Session 2 Literature Review
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  • This is to remind Ss of problematic research questions. It can be done by analyzing the research questions provided in Handout B- Lesson Plan 1 by Tống Thị Mỹ Liên (if the activity has not been covered in the previous lesson), or those prepared by the teacher herself, or the ones the teacher has seen during her facilitation of Ss group discussion. Give comments on the following research questions, basing on the two criteria: worth asking and answerable How much do law students know about critical thinking? How do law lecturers rate the necessity degree of having critical thinking instruction in the tertiary curriculum or in their syllabi? Is the participation level of second-year students at CFL, VNU in group work satisfactory? What recommendations can be made for the employment of humor in the foreign language classroom? Should process approach be applied to teaching writing for second-year students at CFL, VNU?
  • Each step contains a hyperlink. Go to the sites to get some useful information. Positioning the literature review: Understand and clarify the relationships between your research and the discipline/s. Place and justify your research within the discipline/s. Understand the existing literature and how it relates /supports/contradicts your topic.
  • Ask Ss if they realize how the items in the list are arranged. Tell them that they are arranged in the descending order of assumed relative credibility. Notes: “ the internet” can cover all these types of publication; when it is listed at the end, it refers to other kinds of publications in the internet apart from the above listed. Papers of the same type are not equally creditable. It’s important to study the prestige/ status of the journals, authors & publishers
  • URL = Uniform Resource Locator

Session 2 Literature Review Session 2 Literature Review Presentation Transcript

  • Literature Review & Research Problems Session 2
  • Contents
    • Revision
    • Role of related literature
    • Steps of the literature review process
    • Sources and search strategies
    • Citation and plagiarism
    • Information analysis, synthesis and evaluation
    • Structure of the LR
  • Nature of research
    • What is research?
    • systematic investigation into reality to gain knowledge
  • Three elements of research
    • (1) a question, problem, or hypothesis,
    • (2) data, and
    • (3) analysis and interpretation of data.
    • (Nunan, D. 1992, p. 232)
  • Formulate research questions
    • Characteristics of a GOOD Research Question
    • Worth Asking
    • Answerable
  • What type of research question is problematic? How to have a successful presentation? Should we apply credit system in HULIS? Is the participation level of second-year students at CFL, VNU in group work satisfactory? What recommendations can be made for the exploitation of humor by teachers in the foreign language classroom?
  • Contents
    • Revision
    • Role of related literature
    • Steps of the literature review process
    • Sources and search strategies
    • Citation and plagiarism
    • Information analysis, synthesis and evaluation
    • Structure of the LR
  • What is a literature review?
    • An account of what has been published on a topic by researchers, scholars and practitioners
    • A systematic method for identifying, evaluating and interpreting the work produced by researchers, scholars and practitioners
  • Why review the literature?
    • Without it you will not acquire:
    • an understanding of your topic, of what has already been done on it
    • how it has been researched ,
    • what the key issues are.
  • Contents of Literature Review
  • Major reasons for doing literature review For planning Primary research As an end in itself
  • Literature review for planning primary research
    • An overall framework for where this piece of work fits in the “big picture” of what is known about a topic from previous research
  • Literature review in the research process
    • 8. Evaluate results and draw conclusions
    1. Identify problem areas 2. Survey literature 3. Formulate research questions 3’. Survey literature 4. Construct research design 5. Specify sources of data 6. Specify data collection & data analysis procedures 7. Execute research plan
  • Literature review in relation to other steps Redefine the scope of research as well as research questions Literature review Provide conceptual frameworks for data collection & data analysis
  • To do good research DON’T NEED TO KNOW EVERYTHING HAVE TO KNOW THE UNKNOWN
  • Identify what is unknown- Common rationale for research
    • Lack of consistency
    • A flaw in previous research
    • Research may have been conducted on a different population than the one in which you are interested.
    • Identify an ongoing edu. or psy. problem and propose studying the effect of an innovative intervention
    • Uncertainty about the interpretation of previous studies’ findings.
  • Major reasons for doing literature review For planning Primary research As an end in itself
  • Show what is known
    • To inform practice or to provide a comprehensive understanding about what is known about a topic
  • Literature review as an end
    • to provide a comprehensive understanding of what is known about a topic
  • Contents
    • Revision
    • Role of related literature
    • Steps of the literature review process
    • Sources and search strategies
    • Citation and plagiarism
    • Information analysis, synthesis and evaluation
    • Structure of the LR
  • Steps of the Literature Review process
    • Selecting the topic
    • Getting the information
    • Looking at information sources
    • Setting the topic in context
    • Positioning the literature review
    • Using information sources
    • Writing the literature review
    • Organizing information (information management)
  • A simple model
    • Selecting the topic
    • Setting the topic in context
    • Looking at information sources
    • Using information sources
    • Getting the information
    • Organizing information (information management)
    • Positioning the literature review
    • Writing the literature review
  • Contents
    • Revision
    • Role of related literature
    • Steps of the literature review process
    • Sources and search strategies
    • Citation and plagiarism
    • Information analysis, synthesis and evaluation
    • Structure of the LR
    • List as many document types as possible
    • 5 mins
  • Words
    • DISSERTATION: a long piece of writing on a particular subject, especially one written for a university degree
    • PROCEEDINGS: the official written report of a meeting, etc.
      • E.g. His paper is published in the new issue of the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
    • MONOGRAPH: a detailed written study of a single subject, usually in the form of a short book ( chuyên khảo)
  • Types of publications
      • Journal articles
      • Books
      • Conference proceedings; Government reports
      • Theses/ dissertation
      • Newspapers/ magazines
      • The Internet
  • Define what you want to know
    • “ I’m looking for literature and data that focus on the f actors influencing students’ participation in in-class group work ”
    • Use this to choose search words and phrases
  • Define search words and phrases
    • group work
    • in-class group work
    • students’ participation in group work
    • students’ participation in in-class group work
    • speculated factors: motivation, culture etc.
  • Look at information sources
    • Classification of information sources
    • General sources : daily newspapers, news weeklies, magazines etc.
    • Secondary sources : books, reviews of research etc.
    • Primary sources : journals, abstracts, scholarly books etc.
  • Where?
    • Library
    • Internet
  • http://scholar.google.com.vn/
  • http://book.google.com/
  • http://www.eric.ed.gov/
  • http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/
  • Contents
    • Revision
    • Role of related literature
    • Steps of the literature review process
    • Sources and search strategies
    • Citation and plagiarism
    • Information analysis, synthesis and evaluation
    • Structure of the LR
  • In-text Citation Rules (APA style)
    • Use the Past Tense or Present Perfect when using signal phrases to describe earlier research.
    • E.g. Jones (1998) found …
    • Jones (1998) has found ...
  • In-text Citation Rules
    • Follow the author-date method:
      • in the text:
      • E.g. (Jones, 1998)
      • at the end of the paper: a complete reference should appear in the reference list
  • In-text Citation Rules
    • Use a direct quotation:
      • Include the Author, Year, and Page Number as part of the citation.
      • A quotation < 40 words: quotation marks and incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence.
      • E.g. Patients receiving prayers had “less congestive heart failure, required less diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, had fewer cardiac arrests, and were less frequently incubated and ventilated” (Byrd, 1988, p.829).
  • In-text Citation Rules
    • A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation marks) apart from the surrounding text, in “block” format.
    • Use (…) to indicate where you have omitted the author’s irrelevant words.
    • E.g. Referring to communicative competence, Savignon (1997) says:
          • communicative competence is the expression, interpretation, and negotiation of meaning; and communicative competence is always context specific, requiring the simultaneous, integrated use of grammatical competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic competence, and strategic competence”(p.225)
  • Plagiarism
    • Plagiarism:
      • uses someone’s words, ideas or information without referencing them, i.e. presenting them as your own.
      • is a very serious academic offence and leads to severe penalties.
  • Plagiarism
    • To avoid plagiarism, make sure you:
      • Use quotation marks for the extracts you copy directly from a source and acknowledge the source .
      • Use proper paraphrasing and acknowledge the source .
      • Keep careful notes of your source when you read. Keep the bibliographical information that you will need to write a full reference for the source.
  • Common mistakes
    • Lack some of the required information
    • Some sources are cited in text but are not listed in the references
  • Reference List Rules
    • Appear at the end of the paper.
    • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
    • Chronological by same author
  • Journal Article Reference
    • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Vol (no), pages.
    • Wheelan, S. A. (2003). An Initial exploration of the internal dynamics of leadership teams. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research, 55 , 179-188.
  • Book Reference
    • Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book (Edition). Location: Publisher.
    • Taylor, S. E. (2003).   Health psychology (5th ed.).   Boston: McGraw-Hill.
  • Electronic source
    • Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from source.
    • American Psychological Association. (2003). Electronic references . Retrieved March 21, 2005, from http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html.
  • Common mistakes
    • The list is not arranged alphabetically
    • No hanging
    • Write the authors’ full name
  •  
  • Practice
      • Work in group of 4
      • Write references for the following documents in APA style
  •  
  • Contents
    • Revision
    • Role of related literature
    • Steps of the literature review process
    • Sources and search strategies
    • Citation and plagiarism
    • Information analysis, synthesis and evaluation
    • Structure of the LR
  • Critical reading of materials on the Internet
    • AUTHORSHIP/ PUBLISHING BODY
    • AUTHOR’S PURPOSES AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
    • CONTENT
    • STRUCTURE
    • FORMAT AND STYLE
  • (1) AUTHORSHIP & PUBLISHING BODY
    • PUBLISHING BODY
    • Is it a personal page
    • What type of domain is it?
    • Who published the page?
    • How well-known is the site?
    • What are the purpose of the site?
    • AUTHORSHIP
    • Who is the author? Is he or she qualified/ competent enough to write on the topic?
    • Can the author be contacted?
    • Is there a relation between the topic and the author?
    • SEVERAL TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
    • TO ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS
    • What is the domain?
      • http://en.wikipedia. org :80/wiki/Special:Search?search=train&go=go
      • http://www.silcom. com /~noster/
    • What does it tell?
      • The host of the site
      • The geographical source
    LOOK AT THE DOMAIN
  • Domain Hosts of the site Examples .edu an education institution www.harvard.edu/ .gov a government agency www.nasa.gov/ .net a network related organization www.microsoft.com/net/ .com a commercial organization www.cnn.com/ .org a nonprofit and/or research organization http://www.w3.org/
  • MORE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain_name BACK Domain Geographical source Examples .ca Canada www.cbc. ca .uk United Kingdom www.bbc.co. uk / .au Australia www.uq.edu. au / .jp Japan www.japantimes.co. jp / .fr France www.lemonde. fr /
  • TRUNCATE BACK THE URL
    • http://www.crvp.org/book/Series03/III-16/chapter_xvii.htm
    (1) http://www.crvp.org/book/Series03/III-16/ (2) http://www.crvp.org/book/Series03/ (3) http://www.crvp.org/book/ (4) http://www.crvp.org/
  • http://www.crvp.org/book/Series03/III-16/chapter_xvii.htm
  • http://www.crvp.org/ BACK
  • (2) AUTHOR’S PURPOSES & INTENDED AUDIENCE
    • 2.1 INTENDED AUDIENCE
    • What type of audience is the author addressing?
    • Is the publication aimed at a specialized or a general audience?
    • Is this source too elementary, too technical, too advanced, or just right for your needs?
    • Etc.
    • 2.2 AUTHOR’S PURPOSES
    • The purpose of the site
    • The author and the relation between the author and the information
    • Striking facts and figures of the text
    • Tone of the writer
    BACK
  • (3) CONTENT
    • (3.1) Accuracy
    • (3.2) Objectivity
    • (3.3) Currency
    • (3.4) Comprehensibility & User-friendliness
    • (3.5) Authenticity
  • 3.1 ACCURACY
    • Checking the information against other resources
    • Studying the literature
    CONTENT GRAMMAR, SPELLING, PUNCTUATION BACK
  • 3.2 OBJECTIVITY
    • Bias is “a tendency to support or oppose a particular person or thing in an unfair way by allowing personal opinions to influence your judgment ”
    • (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 2003).
  • OBJECTIVITY
    • Examine the source
    • Examine the language
    • Detect the unchallenged assumptions
    • Examine the balance of ideas
    • Compare with other sources
    BACK
  • 3.3 AUTHENTICITY
    •  CHECK AGAINTS OTHER SOURCES
  • 4. STRUCTURE
    • Chronological order
    • Order of importance
    • Sequence/ Process order
    • Topic order/ Categories
    • Compare and contrast
    • Problem solving/ Problem - Solution
    • Cause and effect
    • Report style
    • (Background – Analysis – Recommendations)
    • Induction - Deduction
  • 5. FORMAT & STYLE
    • STYLE
    • In what style has the material been written?
    • How does the style influence your reaction to the material? Do you think the style is appropriate for the information?
    • Do you think that the style is consistently applied throughout the information?
  • Critical reading of materials on the Internet
    • AUTHORSHIP/ PUBLISHING BODY
    • AUTHOR’S PURPOSES AND INTENDED AUDIENCE
    • CONTENT
    • STRUCTURE
    • FORMAT AND STYLE
  • Information processing
    • Identify issues involved
    • Look for definitions, recurring themes, debates (conflicting ideas)
    • Make a content analysis of each definition/theme/debate
  • Contents
    • Revision
    • Role of related literature
    • Steps of the literature review process
    • Sources and search strategies
    • Citation and plagiarism
    • Information analysis, synthesis and evaluation
    • Structure of the LR
  • Structure of the LR
    • What do you need to do?
    • Where do the key points for the literature review come from?
    • How to structure the LR?
    • What are the characteristics of a good LR?
  • What do you need to do? Grouping texts according to the similarities of their ideas or arguments Grouping studies that focus on similar phenomena or share similar methodologies
  • What do you need to do? commenting on the main ideas that feature in each group of texts or studies comparing and contrasting the different studies, methodologies … and identifying for the reader those which have the greatest bearing on your own research indicating which articles, methodologies … will form the basis of your investigations
  • Where do the key points for the literature review come from?
  • How to structure the LR?
    • Chronological
      • By publication
      • By trend
    • Thematic
    • Methodological
  • What are the characteristics of a good LR?
    • It lays out what research has been done by others relevant to your research aim/objectives
    • It presents the work of others in a clear , interesting and progressive manner (to build up a coherent/logical picture)
    • It provides evidence of in-depth critical evaluation (i.e. to show that YOU can give an opinion and support it with argument/evidence).
  • What are the characteristics of a good LR?
    • It highlights emerging issues
    • It cites a variety of relevant sources properly (to show that you are well read and scholarly in your approach).
  • A note on language
    • Active vs. Passive
    • Peters (1992) discovered that . . . (active)
    • It was discovered by Peters (1992) that . . . (passive)
    •  Depend on your purpose
  • A note on language Biggam (2008)
  • References
    • Mertens, D. M. (2005). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.
    • Phạm Minh Tâm (2007). Slides for theme 2: Literature review & research problems . VNU, HULIS
    • Vũ Hải Hà (2007). Slides for session 2: Finding materials for literature review . Research workshops for students of the English Department.
    • Doan Thi Thu Trang (2008). Slides for theme 2: Literature review & research problems . VNU, HULIS
    • Murray, N. & Hughes, G. (2008) Writing up your university assignments and research projects . England: Open University Press
    • Biggam, J. (2008) Succeeding with your Master’s Dissertation . England: Open University Press
    • Phung Ha Thanh (2008). Slides for theme 2: Literature review & research problems . VNU, HULIS