Instructional models


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  • So, have I got the answer for you.
  • The first thing I want to emphasize is that it is research based and comprehensive. And…it was designed for adolescents.
  • All effective instruction requires careful planning. Teaching with instructional media and technology is certainly no exception. The ASSURE model is a procedural guide for planning and conducting instruction that incorporates media and technology. The ASSURE model focuses on planning surrounding the actual classroom use of media and technology. It is less ambitious than models of instruction development, which are intended to guide the entire process of designing instructional systems. Such models include the procedures of the ASSURE model and the processes of needs analysis, subject matter analysis, product design, prototype tryout, system implementation and the like. The ASSURE model, on the other hand, is meant for the individual instructor to use when planning classroom use of media and technology.
  • If instructional media and technology are to be used effectively, there must be a match between the characteristics of the learner and the content of the methods, media, and materials. Therefore, the first step is analysis of the learners.
    You cannot analyze every trait of your learners, but several factors are critical for making good methods and media decisions.
    General characteristics include broad identifying descriptors such as age, grade level, job or position, and cultural or socioeconomic factors.
    Specific entry competencies refer to knowledge and skills that learners either possess or lack: prerequisite skills, target skills, and attitudes.
    Learning style refers to the spectrum of psychological traits that affect how we perceive and respond to different stimuli, such as anxiety, aptitude, visual or auditory preference, and motivation.
  • What learning outcome is each learner expected to achieve? More precisely, what new capability should learners possess at the completion of instruction?
    An objective is not a statement of what the instructor plans to put into the lesson but of what learners ought to get out of the lesson. An objective is a statement of what will be achieved, not how it will be achieved.
    You must know your objectives in order to make appropriate selection of methods and media. Your objectives will guide your sequence of learning activities and your choice of media. Knowing your objectives will also commit you to create a learning environment in which the objectives can be reached. Objectives also help insure proper evaluation. You won’t know whether your students have achieved an objective unless you are absolutely sure what that objective is. If objectives are clearly and specifically stated, learning and teaching become objective oriented.
    Should be as specific as possible.
    ABCDs of Objectives – Audience, Behavior, Conditions, Degree
    A well-stated objective starts by naming the audience for whom the objective is intended. It then specifies the behavior or capability to be demonstrated and the conditions under which the behavior or capability will be observed. Finally, it specifies the degree to which the new skill must be mastered—the standard by which the capability can be judged.
  • A systematic plan for using media and technology certainly demands that the methods, media, and materials be selected systematically in the first place. The selection process has three steps: 1) deciding on the appropriate method for the given learning tasks, 2) choosing a media format that is suitable for carrying out the method and 3) selecting, modifying, or designing specific materials within that media format.
  • Never use instructional materials without previewing them first. During the selection process you should determine that the materials are appropriate for your audience and objectives.
    Prepare the media and materials to support the instructional activities you plan to use. Gather all the materials and equipment that you and the students will need. Determine in what sequence you will use the materials and media. Some teachers keep a list of the materials and equipment needed for each lesson and an outline of the presentation sequence of the activities. Practice using the materials and equipment.
    Prepare the environment so proper student use of the materials and media is possible. Some media require a darkened room, a convenient power source, and access to light switches. Check that equipment is in working order.
    Prepare learners – inform them of objectives; give broad overview, rationale telling how it relates to topic being studied, motivating statement that creates a need to know, or cues directing attention to specific aspects of the lesson.
    Conduct – Must direct attention in the classroom
  • Active participation enhances learning.
    Effective learning demands active manipulation of information by learners.
    Feedback is important. It can come from oneself (e.g., experiencing the “feel” of swinging a golf club), from print sources (turning to the back of the book to find the correct answer), from a device (computer provides corrective statement), or from others.
    Most powerful is interpersonal feedback because face-to-face reactions are more vivid than printed or graphic.
    The most effective learning situations are those that require learners to practice skills that build toward the objective. Learners should received feedback from the teacher or peers (small groups).
  • Instructional models

    1. 1. RATEGIC INSTRUCTION MODEL (SIM) Presenters: Engr.Muhammad Mujatab Asad
    2. 2. WHAT QUESTIONS WILL BE ANSWERED TODAY? • • • • What is the Strategic Instruction Model? What are learning strategies? How do we make it happen? What are the effective strategies supported and field tested?
    3. 3. STRATEGIC INSTRUCTION MODEL (SIM)  Out of this effort, the Strategic Instruction Model , or SIM, has evolved.  In essence, SIM is about promoting effective teaching and learning of critical content in schools.  SIM strives to help teachers make decisions about what is of greatest importance, what we can teach students to help them to learn, and how to teach them well.  “We advocate trying to teach a little less content, but teaching it better.”
    4. 4. WHAT IS SIM? The Strategic Instruction Model is a research based comprehensive approach to teaching adolescents who struggle to become good readers, writers, and learners.
    5. 5. THE DETAILS Strategic Instruction Model is about Promoting Learning Coverage For All Learners Responds to Current Realities Such as Strategic Instruction Includes Requires informed and explicit Key Components Such as Such as Smarter Planning A Continuum of Action Teaching Routines Is supported by Teaming Requires instruction in and infusion of Learning Strategies
    7. 7. WHAT ARE LEARNING STRATEGIES? • Approaches to teaching students how to think about and solve problems, or……teaching students “how to learn” • Learning strategies are used by students to help them understand information and solve problems. • A learning strategy is a person's approach to learning and using information.
    8. 8. PATHWAYS TO SUCCESS • Partnership • Provide numerous supports for academic success (tutoring, direct instruction, parent education) • Instructional coaches in middle and high schools • Professional Learning Communities
    9. 9. PROFESSIONAL LEARNING COMMUNITIES • Get the right people on board • Target standards • Develop positive cultural norms • Be tightly organized • Employ coaches to lead small groups • Develop powerful tools • Keep learning from each other • Provide follow-up to ensure fidelity
    11. 11. LEARNING STRATEGIES Strategies for reading Strategies for studying & remembering information Strategies for writing Strategies for improving assignment & test performance Strategies for effectively interacting with others Strategies for motivation Strategies for math
    12. 12. STRATEGIES FOR READING  Word Identification Strategy  Self-Questioning Strategy  Visual Imagery Strategy  Inference Strategy  Fundamentals of Paraphrasing and Summarizing  Paraphrasing Strategy
    13. 13. STRATEGIES FOR STUDYING & REMEMBERING INFORMATION  FIRST-Letter Mnemonic Strategy  Paired Associates Strategy  LINCS Vocabulary Strategy
    14. 14. STRATEGIES FOR WRITING  Sentence Writing Strategy (Fundamentals)  Sentence Writing Strategy (Proficiency)  Paragraph Writing Strategy  Theme Writing (Fundamentals)  Error Monitoring Strategy  InSPECT Strategy (for word-processing spellcheckers)
    15. 15. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING ASSIGNMENT & TEST PERFORMANCE  Assignment Completion Strategy  Strategic Tutoring  Test-Taking Strategy  Essay Test-Taking Strategy
    16. 16. STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVELY INTERACTING WITH OTHERS SLANT - A Classroom Participation Strategy Cooperative Thinking Strategies  THINK Strategy (Problem Solving)  LEARN Strategy (Learning Critical Information)  BUILD Strategy (Decision Making)  SCORE Skills: Social Skills for Cooperative Groups  Teamwork Strategy The Community Building Series  Focusing Together  Following Instructions Together  Organizing Together  Taking Notes Together  Talking Together
    17. 17. STRATEGIES FOR MATH  Strategic Math Series:        Addition Facts 0 to 9 Addition Facts 10 to 18 Subtraction Facts 0 to 9 Subtraction Facts 10 to 18 Multiplication Facts 0 to 81 Division Facts 0 to 81 Place Value
    18. 18. ADDIE MODEL A systematic instructional design model
    19. 19. WHAT IS ADDIE? A systematic approach (model) for developing effective instruction. One of the most popular models in instructional design. Outcome of each step feeds into the subsequent step. Evaluation is ongoing throughout each layer of design.
    20. 20. ANALYSIS •During analysis, the designer identifies the learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience’s needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics. •Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project. -- Knowledge base and webliography (n.d.). Retrieved May 5, 2008 from
    21. 21. SOME QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER •Who is the audience? •What are audience characteristics? •Are there learning constraints? •What is desired mode of delivery? •Is there a timeline for completion? •Are there specific pedagogical considerations?
    22. 22. DESIGN •A systematic process of specifying learning objectives.Detailed storyboards and prototypes are often made, and the look and feel, graphic design, user-interface and content is determined here. -- Knowledge base and webliography (n.d.). Retrieved May 5, 2008 from
    23. 23. DESIGN •What are the learning objectives? •What will the delivery look like? •What types on supplemental materials will be included? •What topic(s) will each LO cover? •Will all LOs look the same? •Worksheet from
    24. 24. DEVELOPMENT •The actual creation (production) of the content and learning materials based on the Design phase. -- Knowledge base and webliography (n.d.). Retrieved May 5, 2008 from
    25. 25. IMPLEMENTATION •During implementation, the plan is put into action and a procedure for training the learner and teacher is developed. Materials are delivered or distributed to the student group. After delivery, the effectiveness of the training materials is evaluated. -- Knowledge base and webliography (n.d.). Retrieved May 5, 2008 from
    26. 26. IMPLEMENTATION •Trial run of the materials with feedback from learner. –What works? does not work? –What needs to be added? –Other ways it can be improved. Worksheet from
    27. 27. EVALUATION •This phase consists of •(1) formative and (2) summative evaluation. • Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process •. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users. • Revisions are made as necessary. -- Knowledge base and webliography (n.d.). Retrieved May 5, 2008 from
    28. 28. EVALUATION •Formative evaluation – ongoing. –What changes were made after trial implementation period? (peer review). –Did it impact your writing? –What else would you like to learn? •Summative evaluation –What would you like to know about the LO once students begin using it to improve writing?
    29. 29. THE ASSURE MODEL
    30. 30. THE ASSURE MODEL • Is a procedural guide for planning and delivering instruction that incorporates media, assumes that training or instruction really is required (e.g., students don’t know how to use the new laboratory microscopes, or assembly line workers must learn to handle safely the toxic materials they work with).
    31. 31. THE ASSURE MODEL Analyze learners State objectives Select methods, media, and materials Utilize media and materials Require learner participation Evaluate and revise
    32. 32. ANALYZE LEARNERS Identify learners General characteristics  grade, age, ethnic group, sex, mental, emotional, physical, or social problems, socioeconomic level Specific entry competencies  prior knowledge, skills, and attitudes.  Learning style  verbal, logical, visual, musical, structured
    33. 33. STATE OBJECTIVES  Be specific  State terms of what student will be able to do  Include conditions and degree of acceptable performance  The objectives may be derived from a needs assessment or a course syllabus, stated in a text­ book, taken from a curriculum guide, or developed by the instructor.
    34. 34. Once you know your students, you can begin writing the objectives of your lesson.  Objectives are the learning outcomes, that is, What will the student get out of the lesson? The ABCD's of writing objectives are: Audience (who are your students?) Behavior to be demonstrated Conditions under which the behavior will be observed Degree to which the learned skills are to be mastered.  Example:  Fifth grade social studies students (Audience) will be able to name at least 90% (Degree) of the state capitols (Behavior) when given a list of states (Condition).
    35. 35. CLASSIFICATION OF OBJECTIVES CLASSIFYING objectives is much more than an academic exer­cise for educational psychologists. It has practical value because the selection of instructional methods and media depends on what type of objective is being pursued and so does the choice of evaluation instruments.  Maybe classified as the primary type of learning  There are 3 domains: Cognitve Affective Motor Skills
    36. 36. SELECT METHODS, MEDIA, AND MATERIALS Decide on appropriate method Choose suitable format Select available materials Modify existing materials Design new materials
    37. 37. Obtaining Specific Materials: Select, Modify, or Design? Having decided what media format suits your immediate instruc­tional objective; you face the problem of finding specific mate­rials to convey the lesson. Selecting Available Materials The majority of instructional materials used by teachers and trainers are "off the shelf"—that is, ready-made and available from school, district, or company collections or other easily accessible sources. How do you go about making an appropriate choice from available materials?
    38. 38. UTILIZE MEDIA AND MATERIALS Preview and practice Prepare class and ready equipment Prepare learners Conduct instruction
    39. 39. REQUIRE LEARNER PARTICIPATION Active mental engagement Allow learners to practice Provide feedback
    40. 40. EVALUATE/REVISE  THE final component of our ASSURE model for effective learning  most frequent type of evaluation is the paper-and-pencil test  The most frequent thought of purpose is to measure student achievement.
    41. 41. THREE PURPOSES OF EVALUATION  evaluation of learner achievement,  evaluation of media and methods,  and evaluation of the instructional process.
    42. 42. EVALUATION OF LEARNER ACHIEVEMENT  The method of evaluating achievement depends on the nature of the objective.  Objectives that focuses on cognitive skills for example, distinguishing adjectives from adverbs, describing a company's absence policy lend themselves to conventional written tests or oral examinations.
    43. 43. EVALUATION OF MEDIA AND METHODS  Evaluation also includes assessment of instructional media and methods.  Particularly after first use, instructional materials need to be evaluated to determine if future use, with or without modification, is warranted. The results of your evaluation should be entered on your personal file form.
    44. 44. REVISION  The final step of the instructional cycle is to sit back and look at the results of your evaluation data gathering.  If your evaluation data indicate shortcomings now is the time to go back to the faulty part of the plan and revise it.  The model works, but only if you use it to upgrade the quality of your instruction constantly.