1. Identify problem areas 2. Survey literature 3. Formulate research questions 4. Construct research design 5. Specify sources of data 6. Specify data collection & data analysis procedures 7. Execute research plan
There is a joke that goes, "If a statistician had her hair on fire and her feet in a block of ice, she would say that 'on the average' she felt good." Of course, this is a silly example, but to what is this unfortunate statistician referring? What is she ignoring?
Signposting of the organisation of the ideas in the text
Acknowledgment of the sources of the ideas in the text
Hedging - useful language e.g. It may be possible to obtain . e.g. It is important to develop . e.g. It is useful to study . To-clause + adjective 8. e.g. It could be the case that . e.g. It might be suggested that . e.g. There is every hope that . That clauses 7. e.g. assumption, possibility, probability Modal nouns 6. e.g. certain, definite, clear, probable, possible Modal adjectives 5. e.g. certainly, definitely, clearly, probably, possibly, perhaps, conceivably, Modal adverbs 4. e.g. often, sometimes, usually Adverbs of frequency 4. e.g. will, must, would, may, might, could Certain modal verbs: 3. e.g. believe, assume, suggest Certain lexical verbs 2. e.g. seem, tend, look like, appear to be, think, believe, doubt, be sure, indicate, suggest Introductory verbs: 1.