Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1
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Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1

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Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1 Htrm2009 Student Workshop Session1 Presentation Transcript

  • Session 1: Introduction to Research An Introduction to Research Methodology in Foreign Language Education
  • Session 1: Objectives
    • Students are expected to
    • understand the importance of research in our modern world as well as in foreign language education,
    • understand the nature of research,
    • understand different types of research,
    • have an overview of the research process,
    • get familiar with key concepts of research in each step of the research process (e.g. literature review, research problem, research question, research design, data collection, instrument, data analysis, results, findings, implications), and
    • develop some interest for research.
    • identify a research area of interest and speculate possible research problems within the area,
    • draft some research questions based on the speculated research problems
    • analyze and evaluate sample research questions.
  • Contents The Nature of Research? 1 Basic Steps in Doing Research 2  Formulation of Research Questions? 3
    • A good way of understanding the nature of research is to first experience it by doing it, initially in a simple and elementary way.
    • Brown & Rodgers (2002, p.3)
  • Question
    • Which is more dangerous: a gun or a swimming pool?
  • Situation
    • Consider the parents of an eight-year-old girl named, say, Molly.
    • Her two best friends, Amy and Imani, each live nearby.
    • Amy’s parents keep a gun in their house, so they have forbidden Molly to play there.
    • Instead, Molly spends a lot of time at Imani’s house, which has a swimming pool in the backyard.
  • Situation
    • But according to the data, their choice isn’t smart at all.
    • The likelihood of death by pool (1 in 11,000) versus death by gun (1 in 1 million-plus) isn’t even close: Molly is roughly 100 times more likely to die in a swimming accident at Imani’s house than in gunplay at Amy’s.
  • Pigs vs. Sharks
    • The live pigs, not infected pork that people eat, kill substantially more people than sharks do.
  • What is research?
    • systematic investigation into reality to gain knowledge
  • How do U know what U know?
    • Problem: Which reaches C first?
    research is distinguished from speculation
  • Is this research?
    • Research is grounded in data, not imagination .
    • Data: pieces of reality
  •  
  • Is this research?
  • What is research?
    • systematic investigation into reality to gain knowledge
  • How do U know what U know?
    • Problem: Which reaches C first?
    Research implies a problem of complexity
  • Is this research?
      • At a university, students collect data from here and there and then reorganizing them in their paper.
      • information gathering:
      • should be systematic and produce some new knowledge to be considered research
    Research implies a problem of complexity that requires conscious efforts with clarified methodology
  • How do you know what you know?
    • Don’t show your knowledge. Show how you get the knowledge.
    ? the way to knowledge is not easy secondary primary (empirical)
  • 1. What is research?
    • A systematic process of inquiry consisting of
    • three elements or components:
    • (1) a problem,
    • (2) data, and
    • (3) analysis and interpretation of data.
    • (Nunan, D. 1992, p. 232)
  • Human needs (Maslow) 1. Physiological (homeostatic) needs 2. Safety & security needs 3. Love & belonging needs 4. Esteem needs 5. Needs for self-actualization 6. Need to know and understand 7. Aesthetic needs
  • Research- a Social Field
    • Products of research are socially meaningful.
    • From research - practice to research = practice
      • research as a field of production
      • valuable for all other fields (R&D: research and development)
    • Research as a means of socialisation
  •  
  • The Importance of Social Research
    • Knowledge = vehicle of social transformation
    • Knowledge of the social world = major vehicle of social transformation
  • Contents The Nature of Research? 1 Basic Steps in Doing Research 2  Formulation of Research Questions? 3 
  • Basic research process
    • 8. Evaluate results and draw conclusions
    1. Identify problem areas 2. Survey literature 3. Formulate research questions 4. Construct research design 5. Specify sources of data 6. Specify data collection & data analysis procedures 7. Execute research plan
  • Step 1: Identify problem areas
    • Determine the general topic for investigation
    General Topic Experience Reading Interest
  • Step 1: Identify problem areas
    • Narrow the general topic
    • Identify problem areas
    • Problem areas are more specific than general topic
    • Problem areas are:
    • + what have been little known or unknown
    • + what you are interested in finding out
  • Identify problem areas
    • Assessment
    • Writing assessment
    • Portfolio assessment
    • Portfolio assessment in the second year at English Department, HULIS, VNU
  • Research problem
    • Topic/ Problem: The exploitation of portfolio as an assessment tool in writing classes for second year students at English Department, HULIS, VNU
  • Step 2: Survey literature General Topic Experience Interest Reading Research problem Surveying related literature
  • Step 2: Survey the literature
    • Read the existing literature related to the research problem
    • What is a literature review?
    • An account of what has been published on a topic by scholars and researchers
    • Not just a set of summaries or a descriptive list of material
  • Review the literature means ….
    • Finding out what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic
    • Finding out relationships between different works
    • Finding out how it relates to your work
    • Evaluating what their strengths and weaknesses are
  • Step 3: Formulate research questions
    • Research questions operationalize the objectives of the research
    • (Hedrick et. al., 1993 in Mertens, 2005)
    • Characteristics of a GOOD Research Question
    • Worth Asking
    • Answerable
  • What type of research question is problematic?
    • It starts with “How can I…”
    • It suggests a “yes” or “no” answer.
    • Should..?
    • It is rhetorical.
    • It includes vague or ambiguous language.
    • NCSALL Practitioner Research Group
    • on Learner Motivation, Retention, and Persistence, 1998.
  • Formulate research questions
    • Topic/ Problem: The exploitation of portfolio as an assessment tool in writing classes for second year students at English Department, HULIS, VNU
  • Formulate research questions
    • How is portfolio assessment exploited at English Department, HULIS, VNU in terms of portfolio components and scoring procedure?
    • How is portfolio assessment perceived by the teachers and students in terms of course relevance and students’ involvement?
    • What kinds of information can portfolio and portfolio assessment provide teachers and students?
    • What are the obstacles in implementing this form of assessment as perceived by the teachers and students?
  • Step 4: Construct Research design
    • Clarify what approach you take as the general orientation for the whole research or a general plan of methods and procedures to answer the research questions
  • Step 5: Specify sources of data
    • Choose the participants in order to collect data from
    • Eg:
    • Topic: The exploitation of portfolio as an assessment tool in writing classes for second year students at English Department, HULIS, VNU
    •  Choose several classes of second-year EFL students at English Department, CFL, VNU as the participants
  • Step 6: Specify data collection and data analysis procedures
    • Select appropriate instruments (questionnaires, interviews, etc.) for data collection
    • Specify data collection procedures:
    • Steps to collect data from the participants by using the instruments
    • Eg: 1 st step: pilot the questionnaires
    • 2 nd step: revise the questionnaires
    • 3 rd step: deliver the questionnaires to the participants
    • etc.
  • Step 6: Specify data collection and data analysis procedures
    • Specify data analysis procedures
    • Steps/ Methods used to analyze data collected
    • Eg: Questionnaire data: group the data under categories which serve to answer the research questions
    • Factors facilitating students’ participation in in-class group work
    • Factors inhibiting students’ participation in in-class group work
  • Step 7: Execute the research plan
    • Use the instruments to collect data from the participants, following the data collection procedures set before
  • Step 8: Analyze and evaluate results, and draw conclusions
    • Follow the data analysis procedures to analyze results (data collected)
    • Evaluate the results
    • Highlight findings (typical or significant things among the results) that serve to answer the research questions
    • Draw conclusions of the research
    • Draw implications (if any)
  • Contents The Nature of Research? 1 Basic Steps in Doing Research 2  Formulation of Research Questions? 3  
  • Work in groups of 4
    • Think of a research problem of your interest.
    • Formulate research questions based on the problem.
    • Think of possible sources of data and data collection methods.
  • Session 1: Objectives
    • Students are expected to
    • understand the importance of research in our modern world as well as in foreign language education,
    • understand the nature of research,
    • understand different types of research,
    • have an overview of the research process,
    • get familiar with key concepts of research in each step of the research process (e.g. literature review, research problem, research question, research design, data collection, instrument, data analysis, results, findings, implications), and
    • develop some interest for research.
    • identify a research area of interest and speculate possible research problems within the area,
    • draft some research questions based on the speculated research problems
    • analyze and evaluate sample research questions.
  • References
    • Tống Thị Mỹ Liên (2008). Slides for theme 1: Introduction to research . VNU, HULIS.
  • Contents The Nature of Research? 1 Basic Steps in Doing Research 2  Formulation of Research Questions? 3  
  • Thank You !