cumulative: growing in amount, strength, or effect by small steps
The eleventh score in the ordered set is the median score (87), because ten scores are on either side of it. If there were an even number of scores, say 20, the median would fall halfway between the tenth and eleventh scores in the ordered set (adding the two scores- the tenth and eleventh scores- together and dividing by two).
It's kind of like taking a vacation where only the departure and the destination are important and the trip itself is ignored
Transcript
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SESSION 4 AN INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Without it you will not acquire an understanding of your topic, of what has already been done on it, how it has been researched , and what the key issues are .
1. Identify problem areas 2. Survey literature 3. Formulate research questions 4. Construct research design 5. Specify sources of data 6. Specify data collection & data analysis procedures 7. Execute research plan
To present the findings of your research to the reader in an orderly manner, using headings planned in your methodology or headings arising from patterns found in the research, and
To make the results meaningful to the reader
To compare your findings with what the literature says and with what you may have predicted.
To highlight anything unexpected which came up
To indicate where further research is needed
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Contents Consultation on students’ study Writing up the research Processing interview data Processing questionnaire data Data analysis
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Contents Types of responses & quantification Descriptive univariate statistics Distribution Measures of central tendency Dispersion- Measures of variablity
Responses from closed questions can readily be quantified and analyzed
Free-form responses from open questions are much more difficult to quantify
Quantifying qualitative data: Key word analysis, generating categories from the statements made by respondents
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Contents Types of responses & quantification Descriptive univariate statistics Distribution Measures of central tendency Dispersion- Measures of variablity
to describe or indicate several characteristics common to the entire sample.
Descriptive univariate statistics summarizes data on a single variable
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Contents Types of responses & quantification Descriptive univariate statistics Distribution Measures of central tendency Dispersion- Measures of variablity
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Contents Types of responses & quantification Descriptive univariate statistics Distribution Measures of central tendency Dispersion- Measures of variablity
Dispersion refers to the spread of the values around the central tendency.
Two common measures of dispersion: the range and the standard deviation.
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Contents Types of responses & quantification Descriptive univariate statistics Distribution Measures of central tendency Dispersion- Measures of variablity
There is a joke that goes, "If a statistician had her hair on fire and her feet in a block of ice, she would say that 'on the average' she felt good." Of course, this is a silly example, but to what is this unfortunate statistician referring? What is she ignoring?
The measure of dispersion (variability) that is the sum of the deviations from the mean squared .
Standard deviation and mean are often reported together in research tables because the standard deviation is an indication of how adequate the mean is a summary statistic for a set of data
Signposting of the organisation of the ideas in the text
Acknowledgment of the sources of the ideas in the text
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Hedging - useful language e.g. It may be possible to obtain . e.g. It is important to develop . e.g. It is useful to study . To-clause + adjective 8. e.g. It could be the case that . e.g. It might be suggested that . e.g. There is every hope that . That clauses 7. e.g. assumption, possibility, probability Modal nouns 6. e.g. certain, definite, clear, probable, possible Modal adjectives 5. e.g. certainly, definitely, clearly, probably, possibly, perhaps, conceivably, Modal adverbs 4. e.g. often, sometimes, usually Adverbs of frequency 4. e.g. will, must, would, may, might, could Certain modal verbs: 3. e.g. believe, assume, suggest Certain lexical verbs 2. e.g. seem, tend, look like, appear to be, think, believe, doubt, be sure, indicate, suggest Introductory verbs: 1.
Avoid shifting in tense and ensure subject-verb agreement.
The tense should be consistent within each paragraph.
Past tense or present perfect tense is appropriate for the literature review and the description of the procedures if the discussion is of past events.
Past tense is used to present the findings of a study.
Present tense is appropriate to discuss the results and to present research conclusions and interpretations.
Future tense, except in proposals, is rarely used.
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Contents Consultancy on students’ study Writing up the research Processing interview data Processing questionnaire data Data analysis
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