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Student Research Session 4
 

Student Research Session 4

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  • cumulative: growing in amount, strength, or effect by small steps
  • The eleventh score in the ordered set is the median score (87), because ten scores are on either side of it. If there were an even number of scores, say 20, the median would fall halfway between the tenth and eleventh scores in the ordered set (adding the two scores- the tenth and eleventh scores- together and dividing by two).
  • It's kind of like taking a vacation where only the departure and the destination are important and the trip itself is ignored

Student Research Session 4 Student Research Session 4 Presentation Transcript

  • SESSION 4 AN INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • REVIEW
    • Explain the following words to the audience
    • Use either Vietnamese or English
    • DON’T translate and DON’T spell the word
    • The audience should RAISE THEIR HAND to answer
  • Research – basic concepts
    • Research
    • Research question(s)
    • Hypothesis
    • Data
    • Primary vs. Secondary
    • Qualitative vs. Quantitative
    • Research design
    • Research method
    • Research instrument
    • Literature review
    • Population
    • Sample
    • Sampling strategy
    • Data analysis
    • Research proposal vs. research report/research paper
  • REVIEW OF SESSION 1
    • What is research?
      • systematic investigation into reality to gain knowledge
    • What are the elements of research?
      • (1) a question, problem, or hypothesis,
      • (2) data, and
      • (3) analysis and interpretation of data
    • What are the characteristics of a good RQ?
      • Worth Asking
      • Answerable
  • REVIEW OF SESSION 2
    • What is a literature review?
      • An account of what has been published on a topic by researchers, scholars and practitioners
      • A systematic method for identifying, evaluating and interpreting the work produced by researchers, scholars and practitioners
  • REVIEW OF SESSION 2
    • Why review the literature?
      • Without it you will not acquire an understanding of your topic, of what has already been done on it, how it has been researched , and what the key issues are .
  • REVIEW OF SESSION 3
    • Research design?
    • Research method?
    • Research instrument?
    • Sampling?
    • Population?
    • Participants?
  • Research design vs. Research methods
    • Research design: a detailed plan outlining how a research project will be conducted
    • Research methods: procedures used to collect and analyze data
    1. SAMPLING 2. DATA COLLECTION 3. DATA ANALYSIS Research Design Research methods Sampling strategies
  • Quantitative vs. qualitative research
    • a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are utilized to obtain information about the world
    • any kind of research that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification
  • Method/Design vs. Instrument
    • Method or Instrument?
      • Survey
      • Questionnaire
      • Interview
      • Observation
      • Test
      • Observation scheme
  • Contents Consultancy on students’ study Writing up the research Processing interview data Processing questionnaire data Data analysis
    • What does it mean by doing data analysis?
  • Basic research process
    • 8. Evaluate results and draw conclusions
    1. Identify problem areas 2. Survey literature 3. Formulate research questions 4. Construct research design 5. Specify sources of data 6. Specify data collection & data analysis procedures 7. Execute research plan 
  • Basic elements of a research report
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • 1.1. Statement of the problem and rationale for the study
      • 1.2. Aims and objectives
      • 1.3. Significance of the study
      • 1.4. Scope of the study
      • 1.5. Organisation
    • Chapter 2. Literature review
    • Chapter 3. Methodology
      • 3.1. Selection of subjects
      • 3.2. Research instruments
      • 3.3. Procedures of data collection
      • 3.4. Procedures of data analysis
    • Chapter 4. Results and discussion
    • Chapter 5. Conclusion
      • 5.1. Summary of findings
      • 5.2. Limitations
      • 5.3. Suggestions for further research
  • What does it mean by doing data analysis?
      • To present the findings of your research to the reader in an orderly manner, using headings planned in your methodology or headings arising from patterns found in the research, and
      • To make the results meaningful to the reader
      • To compare your findings with what the literature says and with what you may have predicted.
      • To highlight anything unexpected which came up
      • To indicate where further research is needed
  • Contents Consultation on students’ study Writing up the research Processing interview data Processing questionnaire data Data analysis
  • Contents Types of responses & quantification Descriptive univariate statistics Distribution Measures of central tendency Dispersion- Measures of variablity 
  • Types of responses & quantification
    • Responses from closed questions can readily be quantified and analyzed
    • Free-form responses from open questions are much more difficult to quantify
    • Quantifying qualitative data: Key word analysis, generating categories from the statements made by respondents
  • Contents Types of responses & quantification Descriptive univariate statistics Distribution Measures of central tendency Dispersion- Measures of variablity  
  • Variable
    • A variable reflects or expresses some concept or construct.
    • A variable takes on different values.
    • We contrast variables with constants, which take on fixed values.
  • Descriptive statistics
    • to describe or indicate several characteristics common to the entire sample.
    • Descriptive univariate statistics summarizes data on a single variable
  • Contents Types of responses & quantification Descriptive univariate statistics Distribution Measures of central tendency Dispersion- Measures of variablity   
  • Frequency distribution
    • How many subjects were similar when measured on the variable
      • Simple or ungrouped: no apparent grouping found in the presentation of data
      • Grouped: data are grouped by ranges
      • Cumulative: the cumulative effects of data are shown as percentages
  • Simple distribution (bar chart)
  • Grouped distribution (bar chart)
  • Cumulative distribution (pie chart)
  • Contents Types of responses & quantification Descriptive univariate statistics Distribution Measures of central tendency Dispersion- Measures of variablity    
  • Measures of central tendency
    • Mean : the arithmetic average, usually designated by an X with a bar over it or the capital letter M
    • Median : the midpoint in a distribution of scores- the point at which the same number of scores lay on one side of that point as the other
    • Mode : the most frequently occurring score in the distribution
  • Measures of central tendency
    • Which is the median? Which is the mode? Calculate the mean.
    • 100, 100, 99, 98, 92, 91, 91, 90, 88, 87, 87, 85, 85, 85, 80, 79, 76, 72, 67, 66, 45
    • It is not always possible to calculate the mean and the median
  • Dispersion (variability)
    • Dispersion refers to the spread of the values around the central tendency.
    • Two common measures of dispersion: the range and the standard deviation.
  • Contents Types of responses & quantification Descriptive univariate statistics Distribution Measures of central tendency Dispersion- Measures of variablity     
    • There is a joke that goes, "If a statistician had her hair on fire and her feet in a block of ice, she would say that 'on the average' she felt good." Of course, this is a silly example, but to what is this unfortunate statistician referring? What is she ignoring?
  • Range
    • the distance between the highest and lowest data points in a set
    • The range provides important information about the data set, but it really only takes into account two data points.
  • Standard Deviation
    • The measure of dispersion (variability) that is the sum of the deviations from the mean squared .
    • Standard deviation and mean are often reported together in research tables because the standard deviation is an indication of how adequate the mean is a summary statistic for a set of data
  •  
  • Test scores
    • Điểm trung bình mà sinh viên đạt được là: 7,7114
    • Điểm có số lượng sinh viên đạt được lớn nhất là điểm 8.
    • Điểm số dao động từ 0 đến 10.
    • Độ lệch chuẩn là 0,623486
  • Contents Consultancy on students’ study Writing up the research Processing interview data Processing questionnaire data Data analysis
  • Analyzing and using interview data
    • Integrating the interview data into the topics and themes of your paper
    • Citing the interviewee and using quotes
    • Finding emerging themes (grounded theory)
  • Work out the common themes that emerge
    • What makes students want to learn?
      • “ The school is good. The teachers are nice”
      • “ If I’m taught well and enjoy the lesson”
      • “ If teachers are fun and humorous”
      • “ I’m able to sit next to my friends”
      • “ I feel secure with the teachers”
      • “ If the teacher isn’t too strict”
      • “ If the subject is interesting”
      • “ I have a cooperative class”
      • “ You don’t have to work in complete silence”
      • “ I have humorous teachers who don’t lose control”
      • “ Knowing your friends are there”
      • “ Sitting where you want”
      • “ If I’m allowed to talk with my friends”
      • “ Having conversations with teachers”
      • “ If I have a lot of fun work to do in the class”
  • Work out the common themes that emerge
    • What puts students off learning?
      • “ If the teacher is not nice”
      • “ When teachers can’t control the lesson”
      • “ A strict teacher who shouts when you get the answer wrong”
      • “ If I’m treated like babies”
      • “ The teacher talking for the whole lesson”
      • “ If I can’t sit with my friends”
      • “ When the teacher is grumpy”
      • “ Boring lessons, boring subject”
      • “ Teachers continuously talking”
      • “ If I have to sit next to people I don’t like”
      • “ When teachers don’t help everybody equally”
      • “ If I’m under strict control”
      • “ When I don’t like the teachers”
      • “ If I have a bad class atmosphere”
      • “ Working in complete silence”
  • Contents Consultation on students’ study Writing up the research Processing interview data Processing questionnaire data Data analysis
  • Structure and elements
    • I. Preliminary pages
      • 1. Cover page
      • 2. Title page
      • 3. Acceptance page
      • 4. Acknowledgements
      • 5. Abstract
      • 6. Table of contents
      • 7. List of tables, figures, and abbreviations, etc.
    • II. Main text
    • III. Supplementary pages
      • 1. References
      • 2. Appendices (optional)
      • 3. Glossary (optional)
      • 4. Index (optional)
  • Main text
    • Chapter 1. Introduction
      • 1.1. Statement of the problem and rationale for the study
      • 1.2. Aims and objectives
      • 1.3. Significance of the study
      • 1.4. Scope of the study
      • 1.5. Organisation
    • Chapter 2. Literature review
    • Chapter 3. Methodology
      • 3.1. Selection of subjects
      • 3.2. Research instruments
      • 3.3. Procedures of data collection
      • 3.4. Procedures of data analysis
    • Chapter 4. Results and discussion
    • Chapter 5. Conclusion
      • 5.1. Summary of findings
      • 5.2. Limitations
      • 5.3. Suggestions for further research
  • General style and format
    • (Handout)
  • English academic writing style
    • Complexity
    • Formality
    • Objectivity
    • Explicitness
    • Hedging
    • Responsibility
    • Verb tense
  • Complexity
    • Written language is relatively more complex than spoken language
    • Ways to improve your writing:
    • The following features are common in academic written texts:
      • Subordinate clauses/embedding
      • Sequences of prepositional phrases
      • Participles
      • Passive verbs
      • Lexical density and complexity
      • Nominalisation
      • Noun-based phrases
      • Modification of noun-phrases
  • Formality AVOID Colloquial words & expressions Abbreviated forms 2-word verbs Bullet points Asking questions
  • Objectivity
    • The main emphasis should be on the information and the arguments , rather than you
    •  Avoid using personal pronouns
  • Objectivity
    • Useful phrases:
      • Clearly this was far less true of France than ...
      • This is where the disagreements and controversies begin ...
      • The data indicates that ...
      • This is not a view shared by everyone; Jones, for example, claims that ...
      • . . .very few people would claim ...
      • It is worthwhile at this stage to consider ...
      • Of course, more concrete evidence is needed before ...
      • Several possibilities emerge ...
      • A common solution is ...
  • Explicitness
    • Signposting of the organisation of the ideas in the text
    • Acknowledgment of the sources of the ideas in the text
  • Hedging - useful language e.g. It may be possible to obtain . e.g. It is important to develop . e.g. It is useful to study . To-clause + adjective 8. e.g. It could be the case that . e.g. It might be suggested that . e.g. There is every hope that . That clauses 7. e.g. assumption, possibility, probability Modal nouns 6. e.g. certain, definite, clear, probable, possible Modal adjectives 5. e.g. certainly, definitely, clearly, probably, possibly, perhaps, conceivably, Modal adverbs 4. e.g. often, sometimes, usually Adverbs of frequency 4. e.g. will, must, would, may, might, could Certain modal verbs: 3. e.g. believe, assume, suggest Certain lexical verbs 2. e.g. seem, tend, look like, appear to be, think, believe, doubt, be sure, indicate, suggest Introductory verbs: 1.
  • Responsibility
    • Demonstrate an understanding of the source text
    • Provide evidence and justification for, any claims you make
    • Ways to do:
      • Paraphrasing and Summarizing
      • Citation
  • Verb Tenses
    • Avoid shifting in tense and ensure subject-verb agreement.
    • The tense should be consistent within each paragraph.
    • Past tense or present perfect tense is appropriate for the literature review and the description of the procedures if the discussion is of past events.
    • Past tense is used to present the findings of a study.
    • Present tense is appropriate to discuss the results and to present research conclusions and interpretations.
    • Future tense, except in proposals, is rarely used.
  • Contents Consultancy on students’ study Writing up the research Processing interview data Processing questionnaire data Data analysis
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