 - N [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.040 0.000 - O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.080 0.000 - H2O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.020 0.000 - CH4 [kg/kg] - - - - - 1.000 Fuel Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas N [kmol/kmol] 0.790 O [kmol/kmol] 0.210 N [kg/kg] 0.767 O [kg/kg] 0.233 Oxidant Air
  12. 12. Combustion Stoichiometric Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis CO2 [kg/kg] 0.295 0.000 0.000 0.249 0.202 0.151 H2O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.255 0.000 0.041 0.080 0.124 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.378 0.005 0.000 0.000 N2 [kg/kg] 0.705 0.745 0.622 0.705 0.718 0.725 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.210 0.000 0.000 0.170 0.132 0.095 Fuel Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.210 0.002 0.000 0.000 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.790 0.653 0.790 0.759 0.739 0.715 Combustion Products Flame Temperature, Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio and HHV Flame Temperature [K] 2,460 2,525 1,972 2,484 2,484 2,327 Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 11.444 34.333 4.292 10.487 14.649 17.167 HHV [Btu/lbm] 14,094 60,997 3,982 14,162 20,660 21,563 Fuel Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.347 0.000 0.068 0.129 0.190 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
  13. 13. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas Combustion Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K]
  14. 14. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas Combustion Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K]
  15. 15. Combustion Products Flame Temperature 1,900 2,000 2,100 2,200 2,300 2,400 2,500 2,600 Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas FlameTemperature[K] Flame Temperature Combustion Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K]
  16. 16. Combustion Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas StoichiometricOxidanttoFuelRatio[/] Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio Combustion Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K]
  17. 17. Higher Heating Value (HHV) 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas HHV[Btu/lbm] HHV Combustion Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K]
  18. 18. Combustion Oxidant Composition Fuel Composition C [kg/kg] 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.780 0.860 - H [kg/kg] 0.000 1.000 0.000 0.050 0.140 - S [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 1.000 0.030 0.000 - N [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.040 0.000 - O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.080 0.000 - H2O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.020 0.000 - CH4 [kg/kg] - - - - - 1.000 Fuel Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas N [kmol/kmol] 0.790 O [kmol/kmol] 0.210 N [kg/kg] 0.767 O [kg/kg] 0.233 Oxidant Air
  19. 19. Combustion Stoichiometric Combustion Flame Temperature Hydrogen [K] 2,525 2,583 2,640 2,689 2,757 2,818 2,879 2,942 Sulfur [K] 1,972 2,045 2,118 2,191 2,267 2,343 2,421 2,501 Coal [K] 2,484 2,551 2,618 2,686 2,756 2,827 2,899 2,972 Oil [K] 2,484 2,551 2,616 2,683 2,751 2,820 2,891 2,963 Preheat Temperature [K] 298 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 Combustion Products Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio and HHV Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 11.444 34.333 4.292 10.487 14.649 17.167 HHV [Btu/lbm] 14,094 60,997 3,982 14,162 20,660 21,563 Fuel Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas Gas [K] 2,327 2,391 2,455 2,520 2,586 2,653 2,721 2,791 Carbon [K] 2,460 2,531 2,602 2,674 2,747 2,822 2,898 2,976
  20. 20. Combustion Products Flame Temperature 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 298 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 FlameTemperature[K] Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas Combustion Fuel Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Oxidant Preheat Temperature for Stoichiometric Combustion Conditions
  21. 21. Combustion Oxidant Composition Fuel Composition C [kg/kg] 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.780 0.860 - H [kg/kg] 0.000 1.000 0.000 0.050 0.140 - S [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 1.000 0.030 0.000 - N [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.040 0.000 - O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.080 0.000 - H2O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.020 0.000 - CH4 [kg/kg] - - - - - 1.000 Fuel Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas N [kmol/kmol] 0.790 O [kmol/kmol] 0.210 N [kg/kg] 0.767 O [kg/kg] 0.233 Oxidant Air
  22. 22. Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Oxidant to Fuel Ratio Flame Temperature [K] 2,460 1,506 1,145 952 831 748 Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 11.444 22.889 34.333 45.778 57.222 68.667 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fuel: Carbon CO2 [kg/kg] 0.295 0.153 0.104 0.083 0.063 0.053 H2O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kg/kg] 0.705 0.735 0.745 0.751 0.754 0.756 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.112 0.151 0.171 0.183 0.191 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.210 0.105 0.070 0.053 0.042 0.035 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.790 0.790 0.790 0.790 0.790 0.790 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.105 0.140 0.157 0.168 0.175
  23. 23. Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Flame Temperature [K] 2,525 1,645 1,269 1,059 924 830 Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 34.333 68.667 103.000 137.333 171.667 206.000 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fuel: Hydrogen CO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 H2O [kg/kg] 0.255 0.129 0.087 0.065 0.052 0.043 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kg/kg] 0.745 0.756 0.760 0.761 0.763 0.763 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.115 0.154 0.173 0.185 0.193 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.653 0.715 0.738 0.751 0.758 0.763 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.347 0.190 0.131 0.100 0.081 0.068 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.095 0.131 0.150 0.161 0.169 Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Oxidant to Fuel Ratio
  24. 24. Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Flame Temperature [K] 1,972 1,229 949 799 705 641 Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 4.292 8.583 12.875 17.167 21.458 25.750 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fuel: Sulfur CO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 H2O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.378 0.209 0.144 0.110 0.089 0.075 N2 [kg/kg] 0.622 0.687 0.712 0.725 0.733 0.738 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.104 0.144 0.165 0.178 0.187 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.210 0.105 0.070 0.053 0.042 0.035 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.790 0.790 0.790 0.790 0.790 0.790 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.105 0.140 0.158 0.168 0.175 Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Oxidant to Fuel Ratio
  25. 25. Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Fuel: Coal CO2 [kg/kg] 0.249 0.130 0.088 0.067 0.053 0.045 H2O [kg/kg] 0.041 0.021 0.014 0.011 0.009 0.007 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.005 0.003 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 N2 [kg/kg] 0.705 0.735 0.745 0.750 0.754 0.756 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.111 0.151 0.171 0.183 0.191 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.170 0.087 0.059 0.044 0.035 0.030 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.760 0.774 0.779 0.782 0.783 0.785 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.068 0.035 0.024 0.018 0.014 0.012 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.103 0.138 0.156 0.166 0.174 Flame Temperature [K] 2,484 1,544 1,178 981 856 769 Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 10.487 20.992 31.497 42.002 52.507 63.013 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Oxidant to Fuel Ratio
  26. 26. Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Flame Temperature [K] 2,484 1,555 1,187 989 863 776 Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 14.694 29.298 43.947 58.596 73.244 87.893 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fuel: Oil CO2 [kg/kg] 0.202 0.104 0.070 0.053 0.042 0.035 H2O [kg/kg] 0.080 0.042 0.028 0.021 0.017 0.014 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kg/kg] 0.718 0.742 0.750 0.754 0.757 0.758 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.113 0.152 0.172 0.184 0.192 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.132 0.068 0.046 0.035 0.028 0.023 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.739 0.764 0.772 0.777 0.779 0.781 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.129 0.067 0.045 0.034 0.027 0.023 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.102 0.137 0.155 0.166 0.173 Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Oxidant to Fuel Ratio
  27. 27. Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Flame Temperature [K] 2,327 1,480 1,137 951 832 750 Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 17.167 34.333 51.500 68.667 85.833 103.000 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fuel: Gas CO2 [kg/kg] 0.151 0.078 0.052 0.039 0.032 0.026 H2O [kg/kg] 0.124 0.064 0.043 0.032 0.026 0.022 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kg/kg] 0.725 0.745 0.752 0.756 0.758 0.760 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.113 0.152 0.172 0.184 0.192 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.095 0.050 0.034 0.026 0.021 0.017 Stoichiometry [/] 1 2 3 4 5 6 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.715 0.751 0.763 0.770 0.774 0.776 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.190 0.100 0.068 0.051 0.041 0.034 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.100 0.135 0.153 0.165 0.172 Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Oxidant to Fuel Ratio
  28. 28. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Stoichiometry [/] Fuel: Carbon Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K]
  29. 29. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Stoichiometry [/] Fuel: Carbon Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K]
  30. 30. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Fuel: Hydrogen Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  31. 31. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Fuel: Hydrogen Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  32. 32. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Fuel: Sulfur Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  33. 33. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Fuel: Sulfur Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  34. 34. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Fuel: Coal Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  35. 35. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Fuel: Coal Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  36. 36. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Fuel: Oil Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  37. 37. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Fuel: Oil Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  38. 38. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Fuel: Gas Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  39. 39. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] 1 2 3 4 5 6 Combustion Fuel: Gas Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  40. 40. Combustion Products Flame Temperature 600 1,100 1,600 2,100 2,600 1 2 3 4 5 6 FlameTemperature[K] Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas Combustion Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  41. 41. Combustion Oxidant to Fuel Ratio 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 1 2 3 4 5 6 OxidanttoFuelRatio[/] Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas Combustion Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometry [/]
  42. 42. Combustion Oxidant Composition N [kmol/kmol] 0.790 0.580 0.370 O [kmol/kmol] 0.210 0.420 0.630 N [kg/kg] 0.767 0.550 0.340 O [kg/kg] 0.233 0.450 0.660 Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Fuel Composition C [kg/kg] 1.000 0.000 0.000 0.780 0.860 - H [kg/kg] 0.000 1.000 0.000 0.050 0.140 - S [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 1.000 0.030 0.000 - N [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.040 0.000 - O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.080 0.000 - H2O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.020 0.000 - CH4 [kg/kg] - - - - - 1.000 Fuel Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas
  43. 43. Combustion Stoichiometric Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 11.444 5.889 4.037 Fuel: Carbon CO2 [kg/kg] 0.295 0.532 0.728 H2O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kg/kg] 0.705 0.468 0.272 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.210 0.420 0.630 Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.790 0.580 0.370 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Flame Temperature [K] 2,460 3,985 > 5,000
  44. 44. Combustion Fuel: Hydrogen CO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 H2O [kg/kg] 0.255 0.482 0.686 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kg/kg] 0.745 0.518 0.314 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.653 0.408 0.227 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.347 0.592 0.773 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 Stoichiometric Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 34.333 17.667 12.111 Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Flame Temperature [K] 2,525 3,625 4,294
  45. 45. Combustion Fuel: Sulfur CO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 H2O [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.378 0.623 0.796 N2 [kg/kg] 0.622 0.377 0.204 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.210 0.420 0.630 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.790 0.580 0.370 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 Stoichiometric Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 4.292 2.208 1.514 Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Flame Temperature [K] 1,972 3,167 4,125
  46. 46. Combustion Fuel: Coal CO2 [kg/kg] 0.249 0.448 0.610 H2O [kg/kg] 0.041 0.074 0.100 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.005 0.009 0.013 N2 [kg/kg] 0.705 0.469 0.277 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.170 0.326 0.470 Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.002 0.005 0.007 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.759 0.538 0.335 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.068 0.131 0.189 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 Stoichiometric Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Flame Temperature [K] 2,484 3,889 4,913 Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 10.487 5.388 3.688 Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63
  47. 47. Combustion Fuel: Oil CO2 [kg/kg] 0.202 0.369 0.511 H2O [kg/kg] 0.081 0.148 0.204 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kg/kg] 0.718 0.483 0.284 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.132 0.248 0.351 Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.739 0.510 0.307 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.129 0.242 0.343 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 Stoichiometric Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 14.649 7.538 5.167 Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Flame Temperature [K] 2,484 3,836 4,789
  48. 48. Combustion Fuel: Gas CO2 [kg/kg] 0.151 0.280 0.390 H2O [kg/kg] 0.124 0.229 0.319 SO2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kg/kg] 0.725 0.492 0.291 O2 [kg/kg] 0.000 0.000 0.000 CO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.095 0.174 0.240 Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 SO2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 N2 [kmol/kmol] 0.715 0.479 0.281 H2O [kmol/kmol] 0.190 0.347 0.479 O2 [kmol/kmol] 0.000 0.000 0.000 Stoichiometric Combustion Combustion Products Composition on Weight and Mole Basis Flame Temperature [K] 2,327 3,505 4,300 Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio [/] 17.167 8.833 6.056 Combustion Products Flame Temperature and Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio Oxidant [kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63
  49. 49. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Carbon Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  50. 50. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Carbon Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  51. 51. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Hydrogen Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  52. 52. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Hydrogen Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  53. 53. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Sulfur Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  54. 54. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Sulfur Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  55. 55. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Coal Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  56. 56. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Coal Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  57. 57. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Oil Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  58. 58. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Oil Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  59. 59. Combustion Products -- Weight Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kg/kg] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Gas Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  60. 60. Combustion Products -- Mole Basis 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 CO2 H2O SO2 N2 O2 CombustionProducts[kmol/kmol] O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 Combustion Fuel: Gas Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  61. 61. Combustion Products Flame Temperature 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 FlameTemperature[K] Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas Combustion Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  62. 62. Combustion Stoichiometric Oxidant to Fuel Ratio 0 10 20 30 40 O2 - 0.21 O2 - 0.42 O2 - 0.63 StoichiometricOxidanttoFuelRatio[/] Carbon Hydrogen Sulfur Coal Oil Gas Combustion Fuel and Oxidant Inlet Temperature: 298 [K] Stoichiometric Combustion
  63. 63. Combustion Conclusions Hydrogen as the fuel has the highest flame temperature (when reacting with air at stiochiometric conditions), requires the most mass amount of oxidant in order to have complete combustion per unit mass amount of fuel and has the largest fuel higher heating value. When hydrogen reacts with oxidant, there is no CO2 present in the combustion products. The flame temperature increases as the oxidant preheat temperature increases for a fixed stoichiometry value. The flame temperature decreases as the stoichiometry values increase. For stoichiometric combustion conditions, the amount of oxidant decreases as the oxygen enriched air level in the oxidant increases. Also, the flame temperature for such combustion conditions increases.

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