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Development Of Ro Membrane & Its Characterization
 

Development Of Ro Membrane & Its Characterization

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    Development Of Ro Membrane & Its Characterization Development Of Ro Membrane & Its Characterization Presentation Transcript

    • Development of RO Membrane & Its Characterization
      9/21/2010
      1
      Project Presentation On:
    • Tables Of Content
      History
      What is Reverse Osmosis?
      Membrane & Its types
      Reverse Osmosis Membranes & its comparison
      Membrane Materials
      Membrane Modules
      Membrane Fouling
      Work Plan of our Project
      Testing
      Desalination
      Benefits
      Future Aspects
      9/21/2010
      2
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • History
      • The first studies on osmosis were carried out as early as 1748 by the French scientist Nollet.
      • The early 1960's, Loeb and Sourirajan developed a method for making asymmetric Cellulose acetate membranes
      • In 1970, the development of new-generation membranes such as the thin-film, composite Membrane that can tolerate wide pH ranges, higher temperatures and harsh chemical environments.
      • An estimate indicated that sales of RO membrane products had grown to $280 million yearly in 2006
      9/21/2010
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      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • What is REVERSE OSMOSIS?
      • Osmosis is a natural phenomenon in which a solvent (usually water) passes through a semi permeable barrier from the side with lower solute concentration to the higher solute concentration side. As shown in Figure(a).
      • A reverse osmosis membrane acts as the semi permeable barrier to flow in the RO process, allowing selective passage of a particular species (solvent, usually water) while partially & completely retaining other species (solutes). As shown in Figure(b).
      9/21/2010
      4
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Membrane & Its types
      Water treatment processes employ several types of membranes. They include
      • MF membranes have the largest pore size and typically reject large particles and various microorganisms.
      • UF membranes have smaller pores than MF membranes and, therefore, in addition to large particles and microorganisms, they can reject bacteria and soluble macromolecules such as proteins.
      • RO membranes are effectively non-porous and, therefore, exclude particles and even many low molar mass species such as salt ions, organics, etc.
      • NF membranes are relatively new and are sometimes called “loose” RO membranes
      9/21/2010
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      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Reverse Osmosis Membrane
      • Cellulose Acetate Membrane
      • Thin Film Composite Membrane
      9/21/2010
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      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • CA Membrane
      • These initial RO membrane was made by the Loeb-Sourirajan
      • These CA membranes were asymmetric and exhibited NaCl rejection values of approximately 99.5%
      • The degree of acetylation describes the how many pendent OH groups are replaced acetyl groups, CH3COO.
      • It ranges from 0 to 3
      • they have excellent mechanical properties & resistant to chlorine.
      • CA membranes can tolerate up to 5 ppm
      9/21/2010
      7
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Thin Film Composite Membrane
      • The first TFC RO membrane was developed by John Cadotte at North Star Research in 1972, based on aromatic polyamides.
      • interfacial polymerization are use to create a polyamide coating.
      • Most TFC membranes are made with a porous, highly permeable support.
      • Nowadays, This technique can also be used to produce Commercial RO membranes
      9/21/2010
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      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Comparison of Reverse Osmosis Membranes
      9/21/2010
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
      9
    • Membrane Materials
      9/21/2010
      10
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • RO Membranes
      There are typically
      cellulose acetate
      Polysulfone coated with aromatic polyamides
      9/21/2010
      11
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • MF & UF Materials
      Poly (vinylidene fluoride)
      Polysulfone
      Poly (acrylonitrile)
      Poly (acrylonitrile)-poly(vinyl chloride) copolymers
      Poly (ether sulfone) is also commonly used for UF membranes
      poly (tetrafluoroethylene).
      9/21/2010
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      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Membranes Modules
      9/21/2010
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      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Modules of membrane
      There are four main types of modules:
      • plate-and-frame
      • Tubular
      • spiral wound
      • hollow fiber
      9/21/2010
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      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Membrane fouling
      9/21/2010
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      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Causes of Fauling
      Bio-fouling
      (it results from microbial contamination of feed water)
      Scaling
      (It arises from the deposition of salts)
      Organic
      (It comes from substances i.e. C-H which coat the surface)
      Colloidal
      (It mainly stems from particles)
      9/21/2010
      16
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Work Plan of Project
      9/21/2010
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
      17
    • Strategy of Work Plan
      MARKET SURVEY TO FIND THE AVAILBILITY OF MATERIALS
      STUDY AND ANALYZE ABOUT RO PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
      CONSULT THE RELEVANT AUTHORITIES / ORGANIZATION
      DEVELOPMENT OF RO MEMBRANE SAMPLES
      TESTING OF MEMBRANE SAMPLES
      9/21/2010
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
      18
    • Testing of Membranes
      9/21/2010
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
      19
    • Major Tests of Membranes
      Non-Destructive Tests:
      Bubble test- test physical integrity of the membrane envelope
      Membrane performance - flux, pressure and percent reject
      Analysis of cleaning solution
      Destructive Tests:
      Internal visual exam
      Coupon testing of membrane surface
      Metals analyses
      Digestion
      Organic Analyses:
      FTIR Spectroscopy
      UV Spectroscopy
      9/21/2010
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
      20
    • Desalination
      9/21/2010
      21
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Desalination Techniques
      Multi-effect distillation (MED)
      Multi-stage flash (MSF)
      Reverse osmosis (RO)
      Electro dialysis (ED)
      Capacitive deionization (CDI)
      Mechanical vapor compression (MVC)
      9/21/2010
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      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
    • Benefits & Applications of Membrane
      9/21/2010
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
      23
    • CA membranes will reduce the cost of RO treatment processes
      RO processes are used in the production of food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, and chemical products.
      a new alternative to many areas where drinking water is in short supply.
      RO technologies can make use of use an almost unlimited and reliable water source, the sea.
      RO has a negligible environmental impact
      RO technologies can be used to remove organic and inorganic contaminants.
      Most economical process for salinity reduction associated with secondary effluent (or other wastewater source) TDS levels.
      9/21/2010
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
      24
    • Future Aspects
      9/21/2010
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
      25
    • Development of membranes that is less prone to fouling, operate at lower pressures, and require less pretreatment of the feed water.
      Membranes able to remove hydrocarbons and salt could turn produced water.
      Reduced fouling would make membranes even more cost effective by extending their operational lifetime.
      focused on surface modification of membranes and increasing the pretreatment of the feed water.
      Development of more energy-efficient technologies that are simpler to operate than the existing technology
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      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
      26
    • “End of Presentation”DESIGNED BY:
      Adeel Fayyaz (12 – PE – 01)
      Rehan Hasan (12 –PE – 33)
      Zohaib Siddiqui(12 – PE – 44)
      9/21/2010
      Plastic Technology Center, Karachi
      27