Basic english GrammarMaterial from British Council/yale writing center/eslsentence structure
Part of speech•Each word has a part of speech • Noun - summary, proposal • Pronoun - it, he, she • Verb - summarize, propose, agree
Part of speech•Adjective - suitable, proper• Adverb - thoroughly, appropriately• Preposition - over, on, under• Conjunction- and, or, nor• Interjection - well, oh
phrase• Group of words • student committee Noun phrase - both of my friends, the • Verb phrase - is watching, have decided • Prepositional phrase - in the light • Adverbial phrase - as soon as possible
clause• Is a group of words with a subject & a predicate • Actors perform on a stage.• A subject can be noun phrase • A group of people• A verb can be verb phrase • is standing at a bus stop
Clause structureNoun [phrase] Verb [phrase] A group of is standing at a bus people stopJane and her Are watching TV family People in There Are the room It Is raining heavily This dish Tastes delicious
Noun phrase• Some words come after a noun • With a prepositional phrase • The shop around the corner • With -ing phrase • A student talking to a teacher • With a relative clause • The woman who discovered radium
• With “that” clause • We disagreeshouldthe organized. fundraiser with be idea that a• With to infinitives • Do you need a place to stay?
Simple sentence•Subject + Verb • Must have a subject & a verb • School / start / at / 8 a.m. • Verb must agree with subject • School starts • Begin. with CAPITAL LETTER and end with [full stop] • School starts at 8 a.m.
• Can use adjective, adverb, preposition to add information• My school starts at 8 a.m. on the dot.• The purpose of this proposal is to summarize.
Compound sentence• Two  simple sentences are combined together by a conjunction with comma• and/or/nor/but/so/for/yet • The cupcakes are delicious, but they are expensive. • The machine breaks down time to constantly, and takes a lot get repaired.
Complex sentence• Main clause + dependent clause• clauses Use subordinating conjunctions to join • although, if, because, when • I would advise against it because it’s not really what we are looking for.
• Use relative clause to modify a noun preceded • which, who, whom, where, -- • with this idea, decided to make some The student committee, who came up changes.
Noun vs. pronoun• Do not repeat a noun with a pronoun in the same clause • My mother she told me to do the dishes. • My cellphone I lost it at a movie theater.
conjunction•Do not double-use the conjunction • Although my classes aregood. but my grades are not very easy, • Because thecome to class late. therefore I traffic is congested,
adverb• Do not put an adverb BETWEEN a verb and its direct object • Our term papers. assigned already the professor has • Our term papers. already assigned the professor has
Run-on sentence• Incorrect use of punctuation • study every day. The students want to pass the test they • The studentsday. to pass the test. They study every want• Incorrect use of linking words [conjunction] • It was a beautiful day we wanted to go the beach. • It was a beautiful day, and/so we wanted to go the beach.
fragment• A sentence is missing a subject or a verb • Visit an orphanage.• A gerund is used incorrectly • We planning to have BBQ buffet.• A dependent clause is written as a complete sentence • Because we can raise much money.
What’s wrong?• Studying on weekends very hard• My family is from Australia they moved to Canada• The experiment failed no one paid attention to it• The committee they organized the fundraiser• I disagree with the idea. Because it doesn’t sound promising.
• Studying on weekends is very hard.• My family is from Australia, then they moved to Canada.• The experiment failed because no one paid attention to it.• The committee organized the fundraiser. [remove it]• I disagree with the idea because it doesn’t sound promising.