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Alternative Sewage Treatment Option:  The Effect of use of Water Hyacinth  (Eichornia crassipes) in the Treatment of Domes...
<ul><li>Conventional sewage treatment plants have been found to fail in the developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>They a...
The result is polluted canals and water streams
Constructed Wetland and Sewage Treatment <ul><li>Constructed wetlands (CW), are now widely used as an accepted method of t...
Introduction Continued <ul><li>We examined the effect of the growth of water hyacinth as a form of constructed wetland wit...
Innovation to Sewage Treatment: The Water Hyacinth Option <ul><li>A water hyacinth based biological treatment plant was de...
Operation & Hyacinth Growth <ul><li>Domestic sewage, from the University of Lagos sewer system, at a flow rate of 7.87m3/s...
OBSERVATIONS <ul><li>Samples of the sewage influent and effluent were collected at Influent and Effluent Points on a weekl...
Water Hyacinth Growth Profile <ul><li>The growth profile of the water hyacinth on the sewage ponds is plotted against time...
Colour <ul><li>The effluent colour improved from initial level of 195pcu to 0pcu in week 19 and remain so until week 24.  ...
Turbidity <ul><li>The effluent turbidity improved from initial level of 100HTU to 64.2HTU  to 6.7 HTU at week 24.  </li></...
Biochemical Oxygen Demands (BOD)   <ul><li>The effluent BOD improved from initial level of 508 to 83 mg/l.  </li></ul><ul>...
Removal of Nitrate <ul><li>The effluent Nitrate improved from initial level of 9.5 to 2.33 mg/l.  </li></ul><ul><li>The av...
Removal of Phosphate <ul><li>The effluent Phosphate improved from initial level of 20.60 to 2.60 mg/l.  </li></ul><ul><li>...
E-coli <ul><li>The average Influent e-coli level was 2077.2 cfu/100ml. </li></ul><ul><li>The effluent e-coli was reduced f...
Summary of Results 99.66 7.0 2077.2 E-coli (cfu/100ml) 88.05 2.60 21.75 Phosphate (mg/l) 78.64 2.33 10.91 Nitrate (mg/l) 8...
Energy Requirements and Cost Savings Treatment Capacity =  680m3/day 87 N17,136,000.00 N2,268,000.00 Cost/yr (12 mths) 87 ...
Samples along Treatment Process
From Influent to Effluent The Difference is Clear!
THANK YOU
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Alternative sewage treatment option for Developing Countries

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Pollotion is a risk that has, unfortunately, become an issue in most parts of the world; especially the developing world. The slides presented here are the summary of a study carried out to determine the effect of the use of Water hyacinth as Alternative and cheap treatment option for domestic sewage.

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Transcript of "Alternative sewage treatment option for Developing Countries"

  1. 1. Alternative Sewage Treatment Option: The Effect of use of Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) in the Treatment of Domestic Sewage A. E. Adeniran Works & Physical Planning Department University of Lagos, Nigeria [email_address] [email_address]
  2. 2. <ul><li>Conventional sewage treatment plants have been found to fail in the developing countries. </li></ul><ul><li>They are expensive to construct, operate and maintain. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these treatment facilities, where available, have broken down due to lack of maintenance </li></ul>Introduction
  3. 3. The result is polluted canals and water streams
  4. 4. Constructed Wetland and Sewage Treatment <ul><li>Constructed wetlands (CW), are now widely used as an accepted method of treating wastewater and are cheaper than traditional wastewater treatment plants </li></ul><ul><li>CW is appealing to developing nations in the tropics due to the high rate of plant growth (Kivaisi, 2001. Campbell and Ogden, 1999; Gopal, 1999; Kadlec and Knight, 1995; Kadlec, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Water Hyacinth sewage treatment plant as a form of CW in improving the sewage effluent quality parameters is examined here. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction Continued <ul><li>We examined the effect of the growth of water hyacinth as a form of constructed wetland with surface flow on selected sewage quality parameters on weekly basis for a period of 24 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Observation after 24 weeks show: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100% - Colour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>92.95% - Turbidity, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>84% - BOD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>88% - TDS, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>76% - Nitrate, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>87% - Phosphate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>99.65% - e-coli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>It is concluded that the use of water hyacinth plant on domestic sewage pond is a viable and cheaper alternative method of domestic sewage treatment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Innovation to Sewage Treatment: The Water Hyacinth Option <ul><li>A water hyacinth based biological treatment plant was designed and constructed at the Service Area of University of Lagos . </li></ul><ul><li>The plan and section through the treatment plant is as shown below. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Operation & Hyacinth Growth <ul><li>Domestic sewage, from the University of Lagos sewer system, at a flow rate of 7.87m3/s (680m3/day) was introduced into the beds. </li></ul><ul><li>Water hyacinth plants (Eichhornia crassipes) obtained from natural specimens grown in polluted canal at Iwaya, near the University of Lagos, Nigeria were planted on the ponds </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, a total of 15.6m3 of water hyacinth was planted on the pond i.e. an average of 2.6m2 per bed. </li></ul><ul><li>The area covered by the water hyacinth on each bed was measured weekly for 24 weeks from 18th March, 2010 to 31st August, 2010.. </li></ul>
  8. 8. OBSERVATIONS <ul><li>Samples of the sewage influent and effluent were collected at Influent and Effluent Points on a weekly basis </li></ul><ul><li>Observation Period was from 18th March, 2010 to 31st August, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>The samples were analysed in the laboratory to determine the level of concentration of the observed parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Also, the growth patterns of the water hyacinth plants on each bed were monitored and measured. </li></ul>Methods
  9. 9. Water Hyacinth Growth Profile <ul><li>The growth profile of the water hyacinth on the sewage ponds is plotted against time. </li></ul><ul><li>It is observed that the growth profile follows an exponential profile. </li></ul><ul><li>The plant growth slowly in the first few weeks and then grow exponentially until the 11th week when the whole pond was covered with the plant </li></ul><ul><li>It was observed that the growth pattern increased from Bed 1 to Bed 6 just as the quality of the sewage improved </li></ul>
  10. 10. Colour <ul><li>The effluent colour improved from initial level of 195pcu to 0pcu in week 19 and remain so until week 24. </li></ul><ul><li>It was observed that the water hyacinth-based sewage treatment plant was able to reduced the influent level for colour from average of 209 pcu to 0 pcu at effluent point after 19 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>100% removal level was achieved for colour </li></ul>Influent and Effluent Colour % Colour Removal
  11. 11. Turbidity <ul><li>The effluent turbidity improved from initial level of 100HTU to 64.2HTU to 6.7 HTU at week 24. </li></ul><ul><li>It was observed that the water hyacinth-based sewage treatment plant was able to reduce the Influent Turbidity from an average of 93 HTU to a final effluent level of 6.7 HTU </li></ul><ul><li>92.93% removal level for turbidity at the end of the 24 weeks observation </li></ul>Influent and Effluent Turbidity % Turbidity Removal
  12. 12. Biochemical Oxygen Demands (BOD) <ul><li>The effluent BOD improved from initial level of 508 to 83 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>The average Influent BOD level of 513mg/l was reduced to a final effluent level of 83mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>83.84% removal level for BOD was achieved. </li></ul>Influent Vs Effluent BOD % TDS Removal
  13. 13. Removal of Nitrate <ul><li>The effluent Nitrate improved from initial level of 9.5 to 2.33 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>The average Influent Nitrate level of 10.91mg/l was reduced to a final effluent level of 2.33mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>78.64% removal level for Nitrate was achieved </li></ul>Influent and Effluent Nitrate % Nitrate Removal
  14. 14. Removal of Phosphate <ul><li>The effluent Phosphate improved from initial level of 20.60 to 2.60 mg/l. </li></ul><ul><li>The average Influent Phosphate level of 21.75mg/l was reduced to a final effluent level of 2.60mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>88.05% removal level for Phosphate was achieved </li></ul>Influent and Effluent Phosphate % Phosphate Removal
  15. 15. E-coli <ul><li>The average Influent e-coli level was 2077.2 cfu/100ml. </li></ul><ul><li>The effluent e-coli was reduced from about 1980 cfu/100ml to 7.0 cfu/100ml after 24 weeks of operation </li></ul><ul><li>The average percent removal of coliforms was 99.66% was achieved. </li></ul>Influent vs Effluent E-coli % E-coli Removal
  16. 16. Summary of Results 99.66 7.0 2077.2 E-coli (cfu/100ml) 88.05 2.60 21.75 Phosphate (mg/l) 78.64 2.33 10.91 Nitrate (mg/l) 83.84 83 513 BOD 5 (mg/l) 88.00 74 616 TDS (mg/l) 92.96 6.7 95 Turbidity (HTU) 100.00 0 209 Colour (pcu) % Removal Final Effluent Level Average Influent Level Parameter
  17. 17. Energy Requirements and Cost Savings Treatment Capacity = 680m3/day 87 N17,136,000.00 N2,268,000.00 Cost/yr (12 mths) 87 N1,428,000.00 N189,000.00 Cost/mth (30days) 87 N47,600.00 N6,300.00 Cost/day (20 hrs) 87 N2,380.00 N315.00 Cost/hr 87 340 KWh 45 KWh Energy Requirement % Saving Conventional Sewage Treatment Water Hyacinth System Items
  18. 18. Samples along Treatment Process
  19. 19. From Influent to Effluent The Difference is Clear!
  20. 20. THANK YOU

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