They are: • Can • Could They are Auxiliary verbs that • Must provide additional and specific meaning to the main verb of the • Shall sentence • Need • May • Might Modal verbs are sometimes • Should referred to as Modal Auxiliary verbs because • Will they help other verbs • Ought to
S M V Subject VerbExample: Mary could play the piano They do not accept conjugation They do not need other auxiliary verbs
There is no “s” in singular There is no “do / does” in the question There is no “don’t / doesn’t” in the negative He can ski. He cans ski or He can skis Can he ski? Does he can ski? They can’t ski. They don’t can ski
Modal verbs do not have infinitives or –ing forms to can / caning to must /mustingModal verbs are followed by an infinitive without to except for ought toShe must studyWe should have gone the other wayHe could play football in his youthYou ought to go to the gym more often
Modal verbs do not have all the tenses Modal verbs use other verbs to complete the tenses Can is completed with be able to Must is completed with have to You must come early They can play the pianoYou had to come early yesterday They will be able to play the piano in the future
They can have different meanings depending on the situations they are used To understand it better we are going to divide them into 4 categories1. Modal Verbs of obligation, no obligation, prohibition and advice.2. Modal verbs of ability and permission.3. Modal verbs of speculation and deduction.4. Modals perfects: They are used to express a situation in the past
Obligation, noobligation, prohi Ability and Speculation and Modal bition and permission deduction perfects advice must/ may may/might have mustn’t can / can’thave to/don’t might / might should/ have to not shouldn’t have needn’t could / could must have couldn’t ought to can’t can’t have should/ shouldn’t may must could have can’t
Modal Concept Examples *1 Must You must decide now. Obligation Have to/has to I have / she has to be fit to enter the race. You don’t have / she doesn’t have to *2 Don’t have No obligation phone me tomorrow.to/doesn’t have to (it’s not You needn’t meet me at the airport. I’ll get *3 Needn’t necessary) a taxi. They ought to thank her for the present. Ought to You should stop smoking all the time. Should Advice and You shouldn’t cross the street without Shouldn’t recommendation looking first. It’s dangerous. Must You must try this recipe. You mustn’t ride a motorbike without a Mustn’t Prohibition helmet. Can’t You can’t park here – look at the sign.
*1 In writing there is no real difference between these words. In speech there is sometimes a small difference. Must is used when the speaker personally feels something is important and have to is used when the situation makes something necessary. You must start working harder! (I say so) You have to turn left here. (it’s the law) *2 Must and have to are very similar in their affirmative forms but they are completely different in their negative forms. Mustn’t describes sth which is prohibited. Don’t have to describes sth that is not necessary. You mustn’t leave now. (it’s not allowed. It’s against the rules) You don’t have to leave now. (it’s not necessary) *3 In informal spoken language we use don’t need to instead of needn’t. You don’t need to go to the gym every day. You’re in good shape.
Modal Concept Examples I can play the piano.Can / can’t Ability in the present My friend can’t speak Spanish Could / He could ski when he was 4. Ability in the past couldn’t I couldn’t ride a bike when I was a child Can To ask permission Dad, can I go to the concert? Could and make polite Could I have some money, please? May requests May I come in, please? You can borrow this CD if you like. Can Permission in the Students can’t wear their own clothes to Can’t present school. I could stay out until midnight when I Could Permission in the was 14. Couldn’t past We couldn’t wear jewellery at school.
Modal Concept Examples *1 May He’s wearing a ring, so he may be married. Might Speculation I might go shopping later, I don’t know. Could It could rain today. Might not She might not be on the train. Can’t Negative deduction That can’t be Sue. She’s in Brazil. Affirmative You must be tired after your long Must deduction journey.*1 these words all express uncertainty or possibility. Could is not used withnot in this context.The meaning for all three words is approximately 50% probability. But if westress the modal verb strongly in speech the probability is reduced.
They are modals referred to actions that happened in the past MODAL + HAVE + verb in past participle It must have been a difficult decision They should have invited her to their wedding
Modal Concept Examples Past unreal We may have passed the test, but it was May have possibility too difficult. Past unreal small She might have been swimming. Her hairMight have possibility is wet. You should have listened to the doctor. Past unrealShould have You shouldn’t have eaten too much recommendation chocolate. Past unreal She looks very fit. She must have been toMust have assumption the gym a lot lately. Impossibility in the He can’t have stolen the money. He wasCan’t have past with me all morning. Past unreal She could have taken the flight.Could have ability/possibility They could have won the match.
1. My son ___ be home by now. Where can he be? a. Have to b. Would c. Should d. Could2. I think your thumb is broken. You ___ go to the emergency room. a. Might b. could c. ought to d. can3. If you are interested in losing weight, you ______ try this new diet. a. Could b. mustn’t c. don’t have to d. had to4. Johnnie’s fallen down the stairs! I ________ call an ambulance! a. Will b. might c. may d. ought to5. You _______ come too early. We won’t leave until 9 o’clock. a. Has to b. must c. needn’t d. can’t
6. Children ________ be accompanied by an adult at the zoo. a. Ought to b. must c. would d. mustn’t7. You _________ talk during tests. It’s forbidden! a. don’t have to b. mustn’t c. couldn’t d. ought to8. I can feel the heat. We _________ be near the fire. a. Can b. would c. must d. have to9. They ________ hear him because he was whispering. a. Wouldn’t b. mustn’t c. shouldn’t d. couldn’t10. You’ve never heard of Britney Spears! You ________ be serious! a. Must b. had to c. can’t d. shouldn’t
11. __________ you like to have dinner with me tonight? a. Could b. may c. should d. would12. You _________ let him hear about the party tomorrow. It’s a surprise! a. mustn’t b. wouldn’t c. couldn’t d. can13. __________ I speak to the Chief of Police, please? a. Must b. May c. Would d. Need14. He has arrived late. He _______ missed the bus a. Must have b. Should have c. Could have d. must
Re-write the following sentences using modals so that they have the same meaning.1. I suggest that you get a good lawyer! should get a lawyer You ___________________________________________2. A university degree isn’t necessary for that job. needn’t have a university degree for that job You ___________________________________________ don’t have to have a university…3. Perhaps my father will pick you up. may / might pick you up My father _______________________________________4. 4. Eating is forbidden in class! mustn’t eat in class You ___________________________________________
Re-write the following sentences using modals so that thay have the same meaning.5. Look at his dirty clothes! I’m sure he is a poor person. must be a poor person He ____________________________________________6. I don’t believe that the legend of Hercules is true because there’re many contradictions. can’t be true The legend of Hercules ____________________________
Think about these situations and create a sentence using modals.1. We are going to Paris for a weekend. (Make suggestions about things to do)2. We start school in September. (Talk about necessity)3. Margaret is a very talented sportswoman. (Talk about ability)4. You have just won the lottery! (Talk about possibility)5. Peter has got a headache and a congested nose. (Give him some advice)6. You want to borrow your uncle’s Mercedes Benz. (Ask for permission politely)
1. We could visit the Louvre / We should go up the Eiffel Tower2. We have to buy a new notebook3. She can speak 3 languages! / She is able to play the piano and the violin4. I might stop working / I may buy a new car / I can travel to New York5. You should see a doctor / You ought to drink hot tea6. Can I borrow your car, please? or May I borrow your car, please?