Teaching the “Right”    Vocabulary for  Academic Success  Helen Huntley Senior English Language Fellow Hanoi University, V...
An exploration of … <ul><li>…  how many words students need to know </li></ul><ul><li>…  which words are most important to...
What vocabulary should students learn?
20 most common English words: <ul><li>the be of and </li></ul><ul><li>a to in he </li></ul><ul><li>have it that for </li><...
Which words to teach? Why? <ul><li>people disgusting stimuli  </li></ul><ul><li>always  pattern muscle </li></ul><ul><li>i...
TYPES OF VOCABULARY Chart adapted from Nation, I.S.P. (1990).  Teaching and learning vocabulary . Boston, M.A.: Heinle & H...
Strategies for learning vocabulary…  <ul><li>Guess the meaning from context  </li></ul><ul><li>–  incidental learning/acqu...
Word origins > parts  The longest word in the English language <ul><li>Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis </li>...
The longest non-word in the English language <ul><li>supercalifragilisticexpialidocious   </li></ul><ul><li>super = above ...
Coverage by text type Nation, P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge, University Press Levels Conve...
General Service List <ul><li>Published in 1953 by M. West </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 2,000 words selected to be of the ...
The Academic Word List <ul><li>Created by Averil Coxhead, Victoria University of Wellington </li></ul><ul><li>Items select...
Key coverage thresholds <ul><li>Below 80 percent coverage, reading comprehension is almost impossible  Hu & Nation, 2001 <...
The first 1000 high frequency words. 75% coverage <ul><li>If _____ planting rates are _____with planting  _____ _____ in e...
The first 2000 high frequency words.  85% Coverage <ul><li>If _____ planting rates are maintained with planting targets sa...
The first 2000 words + words from the AWL 95% coverage <ul><li>If current planting rates are maintained with planting targ...
Vocabulary analysis of an academic text  from Huntley, H. (2006).  Essential Academic Vocabulary . Thomson/Heinle. <ul><li...
First 1,000 words (1-1,000)  <ul><li>for expressions comes from studies showing that for the most people in all show to Th...
Second 1,000 words (1001-2000) <ul><li>pattern Sadness loose disgusting frequently anger   </li></ul><ul><li>6 words </li>...
AWL words (academic) <ul><li>analogous evidence fundamental cultures intrinsically similar responses positive accompanied ...
Technical words  (Med) <ul><li>emotions emotional stimuli emotions muscle tone  </li></ul><ul><li>6 words </li></ul>
Off-List (low-frequency) words <ul><li>innate facial facial facial universally forehead conveys frustration eyebrows </li>...
Text analysis
Text analysis <ul><li>First 1,000 words 62.38% </li></ul><ul><li>Second 1,000 words 5.94% </li></ul><ul><li>AWL (academic)...
What about collocations? <ul><li>“ Collocations are those combinations of words which occur naturally with greater than ra...
Academic text collocations <ul><li>The  cooperative  __________  approach  has become popular among __________ professors ...
Academic text collocations from Huntley, H. (2006).  Essential Academic Vocabulary . Thomson/Heinle <ul><li>The  cooperati...
WebCorp concordancer http://news.bio-medicine.org/tag-3/conveys/ <ul><li>is a two-way bridge that  conveys  new ideas and ...
Any  vocabulary  questions? <ul><li>Thank  </li></ul><ul><li>you! </li></ul>
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[1] Concurrent 1 Acquiring The Right Vocabulary, Hanoi Conference

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[1] Concurrent 1 Acquiring The Right Vocabulary, Hanoi Conference

  1. 1. Teaching the “Right” Vocabulary for Academic Success Helen Huntley Senior English Language Fellow Hanoi University, Vietnam [email_address] http://helenshuntley.com Bernice Clark Education Specialist U.S. Embassy, Hanoi [email_address]
  2. 2. An exploration of … <ul><li>… how many words students need to know </li></ul><ul><li>… which words are most important to learn </li></ul><ul><li>… how to access and use relevant software </li></ul>
  3. 3. What vocabulary should students learn?
  4. 4. 20 most common English words: <ul><li>the be of and </li></ul><ul><li>a to in he </li></ul><ul><li>have it that for </li></ul><ul><li>they I with as </li></ul><ul><li>not on she at </li></ul><ul><li>Source: http://jbauman.com/gsl.html </li></ul>
  5. 5. Which words to teach? Why? <ul><li>people disgusting stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>always pattern muscle </li></ul><ul><li>innate studies evidence </li></ul><ul><li>loose forehead smile </li></ul><ul><li>faces expressions analogous frustration responses tone </li></ul>
  6. 6. TYPES OF VOCABULARY Chart adapted from Nation, I.S.P. (1990). Teaching and learning vocabulary . Boston, M.A.: Heinle & Heinle Type of Vocabulary No. of Words Frequency Text Coverage Origins Implications for Learning High-frequency words 2,000 Occur frequently in all kinds of texts About 87% of the words in a text About half are from Latin, French, or Greek Spend a lot of time on these words. Make sure they are learned well. Academic Vocabulary 570 word families Occur frequently in most kinds of academic texts About 8% of  words in academic texts About two-thirds are from Latin, French, or Greek Essential words for an academic environment. Make sure they are learned well. Technical vocabulary About 1,000-2,000 for each subject Occur, sometimes frequently, in academic texts About 3% of the words in a specialized text About two-thirds are from Latin, French, or Greek Learn the specialized words in your own academic field Low-frequency words About 123,000 Do not occur frequently About 2% of the words in any text About two-thirds are from Latin, French, or Greek Learn strategies to figure out the meanings of these words
  7. 7. Strategies for learning vocabulary… <ul><li>Guess the meaning from context </li></ul><ul><li>– incidental learning/acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Use monolingual dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>– to develop circumvention to increase production </li></ul><ul><li>Note-taking – vocabulary cards or notebooks </li></ul><ul><li>– any method is beneficial if used regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Rote rehearsal – memorization </li></ul><ul><li>– How many words at a time? </li></ul><ul><li>– How many times before remembered? </li></ul><ul><li>– Aloud or silent? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Word origins > parts The longest word in the English language <ul><li>Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis </li></ul><ul><li>pneumon = lungs silico = silicon </li></ul><ul><li>ultra = extremely volcano = eruption </li></ul><ul><li>micro = small coni = dust </li></ul><ul><li>scopic = see osis = condition </li></ul>
  9. 9. The longest non-word in the English language <ul><li>supercalifragilisticexpialidocious </li></ul><ul><li>super = above cali =beauty </li></ul><ul><li>fragilistic = delicate expeali = to atone docious = educable </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Atoning for educatability through delicate beauty.&quot; </li></ul>
  10. 10. Coverage by text type Nation, P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge, University Press Levels Conversation Academic Text 1 st 1,000 words 84.3% 73.5% 2 nd 1,000 words 6% 4.6% Academic 1.9% 8.5% Other 7.8% 13.3%
  11. 11. General Service List <ul><li>Published in 1953 by M. West </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 2,000 words selected to be of the greatest &quot;general service&quot; to learners of English. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the 2,000 words is a headword representing a word family </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency numbers are provided </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Academic Word List <ul><li>Created by Averil Coxhead, Victoria University of Wellington </li></ul><ul><li>Items selected from The Academic Corpus </li></ul><ul><li>570 word families </li></ul><ul><li>Four faculty sections: Arts, Commerce, Law, Science (with 28 subsections) </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of items based on range, frequency, and uniformity of frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First 2000 words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow range words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper nouns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin forms </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Key coverage thresholds <ul><li>Below 80 percent coverage, reading comprehension is almost impossible Hu & Nation, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>At 95 percent coverage, it becomes possible to read without the help of dictionaries Laufer, 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>A vocabulary of at least 3,000 word families is necessary to read an academic text with 95% comprehension Nation, 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of 4000-5000 words necessary to understand an undergraduate economics textbook Katarsyah, Nation & Kennedy, 1994 </li></ul>
  14. 14. The first 1000 high frequency words. 75% coverage <ul><li>If _____ planting rates are _____with planting _____ _____ in each _____ and the forests _____ at the earliest opportunity, the _____ wood supplies could further increase to about 36 million _____ meters _____ in the _____ 2001-2015. The additional _____ wood supply should greatly _____ _____ _____ , even if much is used for _____ production. </li></ul><ul><li>15 of 58 words are missing </li></ul>
  15. 15. The first 2000 high frequency words. 85% Coverage <ul><li>If _____ planting rates are maintained with planting targets satisfied in each _____ and the forests milled at the earliest opportunity, the _____ wood supplies could further increase to about 36 million _____ meters _____ in the period 2001-2015. The additional _____ wood supply should greatly exceed _____ _____ , even if much is used for ______ production. </li></ul><ul><li>9 of 58 words are missing </li></ul>
  16. 16. The first 2000 words + words from the AWL 95% coverage <ul><li>If current planting rates are maintained with planting targets satisfied in each region and the forests milled at the earliest opportunity, the available wood supplies could further increase to about 36 million _____ meters annually in the period 2001-2015. The additional available wood supply should greatly exceed domestic requirements, even if much is used for energy production. </li></ul><ul><li>1 of 58 words is missing </li></ul>
  17. 17. Vocabulary analysis of an academic text from Huntley, H. (2006). Essential Academic Vocabulary . Thomson/Heinle. <ul><li>Evidence for innate facial expressions comes from studies showing that for the most fundamental emotions, people in all cultures show intrinsically similar facial responses to analogous emotional stimuli. The pattern of facial movements we call a smile, for example, is universally related to positive emotions. Sadness is almost always accompanied by loose muscle tone and a “long” face. Likewise, in almost all cultures, people distort their faces in an almost identical way when shown something they find disgusting, and a lined forehead frequently conveys the notion of frustration. Movements of the eyebrows also denote anger and conflict in almost all cultures. </li></ul>
  18. 18. First 1,000 words (1-1,000) <ul><li>for expressions comes from studies showing that for the most people in all show to The of movements we call a smile for example is related to is almost always by and a long face in almost all people their faces in an almost way when shown something they find and a lined the of Movements of the also and in almost all </li></ul><ul><li>63 words </li></ul>
  19. 19. Second 1,000 words (1001-2000) <ul><li>pattern Sadness loose disgusting frequently anger   </li></ul><ul><li>6 words </li></ul>
  20. 20. AWL words (academic) <ul><li>analogous evidence fundamental cultures intrinsically similar responses positive accompanied Likewise cultures distort identical notion denote conflict cultures </li></ul><ul><li>16 words </li></ul>
  21. 21. Technical words (Med) <ul><li>emotions emotional stimuli emotions muscle tone </li></ul><ul><li>6 words </li></ul>
  22. 22. Off-List (low-frequency) words <ul><li>innate facial facial facial universally forehead conveys frustration eyebrows </li></ul><ul><li>9 words </li></ul>
  23. 23. Text analysis
  24. 24. Text analysis <ul><li>First 1,000 words 62.38% </li></ul><ul><li>Second 1,000 words 5.94% </li></ul><ul><li>AWL (academic) words 16.83% </li></ul><ul><li>Technical words (medical): 5.94% </li></ul><ul><li>Off-list (low frequency): 8.91% </li></ul>
  25. 25. What about collocations? <ul><li>“ Collocations are those combinations of words which occur naturally with greater than random frequency.” </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis, M. (1997) Implementing the lexical approach. Language Teaching Publications, 25. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Academic text collocations <ul><li>The cooperative __________ approach has become popular among __________ professors for helping students reach __________ academic standards and building __________ relationships in the classroom. After many years of theoretical and practical __________on this issue , there is __________ evidence that cooperative methods can have __________ benefits for student learning through increased learning, __________ understanding of the concepts being taught, and __________ retention of the material. __________ addition , interpretation of available __________ suggests that cooperative learning encourages __________ relationships among team __________ of different racial and economic __________. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Academic text collocations from Huntley, H. (2006). Essential Academic Vocabulary . Thomson/Heinle <ul><li>The cooperative learning approach has become popular among college professors for helping students reach high academic standards and building positive relationships in the classroom. After many years of theoretical and practical research on this issue , there is strong evidence that cooperative methods can have major benefits for student learning through increased learning , better understanding of the concepts being taught, and improved retention of the material. In addition , interpretation of available data suggests that cooperative learning encourages positive relationships among team members of different racial and economic backgrounds . </li></ul>
  28. 28. WebCorp concordancer http://news.bio-medicine.org/tag-3/conveys/ <ul><li>is a two-way bridge that conveys new ideas and discoveries between </li></ul><ul><li>goals. &quot;When a fitness expert conveys goals to an exerciser, his </li></ul><ul><li>part of ongoing primary care, conveys important information about the five-year </li></ul><ul><li>tuberculosis in foreign born individuals conveys appreciable public health benefit to </li></ul><ul><li>often only one of them conveys a drug's beneficial effects, while </li></ul><ul><li>located in the nose and conveys messages to the higher cortical </li></ul><ul><li>parents presence during the transport conveys comfort to the child and </li></ul><ul><li>the channels through which he conveys the power and elegance of </li></ul><ul><li>issues. &quot;First,&quot; he said, &quot; it conveys the fact that many individuals </li></ul><ul><li>on the screen. The program conveys some emotions better than others, </li></ul>
  29. 29. Any vocabulary questions? <ul><li>Thank </li></ul><ul><li>you! </li></ul>
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