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Kotesol plenary2011
 

Kotesol plenary2011

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EnglishCentral: Introduction and User's Session...

EnglishCentral: Introduction and User's Session

In this session, the presenter will demonstrate several of EnglishCentral's cool new learning tools, including a spaced-repetition system for quickly acquiring knowledge of important vocabulary words in the context of authentic videos, a tool for bilingual captioning of these videos with clickable html dictionaries, and a voice recognition software that not only quickly identifies which words and sounds the student are having difficulty with but also delivers focused, in-context practice for those sounds and tracks learner's progress on individual sounds over time.

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  • Dr Charles Browne

    The 8th Annual KOTESOL DCC Symposium and Thanksgiving Dinner

    Plenary Address:

    Comprehending Authentic Video: The Importance of High Frequency Vocabulary

    Although there are now many online resources for accessing authentic video in and out of the classroom, this presentation argues that the gap between the average vocabulary size of typical EFL language learners and the amount of vocabulary needed to comprehend those videos is usually quite daunting. In this session, the presenter will begin by developing the argument for the importance of teaching high frequency vocabulary, citing some of his background research on the serious vocabulary gaps that face EFL learners in Japan. After a discussion of the differences between high frequency vocabulary needed for proficiency in reading and that for listening, he will then describe the theoretical underpinnings of several online tools he helped to develop for assisting students to be able to better comprehend unsimplified videos (as well as many freeware and shareware equivalents). Participants will be introduced to an approach for rating the difficulty of videos by their vocabulary content and developing targeted special purpose vocabulary lists based on corpus research of the transcripts of the videos,
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  • 英語には焼く35万単語あるといわれている。前述の通り、 5000 語で十分。 大学受験は一つの目標に過ぎない。最終目標ではない。これからもっと長い人生が続く。

Kotesol plenary2011 Kotesol plenary2011 Presentation Transcript

  •   Dr. Charles Browne, Professor of Applied Linguistics Director, EFL Teacher Education Program Meiji Gakuin University; Tokyo, Japan [email_address]
  • Outline of Presentation
    • Some basic findings of corpus linguistics
    • Introduction to problems faced by Japanese EFL learners related to vocabulary
    • Introduction to online tools for identifying and teaching vocabulary from authentic videos
  • Some Opening Questions:
    • How many words do you think there are in the English Language?
          • 1,000,000 (Stanford research group, 2008)
          • 350,000 (Oxford English Dictionary)
    • How many words does a typical native speaker know?
          • 20,0000 (Goulden, Nation, Read, 2000)
  • Words % known # known Researcher 1 7% 97/100 West(53), Nation(90) 10 25% 3/4 West(53), Nation(90) 100 50% 1/2 West(53), Nation(90) 1000 75% 1/4 West(53), Engles(68) 2000 81% 1/7 West(53), Nation(90) 5000 95% 1/20 Hirsch & Nation(92) 8000 98% 1/50 Laufer (92), Coady(93) 350,000 100% 100/100 Oxford English Dictionary The Importance of “Frequency”
  • Coverage within the BNC for high frequency words (Leech, Rayson, & Wilson, 2001)
  • Problem 1: EFL learners don ’t know enough high frequency words…
  • How many words do L2 learners know? Minimum 5000 words needed for independent learning Country Vocab. Size Hours of Instruction Reference Japan (University) 2000-2300 800-1200 Shillaw (95), Barrow (99) China (English Majors) 4000 1800-2400 Laufer (99) Indonesia (University) 1220 900 Nurweni & Read (99) Oman (University) 2000 1350 Hort et al (98) Israel (HS graduates) 3500 1500 Laufer (98) France (HS students) 1000 400 Arnaud et al (85) Greece (age 15, HS) 1680 660 Milton & Meara (98) Germany (age 15, HS) 1200 400 Milton & Meara (98)
  • When reading or listening to a text, students will of course will not know many words…
    • What percentage of words do you think must be known for them to be able to read easily?
    • 50% ?
    • 75% ?
    • 85% ?
    • 95% ?
  • 75% Coverage 1000 high frequency words … another possible problem with _____ _____ is how to _____ learner _____ although research suggests that _____ are a very _____ way to learn new words (Leitner, 1972, Mondria, 1994, Nation, 1990, 2001), students may lose interest if _____ are the _____ _____ of doing _____ _____. There is a _____ _____ in the _____ classroom of using games with a _____ purpose to increase and _____ learner _____ (Ersoz , 2000, Uberman 1988, Wright, Betteridge & Buckby, 1984), as well as lower the learner _____ _____ (Asher, 1965, 1977, Dulay, Krashen & Burt, 1982) [ 19 missing words ]
  • 85% Coverage 2 000 high frequency words … another possible problem with _____ _____ is how to _____ learner _____ although research suggests that _____ are a very efficient way to learn new words (Leitner, 1972, Mondria, 1994, Nation, 1990, 2001), students may lose interest if _____ are the _____ method of doing _____ _____. There is a rich tradition in the _____ classroom of using games with a communicative purpose to increase and maintain learner _____ (Ersoz , 2000, Uberman 1988, Wright, Betteridge & Buckby, 1984), as well as lower the learner _____ _____ (Asher, 1965, 1977, Dulay, Krashen & Burt, 1982) [ 13 missing words ]
  • 95% Coverage 5 000 high frequency words … another possible problem with vocabulary _____ is how to sustain learner motivation although research suggests that _____ are a very efficient way to learn new words (Leitner, 1972, Mondria, 1994, Nation, 1990, 2001), students may lose interest if _____ are the sole method of doing vocabulary review . There is a rich tradition in the _____ classroom of using games with a communicative purpose to increase and maintain learner motivation (Ersoz , 2000, Uberman 1988, Wright, Betteridge & Buckby, 1984), as well as lower the learner affective filter (Asher, 1965, 1977, Dulay, Krashen & Burt, 1982) [ 4 missing words ]
  • Vocabulary Thresholds:
    • Below 80%, reading comprehension is almost impossible (Hu & Nation, 2001)
    • 95% coverage is the point at which learners can read without the help of dictionaries (Laufer, 1989)
    • • 98% coverage is the point at which learners can “read for pleasure” (Nation, 2003)
  • Problem 2: Reading and Listening materials in Japan (i.e. INPUT ) are too difficult…
  • Vocabulary & Readability: How do Japanese schools measure up?
    • Junior High :
      • Teaches first 1000 words fairly well
      • Readability of texts seems good - short passages, easy vocabulary, lots of pictures to support texts
    • Senior High :
      • Focus changes dramatically to teaching of low frequency words
      • Many, many words from 1000-2000 are never taught…
      • Readability of texts is actually MORE difficult than unsimplified native speaker texts!
  • The Compleat Lexical Tutor www.lextutor.ca
  • Vocab Profile: Online Vocabulary Analysis Tool www.lextutor.ca
  • Typical Graded Reader Results (1200 word level) 85% expected for 2000 words 98.9%
  • Typical Yomiuri Newspaper Article 85% expected for 2000 words 87.4%
  • Harry Potter Chapter 2 85% expected for 2000 words 94.1%
  • Typical Time Magazine Article 85% expected for 2000 words 80.9%
  • Japanese High School Textbook (Spectrum Unit 16) 85% expected for 2000 words 76.8%
  • Summary of Vocab-Profile Results for Various Texts
  • Are Japanese students reading the right vocabulary? (Browne, 1996, 1998) Text Coverage from 2000 High Frequency Words Spectrum 71% Milestone 78% Unicorn 79% Unsimplified Native Texts 85%
  • Are universities testing the right vocabulary? (Kikuchi, 2006, Browne & Kikuchi, 2008) Text of Entrance Examinations for: % Coverage from 2000 High Frequency Words Keio Univ. 69% Sophia Univ. 72% Waseda Univ. 72% Kyoto Univ. 77% Nagoya Univ. 68% Tokyo Univ. 80%
  • 1 2 3 ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ Frequency 350,000 5,000 EFL Vocabulary Learning in Japan…
    • The Negative Effect of “Test English”
    • PROBLEM: Students NEED to learn the first 5000 words of English to use English in the real word…
    • But entrance exams and high school textbooks force students to memorize hundreds of low-frequency words …
    • RESULT? High school students can’t deal with real world English because they don’t know hundreds of the most important high frequency words…
    sum bid ace HFW 2,289 2,566 4,441 14,641 23,371 25,537 42,024 84,168 chaos permission and of the exasperate digress chaos permission and of the abstain emigrate torment
  • Solution Number One: COMPREHNSIBLE INPUT authentic and motivating listening and reading materials
  • Graded Materials - Reading
    • Cambridge
    • Oxford
    • Penguin
    • etc…
  • How to Grade Reading Materials http://www.lextutor.ca/vp/
  • How to Grade Reading Materials http://www.lextutor.ca
  • Graded Materials - Listening (recorded version of graded readers)
  • Graded Materials - Listening (found materials on the internet)
  • Graded Materials - Listening (found materials on the internet)
  • Graded Authentic Videos
  • Graded Authentic Videos How can an “authentic” video be graded?.... Stage 1: Teacher intuition Stage 2: Readability Formulas Stage 3: Readability Formulas informed by vocabulary frequency
  • Readability Formulas (Flesch-Kincaid)
  • Readability Formulas (Flesch-Kincaid)
  • Readability Formulas (Flesch-Kincaid)
  • Readability Formulas (Flesch-Kincaid)
  • Readability Formulas (Flesch-Kincaid)
  • Solution Number Two: KEYWORD IDENTIFICATION identifying the most important words to learn in a video
  • How to Identify Keywords http://www.lextutor.ca/
  • How to Identify Keywords http://www.lextutor.ca/
  • How to Identify Keywords http://www.lextutor.ca/ Key Words for Dracula…
  • How to Identify Keywords http://www.lextutor.ca/
  • How to Identify Keywords http://www.lextutor.ca/ Key Words for Obama ’s Education Speech...
  • Solution Number Three: COMPREHENION SUPPORT Scaffolding tools to help learners deal with videos above their level
  • 100% 0% Video Captioning (Google auto-captioning for YouTube videos…)
  • 100% 0% Video Captioning (Google auto-captioning for YouTube videos…)
  • 100% 0% “ Keyword” Captioning (“Automaticity” – decreasing cognitive load by deleting less important/known vocabulary )
  • 100% 0% Bilingual Captioning Select difficulty level of videos you want Click on video you want to study
  • 100% 0% Bilingual Captioning Transcripts available for pre-listening study Key vocabulary words selected for study by corpus analysis
  • 100% 0% Bilingual Captioning Captioning in English, plus one of five 2 nd languages, Transcripts can be hidden by pushing these buttons
  • 100% 0% Clickable HTML dictionaries Definitions written based on the meanings given in the videos Click on any word in the transcript to get definitional info: • definition • part of speech • sample sentence • pronunciation
  • 100% 0% Speed Control for Speech Encourages learners to listen multiple times until they can catch the meaning Push this button to slow the speed of speech
  • Solution Number Four: KEYWORD LEARNING In-context, spaced-repetition vocabulary learning system
  • 100% Short-term memory loss 50% 0% Time
  • 100% 0% The Forgetting Curve Ebbinhaus (1885), Leitner (1972), Pimsleur (1967), Mondria, (1994) Repeated viewings foster long-term retention
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory Based on the research of Ebbinghaus, Pimsleur, Leitner, and Mondria, electronic flashcards automatically repeat each new word at spaced time intervals, and until the learner achieves long-term, instant-recall ability.
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory
  • Spaced Repetition is the science of long-term memory
  • Vocabulary Flashcards: by corpus analysis of videos (1) Select a video category to study
  • Vocabulary Flashcards: by corpus analysis of videos (2) Go to the vocabulary application, then click on the list of words from the category you want to study
  • Vocabulary Flashcards: by corpus analysis of videos (3) Study the words as a list, or just pick a word to learn it in all the different contexts it occurs in the database
  • Vocabulary Flashcards: by corpus analysis of videos (4) All clips in the database which contain your keyword are played in context, in succession. You can listen only or record your voice and compare to the native speaker
  • Vocabulary Flashcards: by corpus analysis of videos (5) Study your words in QUIZ mode to work on definitions in context, listening and CLOZE type activities
  • Vocabulary Flashcards: by corpus analysis of videos Quiz mode is based on Ebbbinghaus, Leitner and Pimsleur ’s “spaced-repetition” approach
  • Vocabulary Flashcards: by corpus analysis of videos First, the meaning and context of 2-3 new words are introduced via video flashcards
  • Vocabulary Flashcards: by corpus analysis of videos
  • Vocabulary Flashcards: by corpus analysis of videos
  • Vocabulary Flashcards: by corpus analysis of videos
  • Thank you ! For a copy of this Powerpoint, please contact: Dr. Charles Browne, Professor of Applied Linguistics Chair, EFL Teacher Training Program Meiji Gakuin University, Dept. of English [email_address]
  • Graded Listening (recorded version of graded readers)
  • Graded Listening (recorded version of graded readers) Clickable HTML dictionary