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سلسلة بيسان الانجليزية 1
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سلسلة بيسان الانجليزية - تعليم اللغة الانجليزية 1

سلسلة بيسان الانجليزية - تعليم اللغة الانجليزية 1
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سلسلة بيسان الانجليزية 1 سلسلة بيسان الانجليزية 1 Document Transcript

  •    Pronouns‫ﻤﻠ ٍ ﺴﺎﺒﻘ ٍ ﻭﻻ ﺤﺎﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤل ﻤﺤل ﺍﻷﺴـﻤﺎﺀ، ﻭ ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﺘﺠﱡﺏ ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺫﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻩ ﺠ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ • .‫ﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭﻩ، ﻟﻼﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺠﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬   •  :‫: ﻭﻫﻲ ﻨﻭﻋﺎﻥ‬Personal Pronouns1 I, You, He, She, It, They, We -:‫ : ﻭﻫﻲ‬Subject Pronouns me, you, him , her , it , them , us -:‫ : ﻭﻫﻲ‬Object Pronouns .ٍ ‫ ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻠ ٍ ﺴﺎﺒﻘ‬  ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ü Subject   Object      Singular   Plural  Singular   Plural       I ‫ﺃﻨﺎ‬ We ‫ﻨﺤﻥ‬ me ‫ـﻨﻲ‬ us ‫ﻨﺎ‬        He ‫ﻫﻭ‬ him ‫ـﻪ‬       She ‫ﻫﻲ‬ They ‫ﻥ‬  ‫ﻫﻡ/ﻫ‬ her ‫ـﻬﺎ‬ them ‫ﻥ‬  ‫ـﻬﻡ/ ـﻬ‬  It ‫ﻫﻭ/ ﻫﻲ‬ it ‫ـﻪ / ـﻬﺎ‬    You ‫ﺃﻨﺕ‬ You ‫ﺃﻨﺘﻡ‬ you ‫ـﻙ‬ you ‫ـﻜﻡ‬ Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ 1. I am a doctor. .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ‬ 2. Samy visited me yesterday. .ِ ‫ﺯﺍﺭﻨﻲ ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ 3. He is my friend. .‫ﻫﻭ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻲ‬ 4. I welcomed him. .‫ﺒ ﹸ ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺕ‬ 5. We visited our friend. .‫ﺭﻨﺎ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻥ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ 6. They welcomed us. .‫ﺒﻭﺍ ﺒﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﺭ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ 7. I invited them. .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺩﻋﻭﺘﻬﻡ‬ 8. She met her uncle yesterday. .ِ ‫ﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﹶﺕﹾ ﻋ‬ ‫ﻗﺎ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ 9. We shall visit you tomorrow. .‫ )ﺴﻨﺯﻭﺭ ﹸﻡ( ﻏﺩﹰ‬  ‫ﺴﻨﺯﻭ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﺭﻙ‬ 10. You should help the old man. .‫ل ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻭﺯ‬  ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭﺠ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ 1
  •  -:‫ ﻭﻫﻲ‬Possessive Pronouns 2 Singular    Plural                          my mine our ours        his his theirs       her hers their   its its    your yours your yours     | .(‫( ﺩﺍﺌﻤﹰ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ، ﻭ ﹸﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﻴ ﹸﺹ‬Possessive Adjectives) ‫1. ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻜﻠ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ .(‫ﺔ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﹰ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺨﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ، ﻭ ﹸﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﻴ ﹸﺹ‬‫2. ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻜﻠ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ 1. It is my pen. .‫ ﻗﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ 2. It is mine. .‫ﻨﻲ‬ ‫ ﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ ﺨﺼ‬ 3. It is not yours. .(  ‫ ﻻ ﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﻗﻠﻤﻙ )ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ ﻟﻴ‬ ‫ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ ﺨﺼﻙ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ ﺱ‬ 4. I found his bag. . ‫ﻭﺠﺩ ﹸ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ 5. This bag is his. .  ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﺘ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﻪ‬ 6. This is our garden. .‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺤﺩﻴﻘ ﹸﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ 7. This garden is ours. .‫ﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﻘ ﹸ ﺘ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺨﺼ‬ 8. They entered their garden. .‫ﺩﺨﻠﻭﺍ ﺤﺩﻴﻘﺘﹶﻬﻡ‬ 9. That garden is theirs. .‫ﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﻘ ﹸ ﺘ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺨﺼ‬ 10. Did you bring your car? ‫ﻫل ﺃﺤﻀﺭﺕ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻙ؟‬ 11. This car is yours. .‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺘ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺨﺼ‬ ‫ﺴ‬     Reflexive or EmphasingPronouns3‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﻔﻌـﻭل ﻷ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺭ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟ‬ :‫ﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﺄﻜﻴﺩ. )ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻋﻠﻲ ﻨﻔ ِ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ، ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻊ ﺃﺜ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ • .(‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﻫﻭ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ .‫( ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ‬selves) (‫ﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻨ ﹸﺱ‬ ‫ ﻟﻠ‬self (‫ﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ ﺒﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﻨﻔﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ • :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﻤﻘﺭﻭﻨ ﹰ ﺒﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻟﻼﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﻭﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫ﻭ ﹸﺠﻤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ • 2
  •  Singular  Plural             I ‫ﺃﻨﺎ‬ myself ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻲ / ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬ We ‫ﻨﺤﻥ‬ ourselves ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻨﺎ / ﺒﺄﻨﻔ ِﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ He ‫ﻫﻭ‬ himself ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ / ﺒﻨﻔ ِﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ / ﺒﻨﻔ ِﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬  ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ / ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬ‬ She herself They ‫ﻫ ﻫﻥ‬   / ‫ﻡ‬ themselves ( ِ ِ ‫)ﺒﺄﻨﻔ ِ ِﻡ / ﺒﺄﻨﻔ‬ ‫ﺴﻬﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻬ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ / ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ـﺴﻪ / ـﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻔـ‬ ‫ﻨﻔـ‬ It itself ‫ﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬ (‫)ﺒﻨﻔ ِ ِ / ﺒﻨﻔ ِﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﻥ‬  ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻜﻡ / ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻜ‬ You ‫ﺃﻨﺕ‬ yourself ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻙ / ﺒﻨﻔ ِﻙ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ You ‫ﺘﻥ‬  ‫ﺃﻨ ﹸﻡ / ﺃﻨ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ yourselves ( ‫)ﺒﺄﻨﻔﺴﻜﻡ / ﺒﺄﻨﻔﺴﻜ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ 1. I blamed myself. .‫ﺨ ﹸ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ / ﹸﻤ ﹸ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟ ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒ ﺕ‬ 2. He blamed himself. .‫ﻪ‬ ‫ ﻨﻔ‬ ‫ﺦﹶ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ / ﻻ‬‫ﻭ‬  ُ‫ﻡ ﺴ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ 3. You blamed yourself. .‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺕ / ﹸﻤﺕ ﻨﻔ‬‫ﺃﻨﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ 4. You blamed yourselves. .‫ ﹸﻡ‬ ‫ ﹸﻡ / ﺍﻨﺘﻡ ﹸﻤ ﹸﻡ ﺃﻨ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺨﹾ ﹸﻡ ﺃﻨ ﹸ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟ ﺘ ﻔ ﺴﻜ‬ ‫ﺒ ﺘ ﻔ ﺴﻜ‬ 5. They blamed themselves .‫ﻡ‬  ‫ﻡ / ﻻﻤﻭﺍ ﺃﻨﻔ‬  ‫ﺨﻭﺍ ﺃﻨﻔ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﻬ‬ ‫ﺴﻬ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ 6. Mr. Ahmed himself visited me. .(‫ﻴﺩ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﻨﻔ ِ ِ )ﻟﻠﺘﻭﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ 7. The manager himself visited him. .‫ﻨﺎ‬ ِ ِ ‫ﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﻨﻔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻪ ﻫ‬ ‫ﻩ ﻤ‬    : DemonstrativeAdjectives4 .‫ﺎ ﻗﺭﻴﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻌﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻺﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺸﻲ ٍ ﺇ‬ ‫ﺀ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ • .‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻭﺭﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ‬ •  ‫ﻟ ﹼﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﺸ‬  ‫ﻟ ﹼﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﺸ‬          this ‫ﻫﺫﺍ / ﻫﺫﻩ‬ these ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ that ‫ ﺫﻟﻙ / ﺘﻠﻙ‬those ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻙ‬   |( this, that, these, those ) ‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ ﻫﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟ‬DemonstrativePronouns  ü ‫ﺴ‬ .(noun) ‫ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ 1. This pen is mine. .‫ﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻡ ﻴﺨ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ 2. This is my pen. .(‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﻤﻲ ) ﺒﻴﺩﻱ‬ 3. Those are book. .‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻙ ﹸﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ . ‫ﺎ ﻀﻤﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻴﺤل ﻤﺤل ﺍﻻﺴﻡ‬ ‫ ﺃ‬ü ‫ﻤ‬ 3
  •  Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ 1. This is my book in my hand. .‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻴﺩﻱ‬ 2. That book on the shelf is not mine. .‫ﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻻ ﻴﺨ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ 3. These pupils in this class are very clever. .‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﹼﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼ ِ ﻤﻬﺭ ﹰ ﺠﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﺓ ﺍ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺘ‬ 4. Those pupils in that class are not clever. .‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻙ ﺍﻟﹼﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺼ ِ ﻟﻴﺴﻭﺍ ﻤﻬﺭ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺘ‬ Exercise No. 1 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬*) Choose the right answer between brackets:- :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬1. The window is green. (He – She – It) is not yellow.2. Usama is standing up. (He – She – It) is not sitting down. The pencils are in the box. (He – They – We) are not on the table. The plane is in the air.3. (She – It – He – They) is flying to Cairo.4. My name is Ahmed. (I – Me – My) am fifteen years old.5. (We – Our – Us) are students.6. (Yours – You – Your) are teachers.7. (Your – Yours – You) books are new.8. He is doing his work; I am doing (my – mine – me).9. He is doing his work; I am doing (my – mine – me) work.10. The girl is drinking milk. She is drinking (she – it – they – he) from the glass.11. The children are eating apples. They are eating (them – her – him) in the room.12. You should do your homework by (yourself – himself – herself).13. We finished our homework. We finished it by (ourselves – themselves – yourself).14. I always depend on (himself – myself – herself).15. The boys helped the old man. They helped him (ourselves – themselves – herself).16. The doctor told Huda and Nabil to take care of (themselves – herself – yourself).17. (Those – This – That) girls are playing basketball.18. (This – These – That) pupils are polite.19. (This – These – Those) bag is mine. Patience is a key to relief.         4
  • ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪The Verb‬‬ ‫ِﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻌل )‪.(Verb‬‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻀ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ ‪‬ﺔ ﻨﻭﻋﺎﻥ:‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫•‬‫ﺙ‬‫1‪ (Full verb‬ﻤﺜل: ﻴﺴﺎﻓﺭ ‪ travel‬ـ ﻴﺯﻭﺭ ‪ visit‬ـ ‪‬ﻌﻁﻲ ‪ ،give‬ﻭﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺤـﺩ ٍ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺃﺯﻤﻨﺔ، ﺴﻨﺩﺭﺴﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ، ﻤﺜل:‬‫.‪1. He always travels to France‬‬ ‫) ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ (‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﹰ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ.‬ ‫ﺎﻴ‬‫.‪2. He is travelling to France now‬‬ ‫) ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ(‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫‪‬ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫2‪ Helping ( Auxiliary )Vereb‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺘﺩل ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺎ ٍ ﻭﻻ ﺘﺩ ّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺤﺩﺍ ٍ.‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻭ ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟ ِ ﺨﻠﻭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩ ٍ، ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ِ ﺩ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻴﻜﺘﺏ ‪ - write‬ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ‪ ........ buy‬ﺍﻟﺦ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻷ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‪‬ﺔ ﻻ ‪‬ﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻌل )‪.(verb‬‬ ‫ﻴ ﺒ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺠ‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫1. ِﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻔﻲ.‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫2. ِﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ.‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫3. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل )‪.(Passive‬‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﺠﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺒﺩﻗ ٍ ﺘﺎ ‪‬ﺔ.‬ ‫ﺔ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫ﺘﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻌ ِ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎ ٍ، ﻭﻟﻜل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋ ٍ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ ﺍﻷﻋﻡ، ﻤﺎ ﻋﺩﺍ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎل‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻗﺼﺔ.‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌ ٍ ﻤﺴﺎﻋ ٍ ﺒﻭﻀ ِ )‪ (not‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌ ِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ، ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ل ﻤ‬ ‫ﻊ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫•‬ ‫.‪1. They are students‬‬ ‫ﺇ ﹼﻬﻡ ﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ.‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫.‪2. They are not students‬‬ ‫ﺇ ﹼﻬﻡ ﻟﻴﺴﻭﺍ ﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ.‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌ ٍ ﻤﺴﺎﻋ ٍ، ﺒﻭﻀ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴـﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻊ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ )؟(، ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫ﺔ ﺠ‬‫.‪1. He is a doctor‬‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ.‬‫?‪2. Is he a doctor‬‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻭ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ؟‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴ ِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ‪‬ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ، ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ.‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺯ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫•‬ ‫ﹸﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺃﻓﻌﺎ ﹰ ﻗﻭ ‪‬ﺔ، ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل، ﻭﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻓ ‪‬ﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻓﻌل ﻀﻌﻴﻑ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫•‬ ‫5‬
  •  Forms of Verb   ç  The Infinitive 1‫ﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ ﻭ‬to ‫ﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺒﻘﻪ، ﻭﻗﺩ‬to ‫( ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬base) ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬‫ﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ :‫(، ﻤﺜل‬base infinitive) ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺼﺩ ِ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺭ‬(to) play ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ (to) sing ‫ﻐﹼﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻨ‬ (to) be ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ The Present  2 ‫ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﺩ‬are ‫، و‬I ‫ ﻤﻊ‬am :‫ ﻓﻠﻪ ﺸﻜﻼﻥ‬to be ‫، ﻤﺎ ﻋﺩﺍ ﻓﻌل‬to ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬ :‫ﺨﺎﻁﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬play ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ sing ‫ﻐﹼﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻨ‬ am (are) ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ The Present with 3rd person singular 3 .‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬s) ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺤﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﻴﺘﻜ‬ ‫ -( ﻷﹼ‬s) ‫ﺃﻭ ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ ﻭ‬plays ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ sings ‫ﻐﹼﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻨ‬ is ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ The Past 4‫(، ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎل‬Irregular Verbs) ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ. )ﻤﺎ ﻋﺩﺍ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎ ﹼﺓ‬ ‫-( ﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ed) ‫ﻥ ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰ ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺤﺭﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﺸﺫ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ .(Helping Verbs) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬played ‫ﻟﻌﺏ‬ sang ‫ﻏ ﹼﻲ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ was (were) ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ The Past Participle 5،(Irregular Verbs) ‫ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﺭﻜﻴﺏ. )ﻤـﺎ ﻋـﺩﺍ ﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎل ﺍﻟـ ﹼﺎ ﹼﺓ‬  ‫-( ﻷﹼ‬ed) ‫ﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺸﺫ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻤ‬ .(Helping Verbs) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬played ‫ﻟﻌﺏ‬ sung ‫ﻏ ﹼﻲ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ been ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ The Present Participle 6 .‫–( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺴﺎ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ing) ‫ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫-( ﻷﹼ‬ing) ‫ﻰ ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻤ‬playing ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ singing ‫ﻐﹼﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻨ‬ being ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ 6
  •  1 2 3 4 5 6 Present with 3rd Past Present Infinitive person singular Participle Participle Present Past (base) (-s form) (-ed form) (-ing form) (to) play play plays played played playing (to) sing sing sings sang sung singing (to) be am (are) is was (were) been being    | :‫( ﻟﻪ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻫﻲ‬to be) ‫ﺘﺔ ﻤﺎﻋﺩﺍ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫1. ﻜل ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻟﻬﺎ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ to be am is are was were been being‫(، ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﺈﻀـﺎﻓﺔ‬s) ‫ﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺌﺏ ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺤﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل، ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫2. ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬،(present) ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻫﻲ: ﺍﻟ‬‫(. ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺤﻔﻅ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﺤﻔﻅ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺭﺌﻴﺴ‬ing) ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬(base) ‫ﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍ ُﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﺎ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫(، ﻷﹼﻪ‬past participle) ‫(، ﻭﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل‬past) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻴ‬ :(to) ‫( ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬infinitive) ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ Present ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ Past Past participle smile ‫ﻴﺒﺘﺴﻡ‬ smiled smiled bring ‫ﺤ ِﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻀ‬ brought brought rise ‫ﻴﺭﻓﻊ‬ rose risen .{‫( ﺍﺴﻡ ﻤﺸﻬﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺴﻨﺎ ﻫﻭ }ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﺙ‬P.P) (Past Participle) ‫ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﻨﺠﺩ ﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬‫( ﻷﹼﻬﺎ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺒﺸﻜ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻓـﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤـﻊ‬Finite Verbs) ‫ﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﹸﺴ‬ ‫3. ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .‫ﺭ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟ ﹼﺨﺹ، ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺸ‬‫ﻰ‬ ‫( ﻓﹸـﺴ‬present participle) ‫( ﻭﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬past participle) ‫( ﻭﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل‬infinitive) ‫ﺎ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ ‫4. ﺃ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺒﺯﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺒﻔﺎﻋ ِ ﺍﻟ‬‫ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻐ‬ ‫(، ﻷ‬Non-finites or Infinities) ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻓﻌﺎ ِ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ل ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ل‬‫ﺭ ﹼﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﻷﹼﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ ﻓﻌ ٍ ﻤﺤـﺩﻭ ٍ ﺨـﺎﺹ )ﻓﻌـل‬ ‫5. ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻜ‬ :‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ( ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻭﻓﻌل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻤ‬ 1. Dina is playing. .‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ‬ (finite + non-finite) 2. He has gone home. .‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺩ ﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺕ‬ (finite + non-finite)  Finite Verb : ‫ﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ Do good and cast it into the sea.         7
  •   Helping Verbs  Verb To Be Verb To Do Verb To Have Defective Verbs            1- Verb To Be be , am , is , are , was , were , been , being Pronoun  Present  Past  I am ‫ﺃﻜﻭﻥ‬ was ‫ﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ He , She , It is ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ / ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ was ‫ﻔﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ We , They , You are ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ‬ were ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ‬         am, is  was be been are were Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ 1. I am a teacher. .‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ 2. He is a doctor. .‫ﻫﻭ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ‬ 3. Huda is not a nurse. .‫ﻤﺭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻯ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ 4. I was doing my home work. .‫ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﺃﻋﻤل ﻭﺍﺠﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ 5. I and Ali are neighbors. .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺠﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ 6. Are you a doctor? ‫ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕﹶ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ؟‬ 7. Was she angry yesterday? ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻏﺎﻀﺒ ﹰ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ ِ؟‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ 8. Today, he is better. .‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻫﻭ ﺃﺤﺴﻥ‬ 9. You are not a teacher. .‫ﹰ‬  ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺕﹶ ﻟﺴﺕﹶ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺭﺴﺎ‬ 10. They were given a good lesson yesterday. .ِ ‫ُﻋﻁﻭﺍ ﺩﺭﺴﹰ ﺠﻴﺩﹰ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺍ‬ ‫ﺃ‬  8
  •      |‫ﻤﻠـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺜﺒﺎﺕ، ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ، ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ، ﻭﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﺎﻏ ِ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ‬Verb To Be ‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫1. ﻻﺤﻅ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ .ِ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ، ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ .(nt) not ‫ ﻨﻀﻊ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬Verb To Be ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻨﻔﻲ‬ am , is , are , was , were (nt) not ‫ﻨﻀﻊ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬ Exercise No. 2 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬I) Put (am), ( is) or (are) in the spaces :- :‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬are ‫ ﺃﻭ‬is ‫ ﺃﻭ‬am ‫ﻀﻊ‬1. The window........ green.2. I ......... in the classroom.3. We ........ students.4. There ........ a pen and two pencils on the table.5. There ........ two pencils and a pen on the table.II) Put (was) or (were) in the spaces:- :‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬were ‫ ﺃﻭ‬was ‫ﻀﻊ‬1. My brother ....... ill yesterday.2. They ........ students five years ago.3. Huda and Nabila ........ in the hospital last month.4. There ........ no planes two hundreds years ago.5. There ........ a map here last week . Cowards die often.    9
  •   2- Verb To Do do, does did Pronoun ‫ﻤﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ Present ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ Past ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ I , We , They , You do did He , She , It does ‫ﻤﻊ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ do + ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ = ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ do + play = play does + ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ = s + ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ does + play = plays did + ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ = ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ did + play = played     • .‫1. ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ .‫( ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬nt) not ‫2. ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻔﻲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬ do not = dont does not = doesnt did not = didnt Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ 1. I do not like smoking. .‫ ﺍﻟﹼﺩﺨﻴﻥ‬ ِ ُ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺏ ﺘ‬ 2. He does not remember her name. .‫ﻫﻭ ﻻ ﻴﺘﺫ ﹼﺭ ﺍﺴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ 3. We do not go to school on Friday. .‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻻ ﻨﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ ِ ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ 4. Do you speak English? ‫ﺔ ؟‬‫ﻫل ﺘﺘﻜﻠﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ 5. Did she go to school yesterday? ‫ﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ ِ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﺫﻫ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ 6. Does he live in Gaza? ‫ﻫل ﻴﺴ ﹸﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺯﺓ؟‬ ‫ﻜ‬ I do my home work everyday. .‫ﺃﻋﻤل ﻭﺍﺠﺒﻲ ﻜل ﻴﻭﻡ‬ 7. (‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻌل ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻭﻟﻜ ﹼﻪ ﻓﻌل ﺃﺼﻠﻲ )ﻀﻌﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ Exercise No. 3 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬*) Put (do), (does) or (did) in the spaces:- :‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬did ‫ ﺃﻭ‬does ‫ ﺃﻭ‬do ‫ﻀﻊ‬1. .………….. he bring money yesterday?2. She ………….. not speak Arabic.3. I ………… not care.4. I and Huda …………. not go to school today.5. .…………. Samy like smoking?10
  •   3- Verb To Have have, has had Pronoun ‫ﻤﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ Present ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ Past ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ I , We , They , You have had He , She , It has ‫ﻤﻊ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ .‫ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬not ‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻔﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻙ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬ ¯ has not = hasnt have not = havent had not = hadnt Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ 1. I have a new bag. .‫ ﺤﻘﻴﺒ ﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﹰ‬ ِ‫ﺃﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻠﻙ‬ 2. Samy has a larger bag. .‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﻴﻤﺘِﻙ ﺤﻘﻴﺒ ﹰ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ 3. The cat has a tail. .‫ﺍﻟﻘ ﹼﺔ ﺘﻤﺘِﻙ ﺫﻴل‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ 4. I had a key but I lost it. . ‫ ﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻓﻘﺩ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ 5. We had a useful lesson yesterday. .ِ ‫ﻔﻴﺩﹰ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺫﻨﺎ ﺩﺭﺴﹰ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺎﻤ ﺍ‬ 6. Has Huda got any sisters? ‫ﺩﻯ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺨﻭﺍﺕ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﻟﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ 7. Huda has not got any sisters. .‫ﺩﻯ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ 8. I have done my work. .‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﹸﻤﺕ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ Exercise No. 4 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬*) Put (have ) or (has) in the spaces :- :‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬has ‫ ﺃﻭ‬have ‫ﻀﻊ‬1. I ............... a new watch.2. You ........... a red pen.3. Usama ............... a green pencil.4. We .............. dinner before we go to bed.5. Ramzy ............... breakfast at home.6. He ............. two sisters. Many hands make light work.         11
  •    4- Defective Verbs        ç  Present  Past  Present  Past shall ‫ ﺴـ / ﺴﻭﻑ‬should ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬will ‫ﺴـ / ﺴﻭﻑ‬ would ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬can ‫ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬could ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬must ‫ﻴﺠﺏ/ﻴﻠﺯﻡ‬ had to (ought to)may ‫ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ / ﺭﺒﻤﺎ‬might ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ‬ought to ‫ﻴﺠﺏ / ﻴﻠﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﺏ‬    | (‫ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻟﻪ ﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﻭﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻟﻪ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺜﺎﻟﺙ )ﺍﺴﻡ ﻤﻔﻌـﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﻷ‬  .1 ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺴﻤ‬ .‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﺨﺭ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻪ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬go – went – gone :‫ﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩ ٍ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺄﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ .(had to) ‫ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻜﻤﺎ ٍ ﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬must – ought to ‫2. ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﺽ‬.(‫ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ)ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬to ‫( ﻓﻲ ﺃﺨﺭﻩ، ﺃﻭ‬s) ‫3. ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺤﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ . We ‫ ﺃﻭ‬I ‫ﺘﻜﹼﻡ‬ ‫ ﻤﻊ ﻀﻤﻴﺭ ﺍﻟ‬shall ‫4. ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤ ﻠ‬ .(They, You, He, She, It) :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ ﻤﻊ ﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟ‬will ‫5. ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻀ‬ Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬ 1. I can carry this heavy bag . .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺤﻤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻘﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ 2. The train will move .‫ﺴﻴﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺤﺎ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ 3. I shall come again. .‫ﺴﺄﺤﻀﺭ ﻤﺭﺓ ُﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ 4. We should help our parents. .‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻭﺍِﺩﻴﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ 5. They may meet us in Gaza. .‫ﻘﺎﺒﻠﻭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻴ‬ 6. Students must get up early. .‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﻬﺽ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻼﺏ ﻤﺒﻜﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ 7. Can you carry this bag? ‫ﻫل ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﻤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔ؟‬ 8. She couldnt understand me yesterday. .ِ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻔﻬﻤﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ He is rich that has few wants.        12
  •  Exercise No. 5 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬*) Choose the correct answer between brackets: -:‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬1. She must (help - helps - helped) her mother.2. Ali should (gets - get - getting) up early everyday.3. Students must not (writes - wrote - write) on the walls.4. My father may (buys - bought - buy) a watch to me.5. A good student must (studies - studied -study) hard.6. We had to (helped - help - helps) the old man yesterday.     | .‫ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﻤﺼﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬be, have, do ‫1. ﹸﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ .it, she, he ‫ ﻤﻊ‬has, does, was, is ‫2. ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻜل ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ Manners make the man.        13
  •  Tenses of The Verb ‫( ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻬـﺫﺍ‬infinitive) ‫.....ﺍﻟﺦ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬go ‫ – ﻴﺫﻫﺏ‬visit ‫(، ﻤﺜل: ﻴﺯﻭﺭ‬Full Verb) ٍ ‫ﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ • .‫( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻨﺼﻭﻏﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‬Tense) ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺼﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻓﺎﻋل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ -:‫ﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺯﻤﻨﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ، ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ • Present Past  Future  Simple Continuous Perfect Simple Continuous Perfect Simple                        .‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺘﻌﻨﻲ ﺒﺄ‬   ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ • 1. The Present Simple Tense 1) Formation :-    (s) ‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺃﹼﻪ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻫﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ )ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻟﻠﻔﻌل(، ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ü ‫ﻨ ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ :‫(، ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻭﺏ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ، ﻤﺜل‬he , she , it) ‫ﻔﺭﺩﹰ ﻏﺎﺌﺒﹰ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻋل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻤ ﺍ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ Ali - Samia - The teacher - The cat [1. Ali drinks tea. drink + s = drinks2. Huda plays football. play + s = plays3. He eats a cake. eat + s = eats4. I play basketball play :‫( ﻓﺈﹼﻪ‬he, she, it) ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﺴﻤﹰ ﻤﻔﺭﺩﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻀﻤﻴﺭﹰ ﻤﻔﺭﺩﹰ ﻏﺎﺌﺒﹰ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ‬    ¯ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  (es) ‫ﻀﺎﻑ‬ ‫( ﻓﺈﹼﻪ‬sh, ch, o, x, ss) -:‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺒﺄﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺴﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ -: ‫(، ﻤﺜل‬s) ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺔ‬wash + es = washes ‫ﻴﻐﺴل‬ watch + es = watches ‫ﺸﺎﻫﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬wish + es = wishes ‫ﻴﺘﻤﹼﻰ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ teach + es = teaches ‫ﺱ‬   ‫ﻴﺩﺭ‬finish + es = finishes ‫ﻨﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ mix + es = mixes ‫ﻴﺨﻠﻁ‬14
  •  go + es = goes ‫ﻴﺫﻫﺏ‬ fix + es = fixes ‫ﺕ‬‫ﺜﹶ‬ ‫ﻴﺒ‬ do + es = does ‫ﻴﻔﻌل‬ pass + es = passes ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ / ‫ﺭ‬  ‫ﻴﻤ ﻴ ﺒ‬ cross + es = crosses ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻴﺒ‬ match + es = matches ‫ل‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺼ‬ ‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺫﻑ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ (y) ‫ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫( ﻭﻴﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﻓﺈ‬y) ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ‬ ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ -:‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل، ﻤﺜل‬ies) ‫ﺔ‬ try ‫ﻴﺤﺎﻭل‬ tries cry ‫ﻴﺒﻜﻲ‬ cries study ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ studies fly ‫ﻴﻁﻴﺭ‬ flies ( s ) ‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬ ‫ ( ﻭﻴﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺤﺭﻑ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ )ﺤﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﺔ(، ﻓﺈﹼـﻪ‬y ) ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ‬ ‫3. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ -:‫ ( ﻤﺜل‬y ) ‫ﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ play + s = plays ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ obey + s = obeys ‫ﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ buy + s = buys ‫ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ‬ say + s = says ‫ﻴﻘﻭل‬ enjoy + s = enjoys ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ stay + s = stays ‫ﻴﻤ ﹸﺙ / ﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ( a, e, i , o, u )vowels      •2) Usage:    :‫ل ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺘ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ • -:‫ ﻤﺜل‬(fact) .1 1. The earth moves around the sun. .‫ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﺍﻷﺭ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ُ 2. They play football every week. .‫ﻫﻡ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ ﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﹸل ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ -:‫ ﻤﺜل‬  (habit) .2   1. Samy goes to school every morning. .‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﻴﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻜل ﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬ 2. Boys go to school at the age of six. .ِ ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ ِ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴ ِ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺫﻫﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺩ‬  3) Key words   :‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻴ ﺠ‬ • always ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤ ﹰ‬ never ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻁﻼﻕ / ﺃﺒﺩﹰ‬ often ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ ﹰ‬ generally ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻭﻤﹰ‬ usually ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰ‬ frequently ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺭﹰ / ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ sometimes ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨ ﹰ‬ rarely ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺩﺭﹰ‬ every…. (... ،‫ﻜل )ﻴﻭﻡ – ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ‬ seldom ‫ﻨﺎﺩﺭﹰ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ 15
  • ‫‪‬‬ ‫| ‪  ‬‬ ‫1. ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺍﹼﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤﺎﻋﺩﺍ )‪ (every‬ﻓﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠ ِ.‬ ‫ﺔ ﺠ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻟ ﺴ‬ ‫2. ﻟﻴﺱ ﺸﺭﻁ ﹰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺩﺍﹼﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠ ِ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻨﺼﻭﻍ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒـﺴﻴﻁ ﺇ ﹼ ﺇﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ )‪ (fact‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ )‪ ،(habit‬ﻓﺈﹼﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺼﺎﻍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺘﻲ:-‬ ‫.‪The earth moves around the sun‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭ ‪ ‬ﺘﺩﻭﺭ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟ ﹼﻤﺱ. )ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺤﻘﻴﻘ ﹰ، ﻓﺘ ‪ ‬ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل )‪ (move‬ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻤﻊ ﺃﹼﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺩﺍﹼﺔ.‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻡ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫3. ﺘﻭﻀﻊ )‪ (to‬ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨ ﹰ ﻟﺘﺒ‪‬ﻥ ﺃ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻟﻡ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﻌ‪‬ﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻨﺎﺴﺏ، ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺤﺫﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل.‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻴ ﻥ‬‫-:‪ 4) The Present Simple Tense Negative and Interrogative‬‬ ‫‪  ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫)ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل + ‪ + dont‬ﻓﺎﻋل(.‬ ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ )‪ ، (s‬ﻟﻠ ﹼﻔﻲ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫)?...ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل + ﻓﺎﻋل + ‪.(Do‬‬ ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ )‪ ،(s‬ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫)ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل + ‪ + doesnt‬ﻓﺎﻋل (.‬ ‫3. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﻪ )‪ (s‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (es‬ﻟﻠ ﹼﻔﻲ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫)?...ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل + ﻓﺎﻋل + ‪.(Does‬‬ ‫4. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﻪ )‪ (s‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (es‬ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫‪ Examples‬‬ ‫‪Negative ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ Interrogative‬‬ ‫.‪I speak English‬‬ ‫.‪I dont speak English‬‬ ‫?‪Do you speak English‬‬ ‫.1‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺘﻜﹼ ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‪‬ﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ ‪‬ﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠُ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕ ﺘﺘﻜﹼ ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‪‬ﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠﻡ‬ ‫.‪Ali speaks English‬‬ ‫.‪Ali doesnt speak English‬‬ ‫?‪Does Ali speak English‬‬ ‫.2‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻴﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‪‬ﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻴﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‪‬ﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻋﻠﻲ ﻴﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‪‬ﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫.‪Huda washes the car‬‬ ‫.‪Huda doesnt wash the car‬‬ ‫?‪Does Huda wash the car‬‬ ‫.3‬ ‫‪‬ﺩﻯ ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻴﺎﺭﺓ.‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫‪‬ﺩﻯ ﻻ ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻴﺎﺭﺓ.‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻫل ‪‬ﺩﻯ ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻴﺎﺭﺓ؟‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ ‪Examples‬‬ ‫.1‬ ‫.‪Samy usually stays at home everyday‬‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺕ ﻜل ﻴﻭﻡ.‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫.2‬ ‫.‪It often rains in winter‬‬ ‫ﺇﹼﻬﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﺒ ﹰ ﹸﻤ ِﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺘﺎﺀ.‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺘ ﻁُ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫.3‬ ‫.‪Ahmed always watches TV at night‬‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺩﺍﺌﻤ ﹰ ‪‬ﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﻴل.‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺎﻴ‬ ‫.4‬ ‫.‪Always they watch TV at night‬‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤ ﹰ ‪‬ﺸﺎﻫﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﻴل.‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺎﻴ‬ ‫.5‬ ‫.‪Ameera never visits us‬‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻴﺭﺓ ﻻ ﺘﺯﻭﺭﻨﺎ ﺃﺒﺩﹰ.‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫61‬
  •  Exercise No. 6 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬I) Choose the correct verbs in the brackets: -:‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬1. He sometimes (take – takes – to take) the bus to school.2. We generally (spoke – speaks – speak) Arabic.3. He (watch – watches – is watching) the news on TV every evening.4. I always (meet – meets – meeting) him on the corner of this street.5. The sun (give – giving – gives – is giving) us light.6. He usually (drives – drive – is driving) very fast.II) Correct the verbs between brackets: -:‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺤ‬1. I usually drink tea after breakfast, but my sister (drink) milk.2. He always (reach) school late.3. He never (visit) us.4. He rarely (answer) my letters.5. Every Friday, he (go) to the river and (catch) fish.6. Nagla sometimes, (enjoy) watching television.7. He always (study) Arabic at school.8. She usually (get) up early.9. The moon sometimes (shine) at night.10. He (to visit) his uncle every week.  The exception proves the rule.            17
  •   2.The Past Simple Tense 1) Formation:-     .‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ • 1. I watched TV yesterday. .ِ ‫ﺸﺎﻫﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ُ ﺘ‬ 2. The wolf ran away. .‫ﺒﺘﻌﺩﹰ‬  ‫ﺠﺭﻯ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺌ‬ ‫ﺫﺏ ﻤ ﺍ‬ 3. Hanan met her friend at school. .ِ ‫ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕْ ﺤﻨﺎﻥ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬    |  (irregular)  (regular)   1     ‫( ﺃﻭ‬ed) ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﺇ‬ ‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬(Regular Verbs) ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ -:‫(ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ، ﻤﺜل‬d) help - helped - helped ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ smile - smiled - smiled ‫ﻴﺒﺘﺴﻡ‬ watch - watched - watched ‫ﺸﺎﻫﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬     | ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺩﺭ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺤﺭ ٍ ﺴﺎﻜ ٍ ﻗﺒﻠـﻪ ﺤـﺭﻑ‬ ‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻗﺩ ﹸﻀ‬ed) ‫1. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻌ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ :‫ﻙ(، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺘﺤ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺭ‬ travel + ed = travelled ‫ﺴﺎﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ stop + ed = stopped ‫ﻴﺘﻭ ﹼﻑ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺫﻑ ﻭ‬ (y) ‫ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ ( ﻭﻴﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﻓﺈ‬y ) ‫ﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ‬ ‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ed) ‫2. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ -:‫(، ﻤﺜل‬ied) study + ed = studied ‫ﻴﺩﺭﺱ‬ deny + ed = denied ‫ﻨﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ carry + ed = carried ‫ﻴﺤﻤل‬ cry + ed = cried ‫ﻴﺒﻜﻲ‬ ‫( ﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬ed) ‫ﻀﺎﻑ ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫( ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻭﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗ ﹰ ﺒﺤﺭ ٍ ﻤﺘﺤﺭ ٍ، ﻓﺈﹼﻪ‬y) ‫3. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻙ ﻨ ﻴ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ -: ‫(، ﻤﺜل‬ied) ‫( ﺇﻟﻰ‬y) ‫ل ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﹸﺤ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻭ‬ enjoy + ed = enjoyed ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ play + ed = played ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ :‫(، ﻤﺜل‬ed) ‫( ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬d) ‫( ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻭﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﻓﻘﻁ‬e) ‫( ﻓﺈﻥ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬e) ِ ‫ﻨﺘﻬﻴﹰ ﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫4. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺎ‬ invite + d = invited ‫ﻴﺩﻋﻭ‬ smile + d = smiled ‫ﻴﺒﺘﺴﻡ‬ prove + d = proved ‫ﺜﺒﺕ‬ /‫ﺒﺭﻫﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ exercise + d = exercised ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ 18
  •  ‫ﺯ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ ﹸﻤ‬‫(: ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻴﺠﺏ ﺤﻔﻅﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻅﻬ ِ ﻗﻠﺏ، ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬Irregular Verbs) ‫ﻨ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺸ‬         2) Usage:-  -: ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ • .‫ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺭﻴﺨﻲ‬ ‫1. ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ .‫2. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺭﻭﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ ِﺼﺹ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ -:‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫3. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺩ ٍ ﺘ‬ ‫ﺙ ﻡ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ I met him yesterday. .ِ ‫ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺒﻠ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﻪ‬ -: ‫4. ﻟﻠ ﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺎﺩ ٍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ When I was on holiday, I swam everyday. .‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺠﺎﺯ ٍ، ﺴﺒﺤ ﹸ ﻜلَ ﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬ 3) Key words     .‫ﺢ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻴ ﺠ‬ • yesterday ‫ﺃﻤﺱ‬ in olden times ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ once ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ‬ ago ‫ﻤﻨﺫ‬ one day ‫ﻓﻲ ﻴﻭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻴﺎﻡ‬ last... ‫ﺎﺒﻕ / ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ just now ‫ﻗﺒل ﺍﻵﻥ‬ last night ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ in the past ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ last month ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ 4) The Past Simple Tense Negative and Interrogative:-      • :‫ﻥ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫1. ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻴﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﻭ‬   did not  :‫ﻥ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫2. ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺘﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﻭ‬  Did? Examples Negative   Interrogative They went to school. They didnt go to school. Did they go to school? . ِ ‫ﻫﻡ ﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ .ِ ‫ﻫﻡ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ ِ؟‬ ‫ﺔ‬ The wolf ran away. The wolf didnt run away. Did the wolf run away? . ‫ ﺍﻟﺫﺌ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺏ‬ .‫ ﻟﻡ ﻴ ِﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﺌ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻔ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺫﺌ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻓ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺏ‬ 19
  •  Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬1. Ahmed travelled to Japan last week. .‫ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬2. Samy wrote the letter. .‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ‬3. My father bought a new car last year. .‫ﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻲ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﻯ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﹰ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺓ ﺴ‬ ‫ﺓ‬4. Huda studied lesson ten a week ago. .‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ ﺭﻗﻡ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻯ ﺩﺭﺴﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﺩ ﺱ‬ ‫ﻫ‬5. We invited them for lunch three days ago. .‫ﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎﻫﻡ ﻟﻁﻌﺎ ِ ﺍﻟﻐﺩﺍﺀ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﻴﺎ ٍ ﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ Exercise No. 7 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬*) Correct the verbs in brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺤ‬1. Ahmed ……………. (buy) a new bicycle last week.2. She ……………. (make) a cake yesterday.3. Two months ago, we …………(have) a holiday.4. Samy ……………. (to climb) a tree yesterday.5. I ……………… (finish) my work two hours ago.  A stitch in time saves nine.              20
  •  Conjugation of Verbs ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬Ordinary or Regular or Weak Verbs     7‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬ (past participle) (‫( ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﺙ )ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل‬past tense) (‫ﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ )ﺍﻟﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ .(‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫. )ﻭﻫﻲ ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬d ‫ ﺃﻭ‬ed ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻋﻬﺎ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻨﻁﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬  Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle                 prove ‫ﺒﺭﻫﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ proved proved help ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ helped helped burn ‫ﻴﺤﺭﻕ‬ burnt burnt    | .(d) ‫( ﻨﻀﻴﻑ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬e) ‫1. ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬  Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle                 arrive ‫ﻴﺼل‬ arrived arrived change ‫ﺭ‬‫ﻐ‬ ‫ﻴﻴ‬ changed changed invite ‫ﻴﺩﻋﻭ‬ invited invited‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬ ‫( ﻭ‬i) ‫ﻘﻠﺏ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ (y) ‫ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗ ﹰ ﺒﺤﺭ ٍ ﺴﺎﻜ ٍ، ﻓﺈ‬y) ‫2. ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻥ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ .‫( ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ed)  Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle                 cry ‫ﻴﺒﻜﻲ‬ cried cried marry ‫ﻴﺘﺯﻭﺝ‬ married married study ‫ﻴﺩﺭﺱ‬ studied studied‫( ﻴﺒﻘـﻰ ﻜﻤـﺎ ﻫـﻭ‬y) ‫ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺭﻙ(،ﻓﺈ‬ ) ‫( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗ ﹰ ﺒﺤﺭ ِ ﻋﹼﺔ‬y) ‫3. ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻑ ﻠ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ .‫( ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ed) ‫ﻀﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬  Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle                 enjoy ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ enjoyed enjoyed obey ‫ﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ obeyed obeyed play ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ played played stay ‫ﻴﻤ ﹸﺙ / ﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ stayed stayed21
  • ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﻋﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺒﺤـﺭ ٍ ﺴـﺎﻜ ٍ ﻗﺒﻠـ‬ ‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻗﺩ‬ed) ‫4. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ .(‫ﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤ‬  Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle                 stop ‫ﻴ ِﻑ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ stopped stopped travel ‫ﺴﺎﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ travelled travelled       Present or Past Present or  Past infinitive participle  infinitive  Past Past    Meaning Meaning        participle                           act ‫ﯾﻤﺜﻞ‬ acted acted describe ‫ﯾﺼﻒ‬ described described damage ‫ﯾﺘﻠﻒ‬ damaged damaged die ‫ﯾﻤﻮت‬ died died ask ‫ﯾﺴﺄل‬ asked asked disappear ‫ﯾﺨﺘﻔﻲ‬ disappeared disappeared believe ‫ﯾﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬ believed believed dive ‫ ﯾﻐﻄﺲ / ﯾﻐﻮص‬dived dived attack ‫ﯾﮭﺎﺟﻢ‬ attacked attacked dream ‫ﯾﺤﻠﻢ‬ dreamed dreamed blink ‫ﯾﻐﻤﺰ‬ blinked blinked drop ‫ﯾﺴ ِﻂ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ dropped dropped arrive ‫ﯾﺼﻞ‬ arrived arrived earn ‫ ﯾﻜﺴﺐ ﻗﻮﺗﮫ‬earned earned belong to ‫ﯾﺨﺺ‬ belonged to belonged to end ‫ﯾﻨﮭﻲ‬ ended ended boil ‫ﯾﻐﻠﻲ‬ boiled boiled enjoy ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ enjoyed enjoyed call ‫ﯾﺘﺼﻞ / ﯾﻨﺎدي‬ called called erupt (‫ ﯾﺜﻮر)اﻟﺒﺮﻛﺎن‬erupted erupted borrow ‫ﯾﻘﺘﺮض‬ borrowed borrowed evaporate ‫ﯾﺘﺒﺨﺮ‬ evaporated evaporated carry ‫ﯾﺤﻤﻞ‬ carried carried exercise ‫ﯾﺘﻤﺮن‬ exercised exercised change ‫ُﻐ ُﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﯿ‬ changed changed explain ‫ﯾﺸﺮح‬ explained explained chase ‫ﯾﻄﺎرد‬ chased chased explode ‫ﯾﻨﻔﺠﺮ‬ exploded exploded check ‫ﯾﺮاﺟﻊ‬ checked checked finish ‫ﯾﻨﮭﻲ‬ finished finished clean ‫ﯾﻨﻈﻒ‬ cleaned cleaned float ‫ﯾﻄﻔﻮ‬ floated floated close ‫ُﻐِﻖ‬ ‫ﯾ ﻠ‬ closed closed fold ‫ ﯾﺜﻨﻲ / ﯾﻄﻮي‬folded folded climb ‫ﯾﺘﺴﻠﻖ‬ climbed climbed follow ‫ﯾﺘﺒﻊ‬ followed followed compare ‫ﯾﻘﺎرن‬ compared compared form ‫ُ ّﻮن‬ ‫ﯾﻜ‬ formed formed collect ‫ﯾﺠﻤﻊ‬ collected collected guess ‫ُﺨﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ guessed guessed compute ‫ﯾﺤﺴﺐ / ﯾﺤﺼﻲ‬ computed computed happen ‫ﯾﺤﺪث‬ happened happened condense ‫ﯾﻜﺜﻒ‬ condensed condensed hate ‫ﯾﻜﻮه‬ hated hated correct ‫ﯾﺼﺤﺢ‬ corrected corrected heat ‫ﯾﺄﻣﻞ‬ heated heated cook ‫ﯾﻄﺒﺦ‬ cooked cooked hope ‫ﯾﺄﻣﻞ‬ hoped hoped control ‫ﯾﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ controlled controlled hurry up ‫ُﺴﺮع‬ ‫ﯾ‬ hurried up hurried up copy ‫ﯾﻨﺴﺦ‬ copied copied introduce ‫ﯾﻘﺪم‬ introduced introduced correct ‫ﯾﺼﺤﺢ‬ corrected corrected join ‫ﯾﺮﺑﻂ‬ joined joined count ‫ﯾﻌﺪ‬ counted counted jump ‫ﯾﻘﻔﺰ‬ jumped jumped crawl ‫ﯾﺰﺣﻒ/ ﯾﺤﺒﻮ‬ crawled crawled kick ‫ﯾﺮﻛﻞ‬ kicked kicked cross ‫ﯾﻌﺒﺮ‬ crossed crossed kill ‫ﯾﻘﺘﻞ‬ killed killed dance ‫ﯾﺮﻗﺺ‬ danced danced land ‫ﯾﺮﺳﻮ‬ landed landed22
  •  Present or Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past  infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle       participle                            lift ‫ﯾﺮﻓﻊ‬ lifted lifted remember ‫ﯾﺘﺬﻛﺮ‬ remembered rememberedlike ‫ﯾﺤﺐ‬ liked liked replay ‫ﯾﺮد‬ replayed replayedlisten ‫ﯾﻨﺼﺖ‬ listened listened report ‫ﯾﻘﺪم ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺮ ﻋﻦ‬ reported reportedlive ‫ﯾﻌﯿﺶ‬ lived lived rest ‫ﯾﺮﺗﺎح‬ rested restedload ‫ﯾﺤﻤﻞ‬ loaded loaded revise ‫ﯾﺮاﺟﻊ‬ revised revisedlook after ‫ﯾﻌﺘﻨﻲ ﺑـ‬ looked after looked after sail ‫ُﺒﺤﺮ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ sailed sailedlook at ‫ﯾﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ‬ looked at looked at scream ‫ﯾﺼﺮخ‬ screamed screamedlook for ‫ﯾﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬ looked for looked for shop ‫ﯾﺘﺴ ّق‬ ‫ﻮ‬ shopped shoppedlook good ‫ا‬ ً‫ﯾﺒﺪو ﺟﯿﺪ‬ looked good looked good shout ‫ﯾﺼﯿﺢ‬ shouted shouted ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺮج‬look up ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ looked up looked up slope ‫ﯾﻨﺰﻟﻖ‬ sloped slopedlove ‫ﯾﺤﺐ‬ loved loved sow ‫ُﺒ ّر‬ ‫ﯾﺬ‬ sowed sowed (sown)marry ‫ﯾﺘﺰوج‬ married married start ‫ﯾﺒﺪأ‬ started startedmatch ‫ُﻼﺋﻢ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ matched matched stay ‫ﯾﻤ ُﺚ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ stayed stayedmeasure ‫ﯾﻘﯿﺲ‬ measured measured stop ‫ﯾﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬ stopped stoppedmend ‫ﯾﺼّﺢ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ mended mended support ‫ﯾﺪﻋﻢ‬ supported supportedmilk ‫ﯾﺤﻠﺐ‬ milked milked store ‫ُﺨ ُن‬ ‫ﯾ ﺰ‬ stored stored /‫ﯾﺪﯾﺮ ﺟﮭﺎز‬miss ‫ﯾﻔﺘﻘﺪ‬ missed missed switch on ‫ﯾﺸﻌﻞ اﻟﻨﻮر‬ switched on switched onmove ‫ﯾﺘﺤ ّك‬ ‫ﺮ‬ moved moved talk ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺪث‬ talked talkedneed ‫ﯾﺤﺘﺎج‬ needed needed taste ‫ﯾﺘﺬوق / ﯾﺬوق‬ tasted tastedopen ‫ﯾﻔﺘﺢ‬ opened opened tie ‫ﯾﺮﺑﻂ‬ tied tiedorder ‫ﯾﺄﻣﺮ‬ ordered ordered thank ‫ﯾﺸﻜﺮ‬ thanked thankedown ‫ﯾﻤﺘﻠﻚ‬ owned owned touch ‫ﯾﻠﻤﺲ‬ touched touchedpaint ‫ﯾﺪھﻦ‬ painted painted train ‫ﯾﺪرب‬ trained trainedpass ‫ﯾﻤﺮ‬ passed passed translate ‫ﯾﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ translated translated ‫ﺎ‬ ً ‫ﯾﺘﺼﻞ ﺗﻠﯿﻔﻮﻧﯿ‬phone ‫ﺑـ‬ phoned phoned travel ‫ﯾﺴﺎﻓﺮ‬ travelled travelledpick ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻒ‬ picked picked try ‫ﯾﺤﺎول‬ tried triedplant ‫ﯾﺰرع‬ planted planted turn ‫ﯾﺪور/ ﯾﻠﻒ‬ turned turned ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬play ‫ﯾﻠﻌﺐ‬ played played type ‫اﻵﻟﺔ‬ typed typedplough ‫ﯾﺤﺮث‬ ploughed ploughed use ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ used usedpoint to ‫ﯾﺸﯿﺮ إﻟﻰ‬ pointed to pointed to visit ‫ﯾﺰور‬ visited visitedpost ‫ﯾﺮﺳﻞ‬ posted posted wait ‫ﯾﻨﺘﻈﺮ‬ waited waitedpour ‫ﯾﺼﺐ‬ poured poured want ‫ﯾﺮﯾﺪ‬ wanted wantedpractice ‫ﯾﺘﻤﺮن‬ practiced practiced wash ‫ﯾﻐﺴﻞ‬ washed washedprefer ‫ُﻔ ّﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻀ‬ preferred preferred watch ‫ﯾﺸﺎھﺪ‬ watched watched / ‫ﯾ ّﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺪ‬pretend ‫ﯾﺘﻈﺎھﺮ‬ pretended pretended water ‫ﯾﺮوي‬ watered wateredpronounce ‫ﯾﻨﻄﻖ‬ pronounced pronounced weigh ‫ﯾﺰن‬ weighed weighedpull ‫ﯾﺸﺪ / ﯾﺠﺮ‬ pulled pulled welcome ‫ﯾﺮﺣﺐ ﺑـ‬ welcomed welcomedpush ‫ﯾﺪﻓﻊ/ ﯾﺰق‬ pushed pushed work ‫ ﯾﻌﻤﻞ / ﯾﺸﺘﻐﻞ‬worked workedrain ‫ﺗﻤﻄﺮ‬ rained rained worry ‫ﯾﻘﻠﻖ‬ worried worriedreceive ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻠﻢ‬ received received 23
  • ،‫ﻨـﺔ‬‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﺘﺼﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻋـﺩﺓ‬:The Irregular Verbs  ‫ﻤﻴ‬ 7 .‫ﻓﻠﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺤﻔﻅﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻅﻬ ِ ﻗﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺭ‬        Present Present or Past Past or infinitive  Past participle  Past participle Meaning  infinitive Meaning                                     abide ‫ﯾﻤﻜﺚ / ﯾﻘﯿﻢ‬ abode abode clothe ‫ﯾﻜﺴﻮ‬ clothed clothed agree ‫ﯾﻮاﻓﻖ‬ agreed agreed come ‫ﯾﺄﺗﻲ / ﯾﺤﻀﺮ‬ came come am ‫أﻛﻮن‬ was been cost ‫ﯾﻜّﻒ / ﯾﺴﺎوي‬ ‫ﻠ‬ cost cost are ‫ﺗﻜﻮن/ ﯾﻜﻮﻧﻮا‬ were been creep ‫ﯾﺰﺣﻒ‬ crept crept arise ‫ﯾﻨﮭﺾ‬ arose arose cut ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻊ‬ cut cut awake ‫ﯾﻮﻗﻆ / ﯾﺴﺘﯿﻘﻆ‬ awoke awoken dare ‫ﯾﺠﺮؤ‬ dared (durst) dared (durst) be ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ was / were been deal ‫ﯾﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ dealt dealt bear ‫ﺗﻠﺪ‬ bore born dig ‫ﯾﺤﻔﺮ‬ dug dug bear ‫ﯾﺤﻤﻞ إﻟﻰ أﻋﻠﻰ‬ bore borne do/does ‫ﯾﻔﻌﻞ‬ did done beat ‫ﯾﻀﺮب‬ beat beat (en) draw ‫ﯾﺮﺳﻢ‬ drew drawn become ‫ﯾﺼﺒﺢ / ﯾﺼﯿﺮ‬ became become dream ‫ﯾﺤﻠﻢ‬ dreamt (ed) dreamt begin ‫ﯾﺒﺪأ / ﯾﺒﺘﺪئ‬ began begun drink ‫ﯾﺸﺮب‬ drank drunk bend ‫ﯾﺜﻨﻲ / ﯾﺤﻨﻲ‬ bent bent drive ‫ﯾﻘﻮد / ﯾﺴﻮق‬ drove driven bet ‫ﯾﺮاھﻦ‬ bet bet dwell ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻦ / ﯾﺴﻜﻦ‬ dwelt dwelt bet ‫ﯾﺮاھﻦ‬ betted bet eat ‫ﯾﺄﻛﻞ‬ ate eaten bid ‫ُﻘ ّم ﻋﻄﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﺪ‬ bade bidden fall ‫ﯾﺴﻘﻂ / ﯾﻘﻊ‬ fell fallen bid ‫ﯾﺄﻣﺮ‬ bid bid feed ‫ُﻄﻌﻢ/ ُﻐ ّي‬ ‫ﯾﺬ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ fed fed bind ‫ﯾﺮﺑﻂ‬ bound bound feel ‫ﯾﺸﻌﺮ‬ felt felt bite ‫ﯾ ُﺾ/ ﯾﻠﺪغ‬‫ﻌ‬ bit bitten fight ‫ﯾﻘﺎﺗﻞ / ﯾﺘﺸﺎﺟﺮ‬ fought fought bleed ‫ﯾﻨﺰف‬ bled bled find ‫ﯾﺠﺪ‬ found found blend ‫ﯾﺨﻠﻂ / ﯾﻤﺰج‬ blent blent fit ‫ﯾﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ fit (fitted) fit (fitted) blend ‫ﯾﺨﻠﻂ / ﯾﻤﺰج‬ blended blended flee ‫ﯾﮭﺮب‬ fled fled blow ‫ﯾﮭﺐ / ﯾﻨﻔﺦ‬ blew blown fling ‫ ﯾﻄﻮي / ﯾﻄﯿﺢ / ﯾﻘﺬف‬flung flung break ‫ﯾﻜﺴﺮ‬ broke broken fly ‫ﯾﻄﯿﺮ‬ flew flown breed ‫ﯾﺮﺑﻲ‬ bred bred forbid ‫ﯾﻤﻨﻊ‬ forbade forbidden bring ‫ﯾﺤﻀﺮ‬ brought brought forecast ‫ﯾﺘﻨﺒﺄ/ﯾﺘﻜﮭﻦ‬ forecast forecast bring up ‫ﯾﺮﺑﻲ‬ brought up brought up foretell ‫ﯾﺘﻨﺒﺄ‬ foretold foretold broadcast ‫ﯾﺬﯾﻊ‬ broadcast broadcast forget ‫ﯾﻨﺴﻰ‬ forgot forgotten build ‫ﯾﺒﻨﻲ‬ built built forgive ‫ ﯾﺴﺎﻣﺢ / ﯾﻌﻔﻮ ﻋﻦ‬forgave forgiven burn ‫ﯾﺤﺮق‬ burnt (burned) burnt forsake ‫ ﯾﮭﺠﺮ / ﯾﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ‬forsook forsaken burst ‫ﯾﻨﻔﺠﺮ‬ burst burst freeze ‫ﯾﺘﺠﻤﺪ‬ froze frozen buy ‫ﯾﺸﺘﺮي‬ bought bought get ‫ﯾﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ got got can ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ‬ could ---- give ‫ﯾﻌﻄﻲ/ ﯾﻤﻨﺢ‬ gave given cast ‫ﯾﻘﺬف / ﯾﺮﻣﻲ‬ cast cast go ‫ﯾﺬھﺐ‬ went gone catch ‫ﯾﻤﺴﻚ‬ caught caught grind ‫ﯾﻄﺤﻦ‬ ground ground choose ‫ﯾﺨﺘﺎر‬ chose chosen grow ‫ ﯾﻨﻤﻮ / ﯾﻜُﺮ / ﯾﺰرع‬grew ‫ﺒ‬ grown cling ‫ﯾﻠﺘﺼﻖ / ﯾﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬ clang clung hang ‫ُﻌّﻖ‬ ‫ﯾ ﻠ‬ hung hung 24
  •  Present Present or Past or  Past infinitive  Past  infinitive participle    Meaning Past participle Meaning                                 hang ‫ﯾﺸﻨﻖ‬ hanged hanged say ‫ﯾﻘﻮل‬ said saidhave / has ‫ﯾﻤﻠﻚ‬ had had see ‫ﯾﺮى / ﯾﻔﮭﻢ‬ saw seenhave to ‫ﯾﺠﺐ أن‬ had to had to seek ‫ﯾﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬ sought soughthear ‫ﯾﺴﻤﻊ‬ heard heard sell ‫ﯾﺒﯿﻊ‬ sold soldhide ‫ﯾﺨﺒﺊ‬ hid hidden send ‫ﯾﺮﺳﻞ‬ sent senthit ‫ﯾﻀﺮب‬ hit hit set out ‫ﯾﺸﺮع ﻓﻲ / ﯾﻐﺮب‬ set out set outhold ‫ﯾﻤﺴﻚ‬ held held set aside ‫ﺎ‬ ً‫ﯾﻀﻊ ﺟﺎﻧﺒ‬ set sethurt ‫ﯾﺆذي / ﯾﺆﻟﻢ‬ hurt hurt sew ‫ﯾﺨّﻂ‬ ‫ﯿ‬ sewed sewnis ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ was been shake ‫ﯾﮭﺰ / ﯾﺼﺎﻓﺢ‬ shook shaken / ً‫ﯾﻨﺰف دﻣ‬ ‫ﺎ‬keep ‫ﯾﺤﻔﻆ‬ kept kept shed ‫ﺎ‬ ً‫ﯾﺬرف دﻣﻮﻋ‬ shed shedkneel ‫ﯾﺮﻛﻊ‬ knelt knelt shine ‫ﯾﻠﻤﻊ / ﯾﺴﻄﻊ‬ shone shone ‫ﯾﻀﻊ ﺣﺪوة‬knit ‫ﺎ‬ ً‫ﯾﻌﻘﺪ ﺧﯿﻮﻃ‬ knit (knitted) knit shoe ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﺎن‬ shod shod ‫ﯾﻄﻠﻖ اﻟﺴﮭﻢ أو‬know ‫ﯾﻌﺮف‬ knew known shoot ‫اﻟﺮﺻﺎص‬ shot shotlade ‫ُﺤ ّﻞ‬ ‫ﯾ ﻤ‬ laded laden show ‫ﯾﻮﺿﺢ / ﯾﺒﯿﻦ‬ showed shownlay ‫ﯾﻀﻊ / ﯾﺒﯿﺾ‬ laid laid shrink ‫ﯾﻨﻜﻤﺶ‬ shrank shrunklead ‫ﯾﻘﻮد‬ led led shut ‫ُﻐﻠﻖ‬‫ﯾ‬ shut shutlean ‫ﯾﺘﻜﺊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ leant (leaned) leant (leaned) sing ‫ﯾﻐﻨﻲ/ ﯾﻨﺸﺪ‬ sang sungleap ‫ﯾﻘﻔﺰ‬ leapt leapt sit ‫ﯾﺠﻠﺲ‬ sat satlearn ‫ﯾﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ learned (learnt) learned (learnt) sink ‫ﯾﻐﻮص‬ sank sunkleave ‫ﯾﻐﺎدر‬ left left slay ‫ﯾﺬﺑﺢ / ﯾﺴﻠﺦ‬ slew slainlend ‫ُﻘﺮض‬ ‫ﯾ‬ lent lent sleep ‫ﯾﻨﺎم‬ slept sleptlet ‫ﯾﺪع‬ let let slide ‫ﯾﻨﺰﻟﻖ‬ slid slid / ‫ﯾﺮﻓﻊ ﺑﺤﺒﻞ‬lie ‫ﯾﺮﻗﺪ‬ lay lain sling ‫ﯾﻘﺬف ﺑﻤﻘﻼع‬ slung slunglie ‫ﯾﻜﺬب‬ lied lied smell ‫ﯾﺸﻢ‬ smelt (ed) smelt (ed)light ‫ﯾﻀﻲء‬ lit (lighted) lit (lighted) sow ‫ﯾﺒﺬر‬ sowed sownlose ‫ﯾﻔﻘﺪ‬ lost lost speed ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ sped sped / ً ‫ﯾﻨﻔﻖ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ‬make ‫ﯾﺼﻨﻊ / ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬ made made spend ‫ﺎ‬ ً‫ﯾﻘﻀﻲ وﻗﺘ‬ spent spentmay ‫ﻞ‬ ّ ‫ُّﻤﺎ / ﻟﻌ‬ ‫رﺑ‬ might ---- spill ‫ﯾﺴﻜﺐ / ﯾﺮﯾﻖ‬ spilt spilledmean ‫ﯾﻌﻨﻲ/ ﯾﻘﺼﺪ‬ meant meant spin ‫ﯾﻐﺰل‬ span spunmeet ‫ﯾﻘﺎﺑﻞ / ﯾﻠﺘﻘﻲ‬ met met spit ‫ﯾﺒﺼﻖ‬ spat spatmistake ‫ﯾﺨﻄﺊ‬ mistook mistaken split ‫ﯾﺸﻄﺮ ﺷﻄﺮﯾﻦ‬ split splitmow ‫ﯾﺠﻤﻊ / ﯾﺨﺰن‬ mowed mown run ‫ﯾﺠﺮي‬ ran runovercome ‫ﯾﺘﻐﻠﺐ‬ overcame overcome rise ‫ﯾﺸﺮق / ﯾﺮﻓﻊ‬ rose risenpay ‫ا‬ ً‫ﯾﺪﻓﻊ ﻧﻘﻮد‬ paid paid saw ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﺸﺎر‬ sawed sawn put ‫ﯾﻀﻊ‬ put put sell ‫ﯾﺒﯿﻊ‬ sold soldquit ‫ﯾﺘﺮك / ﯾﮭ ُﺮ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ quit quit spoil ‫ﯾﺘﻠﻒ/ﯾﻔﺴﺪ‬ spoilt spoilt (ed)read ‫ﯾﻘﺮأ‬ read read spread ‫ﯾﻨﺘﺸﺮ‬ spread spreadrid ‫ﯾﺰﯾﻞ / ﯾﺨّﺺ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ rid rid spring ‫ﯾﻘﻔﺰ‬ sprang sprungride ‫ﯾﺮﻛﺐ‬ rode ridden stand ‫ﯾﻘﻒ‬ stood stoodring ‫ﯾﺮن‬ rang rung steal ‫ﯾﺴﺮق‬ stole stolen25
  •  Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past  participle                stick ‫ﯾﻠﺼﻖ / ﯾﻠﺘﺼﻖ‬ stuck stucksting ‫ﯾﻠﺴﻊ / ﯾﻠﺪغ‬ stung stungstink ‫ﯾﻨﺘﻦ‬ stank stunkstride ‫ﯾﺨﻄﻮ‬ strode striddenstrike ‫ﯾﻀﺮب‬ struck struckstring ‫ﯾﺜﺒﺖ / ﯾﺨﺒﻂ‬ strung strungstrive ‫ﯾﻨﺎﺿﻞ / ﯾﻜﺎﻓﺢ‬ strove strivenswear ‫ُﻘﺴﻢ / ﯾﺤﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ swore swornsweep ‫ﯾﻜﻨﺲ‬ swept sweptswell ‫ﯾﺘﻮرم‬ swelled swollenswim ‫ﯾﺴﺒﺢ / ﯾﻌﻮم‬ swam swumswing ‫ﯾﮭﺘﺰ / ﯾﺘﺄرﺟﺢ‬ swang swungtake ‫ﯾﺄﺧﺬ‬ took takenteach ‫ُﻌّﻢ‬ ‫ﯾ ﻠ‬ taught taughttell ‫ُﺨﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ told toldthink ‫ﯾﻔﻜﺮ / ﯾﺆﻣﻦ‬ thought thoughtthrow ‫ﯾﺮﻣﻲ‬ threw thrownthrust ‫ﯾﻄﻌﻦ‬ thrust thrusttread ‫ﯾﻄﺄ / ﯾﺪوس‬ trod troddenundergo ‫ﯾﻤﺮ ﺑـ‬ underwent undergoneunderstand ‫ﯾﻔﮭﻢ‬ understood understoodundertake ‫ﯾﻌﮭﺪ ﺑـ‬ undertook undertakenupset ‫ﯾﻘﻠﻖ/ﯾﺰﻋﺞ/ﯾﻘﻠﺐ‬ upset upsetwake ‫ﯾﻮﻗﻆ‬ woke (ed) woken (ed)wear ‫ﯾﺮﺗﺪي‬ wore wornweave ‫ﯾﻨﺴﺞ‬ wove wovenwed ‫ﯾﺘﺰوج / ﯾﻌﻘﺪ ﻗﺮان‬ wedded weddedweep ‫ﯾﺒﻜﻲ‬ wept weptwin ‫ﯾﻜﺴﺐ / ﯾﻔﻮز/ ﯾﺮﺑﺢ‬ won wonwind ‫ﯾﻠﻒ‬ wound woundwring ‫ﯾﻌﺼﺮ‬ wrung wrungwrite ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺐ‬ wrote written   26
  •  3.The Present Continuous Tense  1) Formation:-    -:‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ •     I am He, She , It is + ‫ + ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ing They, You, We are 1. I am watching TV now. .‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ُﺸﺎﻫ‬ ‫ﺃ ﺩ ﺘ‬ 2. Samy is eating an apple. .‫ﻴﺄﻜ ُ ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺘﻔﺎﺤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ل‬ 3. We are doing our home work. .‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﺠﺒﻨﺎ‬2) Usage:    • -:‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭ ِ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻜﱡﻡ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ I am writing now. .‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﻜ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺘﺏ‬ -:‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭ ِ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺩ ٍ ﺁﺨ ٍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀ ِ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺙ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ While she is making tea, I am reading her new book. .‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻱ، ﺃﻗﺭﺃ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ :‫ِ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫3. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﺘ ﹰ ﻁﻭﻴ ﹰ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺤﺩﻭ ِ ِ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﺜﻪ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ 1. They are building a new school in our street. .‫ﺇﹼﻬﻡ ﻴﺒﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺴ ﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺎ ِ ِﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻋ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ 2. The sun is shining this morning. .‫ﺒﺎﺡ‬ ‫ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻁﹶ ُ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻤ‬‫ﺘﹶﺴ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻊ ﺸﺱ‬  3) Key words   :‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺠ‬ • now ‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ still ‫ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل‬ while ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ as ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ / ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬ at this moment ‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﹼﻠﺤﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ Look! !‫ُﻨﹾ ﹸﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻅ‬ at the present ‫ﺭ‬ ِ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀ‬ Listen! !‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ﻊ!/ ﺃﺘﹶﺴ‬ ‫ﺍﺴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ as long as ‫ﻤﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ‬ Smell! !‫ﺃﺘﹶ ﹸﻡ! / ﻫل ﺘ ﹸﻡ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ 27
  • ‫‪‬‬ ‫• ‪   ‬‬ ‫ﻗﺩ ‪‬ﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻠﹼﻌﺒﻴ ِ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺩ ٍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭ ِ ﺃﻥ ‪‬ﺤ ‪ ‬ﹶ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒ ﹰ، ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫ﺭ ﻴ ﺩﺙ ﻤ ﻼ‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫1.‬‫.‪He is going to buy some sugar‬‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ) ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل (‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺭﻑ )‪ (e‬ﻓﺈ ‪ ‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ‪‬ﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ )‪، (ing‬ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫2.‬‫‪write + ing = writing‬‬ ‫ﻴﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫‪ride + ing = riding‬‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻜﺏ‬‫‪come + ing = coming‬‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫+ ‪give‬‬ ‫‪ing = giving‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻌﻁﻲ/ ﻴﻤﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫‪smile + ing = smiling‬‬ ‫ﻴﺒﺘﺴﻡ‬ ‫+ ‪invite‬‬ ‫‪ing = inviting‬‬ ‫ﻴﺩﻋﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒـ )‪ (ee‬ﻓﻼ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ )‪ ،(ing‬ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫3.‬‫‪agree + ing = agreeing‬‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻕ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ‪‬ﻀﺎﻋﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ )‪ ،(ing‬ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫4.‬‫‪put + ing = putting‬‬ ‫ﻴﻀﻊ‬ ‫‪shut + ing = shutting‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻐﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫‪stop + ing = stopping‬‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫‪travel + ing‬‬ ‫‪= travelling‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺴﺎﻓﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫‪run + ing = running‬‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫‪dig + ing‬‬ ‫‪= digging‬‬ ‫ﻴﺤ ﹸﺭ‬ ‫ﻔ‬‫‪sit + ing = sitting‬‬ ‫ﻴﺠِﺱ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫‪swim + ing‬‬ ‫‪= swimming‬‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺒﺢ‬‫‪greet + ing = greeting‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺭ ‪‬ﺏ / ‪‬ﺤﻴﻲ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺤ‬ ‫‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻟﻡ ‪‬ﻀﺎ ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ )‪ (t‬ﻷّﻪ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻕ ﺒﺤﺭﻓﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﻴﻥ.‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻋ‬ ‫ﻫ‬‫‪enter + ing = entering‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻟﻡ ‪‬ﻀﺎﻋﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ )‪ ،(r‬ﻻ ‪ ‬ﺘﻀﻌﻴﻔﻪ ‪‬ﺼ ‪‬ﺏ ﺍﻟﱡﻁﻕ.‬ ‫ﻴ ﻌ ﻨ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺒـ )‪ (ie‬ﻓﺈ ‪ ‬ﻫﺫﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ )‪ (y‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ )‪ ،(ing‬ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫5.‬‫‪lie + ing = lying‬‬ ‫ﻴﺭ ﹸﺩ/ ﻴﻜﺫﺏ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫‪die + ing = dying‬‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻭﺕ‬‫ﻻ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ )ﺃﻱ: ﻻ ﻴﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫6.‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ(، ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫‪(Verbs of Sense)  ‬ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬‫‪see‬‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫‪notice‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻼﺤﻅ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫‪hear‬‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫‪taste‬‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺫ ‪‬ﻕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬‫‪smell‬‬ ‫ﻴ ﹸﻡ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫‪observe‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻼ ِﻅ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺤ‬‫‪touch‬‬ ‫ﻴﻠ ِﺱ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫‪(Verbs of Thinking)  ‬ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬‫‪understand‬‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻬﻡ‬ ‫‪mean‬‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ / ﻴﻘﺼﺩ‬‫‪suppose‬‬ ‫ﻴﻔﺘ ِﺽ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫‪believe‬‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩ‬‫‪feel‬‬ ‫ﻴﺸ ‪‬ﺭ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫‪think‬‬ ‫ﻴ ﹸﻥ / ‪‬ﻔ ﹼﺭ‬ ‫ﻅ ﻴﻜ‬‫‪know‬‬ ‫ﻴﻌ ِﻑ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫82‬
  •  :‫(، ﻤﺜل‬Verbs of Emotion) love ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺏ ﺸﺨﺼ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ wish ‫ﻴﺭﻏﺏ‬like ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺏ ﺸﻴﺌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ desire ‫ﻴﺭﻏﺏ ﻓﻲ‬hate ‫ﻴﻤ ﹸﺕ/ ﻴﻜﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ want ‫ﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬dislike ‫ﻴﻜﺭﻩ‬ refuse ‫ﻴﺭ ﹸﺽ‬ ‫ﻓ‬care ‫ﻐﻨﻲ‬ / ‫ﻴﻬﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ forgive ‫ﺴﺎﻤﺢ / ﻴﻌﻔﻭ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ :‫ (، ﻤﺜل‬Verbs of Possessing )    own ‫ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻙ‬ possess ‫ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻙ‬belong ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ / ‫ﻴ ﹸﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺨ‬   Verb To Have, Verb To Be  Helping Verbs    :‫، ﻤﺜل‬   appear ‫ﻴﻅﻬﺭ/ ﻴﺒﺩﻭ‬ disobey ‫ﻴﻌﺼﻰ‬seem ‫ﻴﻅﻬﺭ/ ﻴﺒﺩﻭ‬ suit ‫ﻼﺀﻡ‬ / ‫ﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬contain ‫ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ / ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ fit ‫ﻼﺀﻡ‬ / ‫ﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬obey ‫ﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ consist of ‫ﻥ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﻭ‬matter ‫ﺔ‬‫ﺸ ﹼل ﺃﻫﻤ‬ / ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻬ ﻴ ﻜ‬The Present Simple ‫ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒـﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ ﺍﻷﻋﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ • .‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﹸﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻍ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ٍ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺩﺭ ﺠﺩﹰ ﻭﻷﺴﺒﺎ ٍ ﺒﻼﻏ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨ‬I am understanding; he is hating her. .‫ ﻴﻜﺭﻫﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﹼﻨﻲ ﺃﻓﻬﻡ، ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻘﺎل ﺃﺒﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻴ‬I understand; he hates her. .‫ ﻴﻜﺭﻫﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﹼﻨﻲ ﺃﻓﻬﻡ، ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ُﻴﻘﺎل‬I am seeing you tomorrow. (Emphasis) (‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﹸﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﺄﺭﺍﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﹼﺄﻜﻴ ِ ﻏﺩﹰ. )ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺩ ﺍ ﺠ ﺘ‬Are you forgetting your promise? ( Threat) (‫ ﺍﻟﹼﻬﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﹸﻔﻴ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﺘﻨﺴﻰ ﻭﻋﺩﻙ؟ )ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺘ ﺩ ﺘ‬ Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬1. The train is travelling now. .‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﻐﺎﺩ‬  ‫ﺍﻟ ِﻁﺎ‬ ‫ﻘ ﺭﻴ ﺭ‬2. We are having a test at this moment. .ِ ‫ﻨﺄﺨ ﹸ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫ ِ ﺍﹼﻠﺤﻅ‬ ‫ﻩ ﻟ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺫ‬3. Listen! The tractor is working. .‫ﺍﺴﻤﻊ! ﺍﻟ ّﺎﺤﻨ ﹸ ﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﹼ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺸ‬4. Look! The plane is crashing. .‫ُﻨﻅﺭ! ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺌﺭﺓ ﺘﺘﺤﻁﻡ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺃ‬5. I am drinking tea at this moment. .ِ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫ ِ ﺍﹼﻠﺤﻅ‬  ‫ﺃﺸﹾ‬ ‫ﻩ ﻟ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺏ ﺸ‬29
  • 4) The Present Continuous Tense Negative and Interrogative:-  .(Verb To Be) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌ ِ ﺍﻟ‬not) ‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ 1 ‫ل ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ am, is, are + not + + ing ‫( ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل، ﻭﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ‬Verb To Be) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫2. ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺠ‬  Examples Negative  Interrogative She is working now. She is not working now. Is she working now? 1. .‫ﺇﹼﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﻤ ُ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺘﻌﻤ ُ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﺘﻌﻤ ُ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬ ‫ل‬ They are playing. They are not playing. Are they playing? 2. .‫ﺇﹼﻬﻡ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﺇﹼﻬﻡ ﻻ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻡ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ؟‬ I am playing. I am not playing. Are you playing? 3. . ‫ﺇﹼﻨﻲ ﺃﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ . ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ؟‬ Exercise No. 8 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬I) Choose the correct verbs between brackets: :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬1. Listen! They (shout - shouts - shouting - are shouting).2. (Do you listen - Are you listening - Do listen) to what I (say-says-am saying)?3. Look! Azza (type - types - typing - is typing) letters.4. Mother (make - is making - made) coffee now.5. Now, they (welcome - welcomes - are welcoming) the new pupil.6. The people (is standing - stand - are standing) at the bus stop at this moment.7. At the present time, my father (builds - building - is building) a house.8. I (answer - am answering - is answering) the teacher’s question now.9. She (do - does - is doing) her homework now. She usually (do-does-is doing) it in the evening.10. . I (am wearing-not wearing-am not wearing) a coat as it is not raining.II) Correct the verbs in brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺤ‬1. He (wait) for you at this moment.2. You can’t see Ahmed now, he (have) a bath.3. He is (drive) his car.4. Look! it (rain) heavily.5. Now, we (hear) very well what he say.6. I (think) that I (know) how to use a calculator now.  Glory to my God, the Greatest.      30
  •   4.The Past Continuous Tense  1) Formation:     -:‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ü ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬     I, He, She , It was +  + ing They, You, We were +  + ing 1. I was walking in the street. .ِ ‫ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﺃﻤﺸﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺸ ﻉ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬ 2. Ahmed was reading a story. .‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻘﺭﺃ ﻗﺼ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ 3. They were cooking the food. .‫ﻭﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻌ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ 2) Usage :       ü   .‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﺤﺩﻭﺜﻪ ﻭﻗﺘ ﹰ ﻁﻭﻴ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ 1. They were making a party yesterday. .‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻘﻴﻤﻭﻥ ﺤﻔﻠ ً ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬ ِ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ 2. They were sitting behind as she was driving her car. .‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺠﻠﺴﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠ ِ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻘﻭﺩ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ .‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﺭﻗﺎ ﻭﻗﺘﹰ ﻁﻭﻴ ﹰ، ﻓﻠﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻡ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬drive ‫ ﻭ‬sit ‫ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺜﻴﻥ‬2 ç ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ :‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭ ِ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺩ ٍ ﺁﺨ ٍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﺙ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ While she was driving her car, a policeman stopped her. . ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻘﻭﺩ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﻭﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﹸﺭﻁ‬ ‫ﺸ ﻲ‬   ç .‫ ﺼﻴﺎﻏ ﹸﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ً، ﻓﻠﺫﻟﻙ ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﻭﻗﺘﹰ ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺍ‬stop ‫1. ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﺎ‬ .‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ ﺼﻴﺎﻏ ﹸﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﻭﻗﺘﹰ ﻁﻭﻴ ﹰ، ﻓﻠﺫﻟﻙ ﺘ‬drive ‫2. ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ 3) Key words:     :‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ü ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺠ‬ while ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ as ‫ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ / ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ still ‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺯل‬ when ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬ 31
  • ‫‪‬‬ ‫• ‪ ‬‬‫ﻥ‬‫1. ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ‪ while‬ﺃﻭ ‪ as‬ﻟﺘﻌ‪‬ﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺩﺜﻴ ِ ﻜﺎﻨﺎ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﻴ ِ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔ ِ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ، ﺃﻱ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻭﺭﺍﺌﻬﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ ﻓﻌ ٌ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤـ ِ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺓ ل‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ، ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫.‪While he was reading the newspaper, his wife was watching TV‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻘﺭﺃ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺤﻴﻔﺔ، ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺯﻭﺠﺘﹶ ‪ ‬ﹸﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ.‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻪﺘ‬ ‫ُ ﺼ‬ ‫ً ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺘﺕ ‪ when‬ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻵﺨـﺭ ﻓـﻲ ﺯﻤـ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀـﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺓ‬ ‫2. ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ، ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫.‪My mother was cooking, when I came‬‬ ‫ُﻤﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻁ ‪ ‬ﹸ، ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ‪ ‬ﺭ‪ ‬ﹸ.‬ ‫ﺤﻀ ﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺦ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫3. ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻟ ﹸﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺩ ٍ ﻤﺘﺼ ٍ، ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴﺎﺭﻴﹰ ﻟﻔﺘﺭ ٍ ﺯﻤﻨﻴ ٍ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ) ِﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﻴـﻭﻡ ـ ﻜـل‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺓ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺡ ـ ﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀ ـ ِﻭﺍل ﺍﹼﻠﻴل......(، ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺼ‬‫.‪1. I was shopping all afternoon‬‬ ‫ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﺃﺘﺴ ‪‬ﻕ ِﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀ.‬ ‫ﻜﺕ ﻭ ﻁ‬‫.‪2. They were studying all day‬‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺩﻭﺴﻭﻥ ِﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ.‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫4. ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ as‬ﺃﻭ ‪ while‬ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ.‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫.‪While I was walking in the street, I saw my friend‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﺃﻤﺸﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺭﻉ، ﺭﺃﻴ ﹸ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻲ.‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺸ ِ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬‫:‪4) The Past Continuous Tense Negative and Interrogative‬‬ ‫‪  ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬ﻨﻔﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ‪ not‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ )‪ (Verb To Be‬ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ:‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫1.‬ ‫‪ + ing‬ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ + ‪ were + not‬ﺃﻭ ‪was‬‬‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ )‪ (Verb To Be‬ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل، ﻭ ﻭﻀـﻊ ﻋﻼﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫2.‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ.‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫‪Examples‬‬ ‫‪Negative ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Interrogative‬‬ ‫.‪I was working‬‬ ‫.‪I was not working‬‬ ‫?‪Were you working‬‬ ‫.1‬ ‫ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﺃﻋﻤل.‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺃ ﹸﻥ‪ ‬ﺃﻋﻤل.‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﻨﺕﹶ ﺘﻌﻤل؟‬ ‫.‪They were working. They were not working‬‬ ‫?‪Were they working‬‬ ‫.2‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ.‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ.‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ؟‬ ‫‪Examples‬‬ ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬‫.‪1. As I was walking in the street, I saw Samy‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﺃﻤﺸﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺭﻉ، ﺭﺃﻴﺕ ﺴﺎﻤﻲ.‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬‫.‪2. While we were having supper, all lights went out‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﹸ ﹼﺎ ﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻁﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺸﹶﺎﺀ، ﹸﻔ ِﺕ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﺭ.‬ ‫ﻁﺌ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻜﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺱ ﻜﺎﻥ ‪‬ﻌﻁﻴﻨﺎ ﺩﺭﺴﹰ، ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ‪‬ﺨﻠﺕﹾ ِﻁـ ﹲ ‪The teacher was giving us a lesson, when a cat walked‬‬ ‫ﺩ ﹶﹶ ﻗ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫.3‬ ‫.‪into the room‬‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟ ﹸﺭﻓ ِ.‬ ‫ﻐ ﺔ‬‫.‪4. He was reading a book, when the bell rang‬‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻘﺭﺃ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﹰ، ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ‪  ‬ﺍﻟﺠﺭﺱ.‬ ‫ﺭﻥ‬ ‫ُ ﺎ‬‫.‪5. Yesterday, he was watching a good film on TV‬‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ، ﻜﺎﻥ ‪‬ﺸﹶﺎﻫِﺩ ﻓﻴﻠﻤﹰ ﺠﻴﺩﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ.‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫23‬
  •  Exercise No. 9 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬I) Choose the correct verbs in brackets: :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬1. I (meet - met - was meeting) your brother, while I was studying in London.2. While you (played - plays - were playing) the piano, I (write - was writing - wrote) a letter.3. I (find - found - was finding) the ring as I (dig - dug - was digging) in the garden. When I (arriving - arrive - arrived - was arriving) at the house, he (still sleeping - was still4. sleeping - still slept).5. He (sits - sat - was sitting) in a restaurant, when I (see - saw - was seeing) him.6. What story (does Samy tell - did Samy tell - was Samy telling) you, when I came into the room. Last night, somebody (shouted - will shout - was shouting), while I (studying - was studying7. - studies).8. She (lived - was living - living) in England, when war (begin - beginning - began - was beginning).9. The phone rang while I (get - got - was getting) a bath. She (was talking - talked - talking) to her neighbor, when the baby (begin - began - was10. beginning) to cry.II) Correct the verbs between brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺤ‬1. The telephone (ring) just as I (leave) the house.2. He (have) his dinner, while I (have) a bath.3. She (cook) all morning yesterday.4. As they (to work), a man (to knock) at the door.5. As we (to play), it (rain).6. The pupil (sleep), when the teacher (come).7. What you (do) when I came in?8. As we (come) here, a policeman (stop) us.9. The boy (jump) of the bus, while it (move).10. He (watch) TV, when I (come).   He beat me and cried out, he got the start of me and complained.        33
  •   5. The Present Perfect Tense1Formation:    )    -:‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻡ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ü ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻤ‬ have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬has + Past Participle (P.P) (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ I, They, We, You have + P.P He, She, It has + P.P Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ 1. I have finished my homework. .‫ُ ﻭﺍﺠﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻬﻴﺕ‬ 2. Nader has written a letter. .‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺘﺏ ﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﺭﺴﺎﻟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ 3. They have met their teacher. .‫ﺴﻬﻡ‬   ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺭ‬2) Usage :        ü  :‫ﻨﹾ ﹸ ﻭﻗ ٍ ﻗﺭﻴ ٍ )ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟ ﹼﻜﱡﻡ(، ﻤﺜل‬  ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﻡﻤﺫ ﺕ ﺏ‬We have just received this letter. .(‫ﺔ ﺘﻭﹰ. )ﻟﻡ ﻴﻤ ِ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻁﻭﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻼ ِﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻗ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺍ‬ :‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺒﺩﺃ ﻭﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ، ﻤﺜل‬Maged has learnt English recently. .(‫ﺔ ﺤﺩﻴﺜ ﹰ. )ﺒﺩﺃ ﺘﻌﹸﻤﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﺘ ِ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻌّ ِﻬﺎ‬‫ ﻤﺎﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺘﻌﻠ‬ ‫ﹸﻤ‬‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ :‫ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰ ﻭ ﹸﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﹼﺘﻨﻭﻴﻪ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻤﺎ ِ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯ ِ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫3. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺘ‬ ‫ﻩ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻨ‬ ‫ﻡ‬We have already written the letter. .(‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻌ ﹰ. ) ﹸﻨﻭﻩ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﻨﺎ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻼ ﻨ‬ ‫ﺭ‬Or: We have written the letter already. :‫ِ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫4. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻭﺁﺜﺎﺭﻩ ﻻ ﺘﺯﺍل ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ ‫ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ. )ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺘ‬  ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻏ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬She has changed some words in the contract. .(‫ ﻋﻠﻴ ِ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺁﺜﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺎ ِﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻭﺘﺭﹼ‬ ‫ﺘﺏ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻨ‬3Key words :       :‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﺠﺢ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠ ِ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ü ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻴ‬ already ‫ﻓﻌ ﹰ / ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﻼ‬ since ‫ﻤﺫ‬ ‫ﻨﹾ ﹸ‬ yet ‫ﺤﹼﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ just ‫ﹰ / ُﻨﺫ ﻭﻗ ٍ ﻗﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ْ ‫ﻭﺍ‬ for ‫ﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ never ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻁﻠﻘﹰ / ﺃﺒﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺎ‬ ever (‫ﺅﺍل‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ recently ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜ ﹰ‬ lately ‫ﺨ ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺅ ﹼﺭﹰ‬ 34
  • ‫‪‬‬ ‫• ‪‬‬ ‫1. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﹼﻠﻐ ِ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‪‬ﺔ، ﻓﺈﹼﻪ ‪‬ﺴﺒ ﹸ ﺒﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﻗﺩ( ﺃﻭ)ﻟﻘﺩ(.‬ ‫ﻴ ﻨ ﻴ ﻕ‬ ‫ﻟ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻤ‬‫.‪I have finished my work‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻬﻴ ﹸ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ.‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫2. ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪ just‬ﺃﻭ ‪ already‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺩ ٍ ﺘﻡ ّﻤﻨ ﹸ ﻭﻗ ٍ ﻗﺭﻴ ٍ، ﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎ ِ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ just‬ﻗﺒـل‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺫ ﺕ ﺏ‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ already‬ﻓﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻗﺒل ﺍﹼﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ.‬ ‫ﺔ ﺠ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫‪have, has + already (just) + P.P‬‬ ‫‪have, has + P.P + already‬‬ ‫3. ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪) yet‬ﺤﹼﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ( ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ‪‬ﻤﻠ ِ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﻲ، ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ‬‫.‪He has not received the money yet‬‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺴﺘﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﹼﻘﻭﺩ ﺤ ﹼﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ )ﺒﻌﺩ(.‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫4. ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪) ever‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﻟﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ.‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫5. ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪) never‬ﺃﺒﺩﹰ( ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﺒﺎﻟ ﹼﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ‪ ever‬ﺒﻪ.‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺘ‬‫6. ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ‪ ever‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﻓﺈﹼ ‪ ‬ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ، ﺴﻭﺍ ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﻴﺠﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﹼﻔـﻲ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ:-‬‫?‪Have you ever travelled by air‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل(‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﺎﻓﺭﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺠﻭﹰ؟‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫.‪Yes, I have travelled by air‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻹﺜﺒﺎﺕ(‬ ‫ﻨﻌﻡ ﻟﻘﺩ ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﹸ ﺠﻭﹰ.‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍ‬‫.‪No, I have never travelled by air‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻔﻲ(‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻟﻡ ُﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺃﺒﺩﹰ ﺠﻭﹰ.‬ ‫ﺍ ﺍ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫7. ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪) recently‬ﺤﺩﻴﺜ ﹰ( ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﺙ )‪ (P.P‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ، ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫.‪I have recently written a new book‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺘﺒ ﹸ ﻤﺅﺨﺭﹰ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﹰ.‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ ﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫.‪Recently, I have written a new book‬‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺨﺭﹰ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺒ ﹸ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﹰ.‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﻗﺕ ‪ِ  ‬ﺩ ﻟﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل.‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩ‬ ‫8. ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ ) since‬ﻨﹾ ﹸ(‬ ‫ﻤﺫ‬‫‪since + 1985, yesterday, April, 7 oclock, last …… etc‬‬‫.5991 ‪I havent seen Ahmed since‬‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ‪‬ﻨﹾ ﹸ ﻋﺎﻡ 5991ﻡ.‬ ‫ﻤﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪ ‬ﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل.‬ ‫ﻤﺩ‬ ‫9. ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ِ ) for‬ﻤﺩﺓ(‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫‪for + 3 weeks, along time, an hour, six years …..etc‬‬‫.‪She has been in London for seventeen years‬‬ ‫ً.‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻨﺩﻥ ﻟ ‪‬ﺩ ِ ﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻋﺎﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺓ‬ ‫01. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻌل ﺒﻌﺩ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ since‬ﻓﺈ ﹼﻪ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻡ.‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫.‪I have come here since you left‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺤﻀﺭ ﹸ ﺇﻟﻰ ‪‬ﻨﺎ ‪‬ﻨﹾ ﹸ ﺃﻥ ﻏﺎﺩﺭﺕ.‬ ‫ﻫ ﻤﺫ‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫:‪4) The Present Perfect Tense Negative and Interrogative‬‬ ‫‪  ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ü‬ﻨﻔﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ‪ not‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ )ﺃﻱ: ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ have‬ﺃﻭ‪.(has‬‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫53‬
  • ‫( ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـل، ﻭﻭﻀـﻊ‬has ‫ ﺃﻭ‬have ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ )ﺃﻱ: ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ü ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺠ‬ Examples Negative   Interrogative I have finished work. I have not finished work. Have you finished work? 1. .‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻬﻴ ﹸ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺕ‬ .‫ﻟﻡ ُﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻗﺩ ﺃﻨﻬﻴﺕَ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل؟‬ Samia has met Mona. Samia has not met Mona. Has Samia met Mona? 2. .‫ﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .‫ﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻡ ﹸﻘﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﻰ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ Exercise No. 10 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬*) Correct the verbs in the following sentences: :‫ﻤل ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺤ‬1. I ………………. (not, see) my friend since last month.2. Hatem ………………. (already, eat) his breakfast.3. Hassan …………….. (never, be) to Jordan.4. I and Ali ……………. (finish) the work yet.5. She ………….. (not, meet ) him since she was in Paris. It is no use crying over silt milk.     36
  •   6.The Past Perfect Tense  1) Formation:    :‫ﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ ﻴﺘﻜ‬ü ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ had + past participle (P.P)       1. She had bought a paper. .‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﺕ ﺼﺤﻴﻔ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ 2. They had met their friends. .‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻭﺍ ﺃﺼﺩﻗﺎﺌﻬﻡ‬  2) Usage:    ،‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻷﻭل ﻴﻭﻀـﻊ ﻓـﻲ ﺯﻤـ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀـﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ، ﻓﺈ‬ ‫ﻤﻠ ٍ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺴﺒﻕ ﺃﺤ‬ ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺤﺩﺜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ü ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺒﻌﺩﻩ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ After they had eaten their breakfast, they went to school. .ِ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻭﺍ ﻁﻌﺎﻡ ﺇﻓﻁﺎﺭﻫﻡ، ﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ 3) Key words :       :‫ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ، ﻓﺈ‬ ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ü ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻴ ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ before ‫ﻗﺒل ﺃﻥ‬ until ‫ﺤﹼﻰ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ after ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ‬ by the time ‫ﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ till ‫ﺤﹼﻰ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ as soon as ‫ﺤﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬  •   .( ‫( )ﻗﺒل ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻗﺒل‬before Before) ‫ ﺃﻱ‬before ‫1. ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻡ ﻗﺒل ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ‬  (past perfect before (past simple)   (had + P.P)  .( ‫( ) ﺒﻌﺩ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ‬after After) ‫ ﺃﻱ‬after ‫2. ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻡ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ‬   (Past simple) after  (Past perfect   (had + P.P) 37
  •  .‫ﺴﺒﻕ ﺒﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ: ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ‬  ‫ﺔ ﻓﺈﹼ‬‫3. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻨﻪ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺩ‬1. After I had done my home work, I played football. .‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﹸﻨ ﹸ ﻗﺩ ﹸ ُ ﺒﻭﺍﺠﺒﻲ، ﻟ ِﺒﺕ ﹸﺭﺓﹶ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻌ ُﻜ‬ ‫ﻜ ﺕ ﻗﻤﺕ‬2. I had washed my face before I came to school. .ِ ‫ﻠﹾ ﹸ ﻭﺠﻬﻲ، ﻗﺒل ﺃﻥ ﺁﺘﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﹸﻨ ﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻏﹶ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬4) The Past Perfect Tense Negative and Interrogative:      .(had) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬not ‫ﻨﻔﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬ ü ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫ﺔ‬ِ ‫( ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل، ﻭﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ‬had) ‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ü ‫ﺘ‬ .‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ Examples Negative   Interrogative She had made a cake. She had not made a cake. Had she made a cake? 1. .‫ﺕ ﻜﻌﻜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .‫ﺕ ﻜﻌﻜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻡ ﺘ ﹸﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻜﻌﻜ ﹰ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ We had written a letter. We had not written a letter. Had they written a letter? 2. .‫ﹸ ﹼﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﻨﺎ ﺭﺴﺎﻟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻨ‬ .‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻨ ﹸﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﻨﺎ ﺭﺴﺎﻟ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﻭﺍ ﺭﺴﺎﻟ ﹰ؟‬ ‫ﺔ‬ Exercise No. 11 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬*) Correct the verbs between brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺤ‬1. Mazen …….. (drink) much tea before he ……… (finish) his supper.2. After Nadia …….... (cook) the food, her father …… (come).3. They ………… (leave) Rafah before I …………. (reach).4. Samy ……. (go) to school after he ……. (take) his breakfast.5. She ……….. (thank) him because he (save) her daughter.6. The police ………… (arrest) the thief who ………… (steal) the bag. If you want peace, be prepared for war.       38
  •   7.The Future Simple Tense    1) Formation:     :‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻤ‬ •  shall will + (infinitive)     | :‫ ﺃﻱ‬We ‫ ﻭ‬I ‫ﺘﻜﹼﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻋل ﺍﻟ‬shall ‫1. ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ )ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻤ ﻠ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ (I , We shall + Infinitive) -:‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫( ﻤﻊ ﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل، ﺃﻱ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ‬will ‫2. ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ )ﺴﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ( He, She, It, They, You will + infinitive) 1. I shall meet Mohammed tomorrow. .‫ﺤﻤﺩﹰ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﺴ ُﻗﺎﺒل‬ ‫ﻤ ﺍ ﺍ‬ ‫ﺄ‬ 2. They will visit us next Friday. .‫ﻤﻌ ِ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺯﻭﺭﻭﻨﻨﺎ ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬ 3. Shadia will come next month. .‫ﺸﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺴﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ 2) Usage:       • .‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺴﻴﺤ‬ ‫1. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻨﺒﺅ ﻋ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ 1. They will visit us tomorrow. .‫ﺴﻴﺯﻭﺭﻭﻨﻨﺎ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ 2. Cars will move without petrol in the future. .ِ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ، ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺘﺭﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺘﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ ل‬ ‫ﻙ ﺴ‬ .‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒ ِ ﺒﺸﻜ ٍ ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﺴﻴﻘﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻤ ل‬ I shall see you tomorrow. .‫ﺴﺄﺭﺍﻙ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ 3) Key words:     :‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ، ﻓﺈ‬ ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭ ِﺩﺕ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ü ‫ﻥ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻴ ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ tomorrow ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻏﺩﹰ‬ in the future ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ next ..... ...‫ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻲ/ ﺍﻟﻘﺎ ِﻡ‬tonight ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ next (week, month, year, …) soon ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺤﺎ ﹰ‬ 39
  •  Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ 1. The match will begin soon. .‫ﺒﺎﺭﺍﺓ ﺤﺎ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ُ ﻤ‬ 2. Ramy will travel tomorrow. .‫ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺭﺍﻤﻲ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ 3. I shall watch TV tonight. .‫ﺴ ُﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺄ‬ 4. It will be hot in the future. .‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺭﺓ‬ 5. She will come back next year. .‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺴﺘﻌﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ 4)The Future Simple Tense Negative and Interrogative:     .(shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬will) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬not) ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ü  shall will not + ‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل، ﻭﻭﻀـﻊ ﻋﻼﻤـﺔ‬shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬will ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ü .‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺠ‬  | .‫ﺤﺎﺩﺜﺔ‬ ‫( ﻭﺨﺎﺼ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ll ) ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ‬shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬will ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﹸﹼﹰ ﻤﻥ‬ .1 ‫ﺔ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ .(‫ )ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ‬shant shall not ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬ Ÿ .(‫ ) ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ‬wont will not ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬ Ÿ :‫ﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺩ، ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨ‬ ‫ﻌﻴ ٍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ٍ ‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ، ﻟﻠﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺨﻁﻴ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ .2 ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻁﻤ ﻥ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ am / is / are + going to   1. He is going to read a new story. (‫ﺔ‬ ‫) ﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ .‫ﻫﻭ ﺴﻴﻘﺭﺃ ﻗﺼ ﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ُ ﺔ‬ 2. Shadi is going to weekend in London. (Planning) (‫)ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ .‫ﻁﻠﺔﹶ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍ ُﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻨﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﻘﻀﻲ ﺸﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ Examples Negative   Interrogative I shall go to school. I shant go to school. Will you go to school? 1. .ِ ‫ﺴﺄﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ُ .ِ ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﻟﻥ ﺃﺫﻫ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﺘﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ ِ؟‬ ‫ﺔ‬ He will leave school. He wont leave school. Will he leave school? 2. .‫ﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺴ ﺭ‬ .‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻥ ﻴﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ َ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻭ ﺴﻴﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ؟‬ Hell come to school. He wont come to school. Will he come to school? 3. .ِ ‫ﻫﻭ ﺴﻴﺤﻀﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ .ِ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻥ ﻴﺤﻀﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﻴﺤﻀﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ ِ؟‬ ‫ﺔ‬ 40
  •  Exercise No.12 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬I) Choose the correct verb in the brackets:- :‫ﺤﻴﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬1. They (will go - are going - is going) to move to a new house.2. He (studies - will study - is studying) all morning tomorrow.3. We (starts- shall start - will start) work next week.4. Tomorrow, I (swam - swim - shall swim) in the sea.5. Ali (will built - built - will build) a new house in the future.II) Correct the verbs between brackets:- :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺤ‬1. She (clean) the rooms tomorrow.2. We (see) him next Friday.3. Ahmed (visit) us in the next Monday.4. My father (be) forty next May.5. I (take) the exam next Tuesday.6. Mazens father (arrive) to Gaza tomorrow.7. Nadia (study) at home tomorrow.8. We (meet) Ali next week.9. When you (meet) them? I (meet) them at 7:00 oclock.10. He (leave) in a few days.  Birds of a feather flock together.      41
  •  Exercise No. 13 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬  General Exercises on Tenses  I) Correct the verbs between brackets:- :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺤ‬1. He usually (visit) us once a month.2. I (make) few mistakes but she (make) many mistakes.3. He (live) in England since 1985.4. We (finish) the project by the end of the year.5. Many planets ( to move) round the sun.6. He (travel) to France next week.7. If you think it over, you (see) I am right.8. The doctor (examine) him and (give) him some pills.9. After I (work) for some time, I (hear) a knock at the door.10. I (wait) her till she comes back.11. I (wait) her till she came back.12. Samy (come) tomorrow.13. My uncle (become) better.14. She (leave) London before we (reach).15. I (not see) my friend since his absence.16. I (see) you yesterday; you (sit) outside a café.17. The pupils (learn) English grammar now.18. Yesterday, I (visit) my uncle Khalil.19. While he (learn) to drive, he (have) many accidents.20. Before I (come) to school, I (eat) my breakfast.21. They (buy) some fruits now.22. A policeman always (direct) traffic there.23. Rain (fall) heavily tonight.24. He (travel) in Europe when he (meet) Mary in France.25. She (see) the accident before she (go) to school. II) Choose the correct answers between brackets: :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼ‬1. I (borrow - borrows - borrowed) three books from the library last week.2. My friend (lived - lives - has lived) in Rafah since 1980.3. Now, he (watches - watched - is watching) TV.4. After I (had - had had - have had) some biscuits, I had a drink.5. While she (was making - makes - made) tea, they (open - opened - are opening) her bag.6. I have not met Ali (for - ago - since) the last two weeks.7. Did you (see - saw - seen) Ahmed yesterday?42
  • 8. Have you (did - do - done) your work?9. She (didnt finish - hasnt finished - hadnt finished) her new book yet.10. Generally, I (think - am thinking - thought) the story is not bad.11. Before I (go - went - had gone) home, they (left - had left - leave). Last night, I (sleep - am sleeping - slept) for six hours when I (receive - received - was12. receiving) a telephone call.13. We (move - will move - shall move) those stones soon.14. They (visit - will visit - had visited) the farm tomorrow.15. Have you (never - ever - ago) visited Jerusalem?16. I have (never - ever - ago) visited Jerusalem.17. Samy always (go - goes - went) to school on foot.18. While I (am walking - was walking - walked) in the street I (see - saw - seen) my friend.19. Look! He (jumps - was jumping - is jumping). By the time, he (finishes - had finished - finished) answering the test, the bell (ring - rang -20. rung). As soon as he (had finished – finishes - finished) answering the test, the bell (ring -rang -21. rung).22. She (writes - writing - write) to her parents on Fridays.23. What (they were doing - they did - were they doing) when the teacher entered?24. I (lived - have lived - has lived) here since I (was - were - am) a little boy.25. He (feel - felt - feels) sick after he (eats - ate - had eaten) three cakes. The exception proves the rule.             43
  •    Tense   Formation   Examples Negative    Interrogative :‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ‬ 1) I play football.  dont +  Do + …. ? .‫ ﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺏﻜ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ I, You, We, They :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ‬I, You, We, They :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ 2) He reads a story. I dont play football. Do you play football? :‫ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ .‫ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﺭُ ﻗ‬ ‫ﺃ ﺼﺔ‬ .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻟﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺘﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ؟‬ The Present Simple I, You, We, They  doesnt + Does + +…. ?  s + ‫× ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ He, She, It :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ He, She, It :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ He doesnt read a story. Does he read a story? He, She, It .‫ﻫﻭ ﻻ ﻴﻘﺭُ ﻗﺼ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻴﻘﺭﺃ ﻗﺼﺔ؟‬ :‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ‬ 1) They watched TV.   didnt + Did +...? .‫ﻫﻡ ﺸﺎﻫﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ .‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ .‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ The Past Simple 1) They didnt watch TV. 1) Did they watch TV?  2) He studied the lesson. .‫ﻫﻡ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺸﺎﻫﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺸﺎﻫﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ؟‬ ‫ﺘ‬ . ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬   ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺱ ﺩ ﺱ‬ 2) He didnt study the lesson. 2) Did he study the lesson? . ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺱ ﺩ ﺱ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺩ ﺱ‬ :‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ 1) I am writing now. am, is, are + not + ing Am, Is, Are + ‫ + ﻓﺎﻋل‬ + ing … ? .‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﻜ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺘﺏ‬ am, is, are + ‫ + ﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ing 1) I am not writing now 1) Are you writing now? The Present 2) He is reading a story. .‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﺭُ ﻗﺼ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃ ﺔ‬ .‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻜ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕﹶ ﺘﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬ Continuous 2) Is he reading a story?  2) He is not reading a story. 3) They are walking. .ً‫ﻫﻭ ﻻ ﻴﻘﺭُ ﻗﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﺭُ ﻗﺼ ﹰ؟‬ ‫ﺃ ﺔ‬ .‫ﻡ ﻴﻤﺸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ 3) They are not walking 3) Are they walking? ‫ﻡ ﻴﻤﺸﻭﻥ؟‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ‫ﻫ‬ 44
  •  .‫ﻫﻡ ﻻ ﻴﻤﺸﻭﻥ‬     Formation   Examples Negative    Interrogative  Tense :‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ 1) I was running. was, were + not +‫ + ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ing Was, Were + ‫ + اﻟﻤﺼﺪر + ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬ing.. ? .‫ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﺃﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬ was, were + ‫ + ﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ing 1) I was not running. 1) Were you running? The Past 2) She was making tea. Continuous .‫ﻟﻡ ﺃ ﹸﻥ ﺃﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻫل ﹸﻨﹾﺕﹶَ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ؟‬ ‫ﻜ‬ .‫ ﺸﺎﻴﹰ‬ ِ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻌﺩ ﺎ‬  3) We were drinking milk. 2) She was not making tea. 2) Was she making tea? .‫ ﺸﺎﻴﹰ‬ ِ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺘ ﹸﻥ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻜ ﺘ ﻌﺩ ﺎ‬ ‫ ﺸﺎﻴﹰ؟‬ ِ ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻌﺩ ﺎ‬ .‫ﹸﹼﺎ ﻨﺸﺭﺏ ﺤﻠﻴﺒﹰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﻨ‬ 3) We were not drinking milk. 3) Were they drinking milk? ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻨ ﹸﻥ ﻨﺸﺭﺏ ﺤﻠﻴﺒ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺸﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺤﻠﻴﺒﹰ؟‬ ‫ﺎ‬ :‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ 1) I have done my work. have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬has +not + P.P Have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬Has + ‫ + ﻓﺎﻋل‬P.P …..? .‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﹸﻤ ﹸ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻗ ﺕ‬ The Present have‫ ﺃﻭ‬has + P.P 1) I have not done my work. 1) Have you done your work?  Perfect 2) He has written the letter. .‫ﻟﻡ ﺃ ﹸﻡ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻫل ﹸﻤﺕﹶ ﺒﻌﻤِﻙ؟‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ .‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﹶﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﺏ ﺭ‬    2) He has not written the letter. 2) Has he written the letter? 3) They have played basketball. .‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜ ﹸﺏ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﹶﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﺏ‬  .‫ﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻟ ِﺒﻭﺍ ﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻌ ﻜ ﺴ‬ 3) They have not played basketball. 3) Have they played basketball? .‫ﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﺍ ﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻜ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﻟ ِﺒﻭﺍ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ 45
  •  :‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ 1) I had met Ali. had + not + P.P Had + ‫ + ﻓﺎﻋل‬P.P …..? had + P.P .‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠ ﹸ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬ 1) I had not met Ali. 1) Had you met Ali? The Past 2) She had cooked the food. .‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺃ ﹸﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﹰ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕﹶ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ Perfect .‫ﺨﺕﹾ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﻁﹶ‬ ‫ﺒﹶ ﻁ‬ 2) She had not cooked the food. 2) Had she cooked the food?   3) You had done the work. .‫ﻟﻡ ﺘ ﹸﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻁﺒﺨﺕ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﺨﺕﹾ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺎﻡ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﻁﹶ‬ ‫ﺒﹶ ﻁ‬ .‫ﹸﻨﹾﺕﹶ ﻗﺩ ﻓﻌﻠﺕﹶ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻜ‬ 3) You had not done the work. 3) Had you done the work? .‫ﻟﻡ ﺘ ﹸﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻓﻌﻠﺕﹶ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻫل ﹸﻨﹾﺕﹶ ﻗﺩ ﻓﻌﻠﺕﹶ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل؟‬ ‫ﻜ‬     Formation   Examples Negative    Interrogative  Tense :‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ 1) I shall visit you tomorrow. shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬will + not + ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ Shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬Will + ‫?.… ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ + ﻓﺎﻋل‬ .‫ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﺴﺄﺯﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻙ ﺍ‬ The Future shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬will +‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ 1) I shant visit you tomorrow. 1) Will you visit me tomorrow? Simple 2) He will arrive next Friday. we ‫ ﻭ‬I :‫ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻊ‬‫ﺘ‬ shall .‫ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻥ ﺃﺯﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻙ ﺍ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﺘﺯﻭﻨﻲ ﻏﺩﹰ؟‬ ‫ﺍ‬  .‫ﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺼل ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ :‫ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ will 2) He wont arrive next Friday. 2) Will he arrive next Friday? He, She, It, They, You .‫ﻟﻥ ﻴﺼل ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﻴﺼل ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ؟‬   Nobody listens until you say something wrong. .           46
  •            Key words of the Tenses   Tense The Present The Present The Past The Present The Past The Future The Past Simple Simple Continuous Continuous Perfect Perfect Simple always ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤ ﹰ‬ yesterday ‫ﺃﻤــﺱ‬ now ‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ while ‫ ﺒﻴﻨـﻤﺎ‬already ‫ﻓﻌ ﹰ / ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﻼ‬ after ‫ﺒـﻌﺩ‬ tomorrow ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻏـﺩﹰ‬ often ً ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬ once ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ‬ at the present when ‫ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ just ‫ﺘﻭﹰ / ﻤﻨﺫ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻗﻠﻴل‬ before ‫ﻗـﺒل‬ soon ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺤـﺎ ﹰ‬ Key Words ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﻀﺭ‬ usually ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰ‬ one day at this moment ever as soon as in the future as ‫ﺒﻴـﻨﻤﺎ / ﻁـﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻴﻭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻫـ ِ ِ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻩ‬ (‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤـﺭﺓ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل‬ ‫ﺤـﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ sometimes ‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨـ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ just now ‫ﻗـﺒل ﺍﻵﻥ‬ Look! !‫ ُﻨ ﹸﺭ‬still ‫ﺃﻅ‬ never ‫ﺍ ﻤ ﺎ‬ ‫ﻁﻠﻘﹰ‬ / ‫ﺃﺒﺩﹰ‬ until ‫ﺤـﹼﻰ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ tonight ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴـﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺯل/ ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل‬ till ‫ﺤـﹼﻰ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ generally ‫ﻋ ﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻤﹰ‬ ago ‫ﻤ ﺫ‬ ‫ﻨـ ﹸ‬ Listen! !‫ﺍﺴﻤﻊ‬ yet ‫ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ / ﺒﻌـﺩ‬by the time next … ... ‫ﺍﻟﹼـﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺤﻴـﻨﻤﺎ‬ every….. ….‫ ﹸـل‬in olden times ‫ﻜ‬ Smell! !‫ﺃﺘ ﹸﻡ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ since ‫ﻤ ﺫ‬ ‫ﻨـ ﹸ‬ (next month, year, ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ 47
  •  frequently in the past ‫ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ while ‫ﺒﻴـﻨﻤﺎ‬ recently ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻴـﺜﹰ‬ day…) ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ِـﺭﺍﺭﹰ / ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﹼـﺎﻟﻲ، ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ (.. ،‫ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ، ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ never last …. ....‫ ﺴﺎﺒ ﹸ‬as ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ / ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬ lately ‫ﻤ ﺨ ﺍ‬ ‫ﺅ ﹼـﺭﹰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻁﻼﻕ/ﺃﺒﺩﹰ‬last month, year, day….) still ‫ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل‬ rarely ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨـﺎﺩﺭﹰ‬ as long as ‫ﻤﺎﺩﺍﻡ‬ for ‫ـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬48
  •   Conditional Sentences (If Rules) (Conditionals)   .‫( ﺘﻌﻨﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ، ﻟﻭ، ﺇﻥ‬if) ü .‫( ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺸﺭﻁ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺒﻁ‬if)‫ ﹸﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ü ‫ﺘ‬ .‫ ﺸﻴﺌﹰ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﹸﻔﻴﺩ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺔ، ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫( ﻟﺘ‬if) ‫ ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ü ‫ﺘ ﻥ ﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ .‫ﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺸﺭﻁ ﻭﻓﻌل ﺠﻭﺍﺏ ﺸﺭﻁ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ ﺍﻷﻋﻡ ﺴﻨﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ü ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ :‫ﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ü ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ 1-The Zero Conditional          1) Form:        if + Present Simple Present Simple ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤ‬  2) Usage:  100  ‫ﺍﺌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺌﻕ ﺍﻟ‬ü  ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫( ﻓﻲ ﻭﺴ ِ ﺍﻟ‬if) ‫ﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻠ ِ، ﺃ‬ ‫ﺯﺀ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫( ﻨﻀﻊ ﻓﺎﺼﻠﺔ ) , ( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟ‬if) ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒـ‬ ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ u ‫ﻁ ﺠ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ .‫ﻓﻼ ﻨﻀﻊ ﻓﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬ Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬ 1. If water freezes, it turns into ice. (‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻠﺞ. )ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ ﻴﺘﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﺘﺠﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ، ﻓﺈﹼ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ ﻭ‬ 2. If we put sugar in water, it dissolves. (‫ﻜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ، ﻓﺈﹼﻪ ﻴﺫﻭﺏ. )ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ 3. If we heat iron, it expands. (‫ ﻴﺘﻤﺩﺩ. )ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﹸﺴ ﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ، ﻓﺈ ﹼ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺨ‬ 2.The First Conditional          1) Form:        if + Present Simple Future Simple ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ shall / will + ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ .will ‫ ﺃﻭ‬shall ‫ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬can ‫ ﺃﻭ‬may ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ × 49
  •  2) Usage: .(Probable) (‫ﺤﺘﻤﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﺤـﺩﻭﺙ‬  ‫ﺔ ﻟﻸﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜـﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺤﻘـﻕ )ﺃ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ü ‫ﻱﻤ‬ ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻨ‬  50   Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬ 1. If you eat too much, youll be sick. .‫ﻟﻭ ﺘﺄ ﹸل ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰ، ﻓﺴﺘﻤﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ 2. If he works hard, he will succeed. .‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﻌﻤل ِﺠ ٍ، ﻓﺴﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺒ ﺩ‬ 3. If he works hard, he can succeed. .‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ 4. If he works hard, he may succeed. .‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ 5. Youll fall if you are not careful. .‫ﺴﺘﻘﻊ، ﺇﻥ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺤﺫﺭ‬ 6. If he does not work hard, he will not succeed. .‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ 3.The Second Conditional            1) Form:         if + Past Simple should / would + ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .would ‫ ﺃﻭ‬should ‫ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬could ‫ ﺃﻭ‬might ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ × 2) Usage: -:‫ﺔ ﻟﻠ ﹸﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺸ ﻴ ﺘ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ü Improbable            10   If he won the prize, he would buy a new car. .(‫ ﺴﻴﻜﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺃ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻤل ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ، ﻓﺴﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﹰ.) ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ / ﻟﻭ ﻜﺴ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺠ ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺏ‬   If they had some money, they would stay at a hotel. 1. .(‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﹼﻘﻭﺩ، ﻟﻤﻜﺜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺩ ِ. )ﺃﻱ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﻨﻘﻭﺩﹰ ﺍﻵﻥ، ﻟﺫﺍ ﻓﺈﹼﻬﻡ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﺜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻨﺩﻕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ If I were rich, I wouldnt drive an old car. .‫ﹰ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﹸﺩ ﹸ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﻗﺩﻴﻤ ﹰ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﻏﻨ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻴﺎ‬ 2. .(‫ﻤﻜﻥ. )ﺃﻱ: ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻨﺎ ﺯﻤﻥ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺃﹼ‬‫ ( ﻟﹸﺒ‬I ) ‫( ﻤﻊ‬was) ‫( ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬were) ‫ ﺃﹼﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻨﺎ‬ ♦ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻴ ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ 3. If I were you, I would (Id) tell the police. .‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻙ، ﻷﺨﺒﺭ ﹸ ﺍﻟ ﱡﺭﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺸ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ .‫(، ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ )ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ( ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬I, He, She, It) ‫( ﻤﻊ‬was) ‫( ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬were) ‫ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ u ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ 50
  •  Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬ 1. If he studied hard, he would (could) succeed. .(‫ ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻟﻨﺠﺢ ) ﻻﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬   ‫ﻟﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺱ ﺩ‬ 2. If I met a lion, I would climb a tree. .‫ﻟﻭ ﻗﺎﺒﻠ ﹸ ﺃﺴﺩﹰ، ﻓﺴﺄﺘﺴﹼ ﹸ ﺸﺠﺭ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺍ‬ 3. If I were you, Id take the money. .‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕ ُﻤﻜﺎﻨﻙ، ﻷﺨﺫ ﹸ ﺍﻟﱡﻘﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻨ‬ 4. If I were a car, I would be Mercedes. .‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ، ﻟﺭﻏﺒ ﹸ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭ ِ ﻤﺭﺴﻴﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ 5. If you found a snake in your room, you should run away. .‫، ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻬﺭﺏ‬ ِ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻭﺠﺩﺕﹶ ﺜﻌﺒﺎﻨﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺭﻓ‬ ‫ﺘﻙ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ 3.The Third Conditional          1) Form:         if + Past Perfect should have / would have + P.P ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺘﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .would have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬should have ‫ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ِﻥ‬could have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬might have ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻻﻤ‬ ü 2) Usage: ‫ﺙ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲ ٍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤـ‬Impossible) ‫ﺴﺘﺤﻴل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻉ‬ ٍ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﹸ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﺀﻤ‬ ‫ﺸ ﻴ ﺘ‬ ‫ﻟﺠ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ × 0  .‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﺩﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺤﺩﺙ‬  ‫ﻨ‬ Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬ If he had informed the police, he wouldnt have 1. .َ‫ ﺍﻟ ﱡﺭﻁﺔ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﹸ ِل‬  ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺨﹶ‬ ‫ﻗﺘ‬ ‫ﺒﺭ ﺸ‬ been killed. If he had studied hard, he would (could) have ‫ ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻨﺠﺢ ) ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺱ ﺩ‬ 2. succeeded. .( ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬ If I had listened to his advice, I wouldnt have lost ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﻌ ﹸ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺼﻴﺤﺘ ٍ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﻨ ﹸ ﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ 3. the money. .(‫ﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩ ﹸ ﺍﻟﱡﻘﻭﺩ.) ﹸﻌ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺘﺒ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻨ‬ 4. If my parents hadnt married, I wouldnt have been born. .‫ﺠﺎ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻭِﺩ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴ ﹸﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ 5. If he had made a mistake, he would have apologized. .‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻋ ِلَ ﺨﻁً، ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﺫﺭ‬ ‫ﺄ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ 51
  •   u     If‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﺒﺩﻭﺀ ﹰ ﺒﺄﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬ ‫ (، ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟ‬if ) ‫ﺫﻓﺕ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫ ﹰ ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺸﺭﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ü‫ﺅﺍل( )ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺒﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻤﻴﺔ )ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫( ﻭﻻ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟ‬Should - Had - Were) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل(، ﻭ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﺁﺨ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺠ‬ .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬should) ‫ ( ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬if ) ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻑ‬ (1 ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ If he studies hard, he will succeed.1. (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻓﺴﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ = Should he studies hard, he will succeed. If he succeeded, he would join the university.2. (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﻟﻭ ﻨﺠﺢ، ﻓﺴﻴﻠﺘﺤﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ = Should he succeeded, he would join the university. .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬were) ‫ ( ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬if ) ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻑ‬ (2 ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ If I were a bird, I would fly.1. .‫ﺼﻔﻭﺭﹰ، ﻟ ِﺭ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍ ﻁ ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕﻋ‬ = Were I a bird, I would fly. If he bought that car, it would cost him much. .‫ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰ‬ ‫ﺎﺭﺓ، ﻟﻜﹼﻔﺘ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﻯ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻠ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻴ‬2. = Were he to buy that car, it would cost him much. .if ‫ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ِﻥ‬were…. to ‫ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻨﺎ‬  ‫ﻻﻤ‬ .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﺙ ِﻥ ﺍﻟ‬Had) ‫ ( ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬if ) ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻑ‬ (3 ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺜ ﻤ ﺠ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ .‫ ﺒﻤﻔﺭﺩﻫﺎ‬had ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ü .‫ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬had ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ü If I had enough money, I would buy a new house.1. (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ ﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻜﺎﻓﻴ ﹰ، ﻻﺸﺘﺭﻴﺕ ﻤﻨﺯ ﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﻟﻭ ﺃﻤﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻙ ﻻ ﺎ‬ = Had I enough money, I would buy a new house. If he studied hard, he would have succeeded.2. (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻨﺠﺢ‬   ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺱ ﺩ‬ = Had he studied hard, he would have succeeded. If they had obeyed me, they would have won the prize.3. (‫)ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻁﺎﻋﻭﻨﻲ، ﻟﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺒﺤﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ‬ = Had they obeyed me, they would have won the prize. .unless ‫ﺔ ﺘﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫4( ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺸ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ unless = if…..not .‫ﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲ ٍ ﺴﻠﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺠﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻁ ﻤﻨﻔﻴﹰ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻴﺒ‬ ü .‫ﺤ ِﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ ﻭﻓﻌل ﺠﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁ‬ ‫( ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟ‬unless) ‫ﻭﻴﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺩ‬ ü If he does not succeed, he will not join the university.1. .‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ، ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﻠﺘﺤﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ = Unless he succeeds, he will not join the university. If he did not work hard, he would not succeed.2. .‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠ ٍ، ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ = Unless he worked hard, he would not succeed.52
  •  If he had not paid money, he would not have received the goods.3. .‫ﻟﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻨﻘﻭﺩﹰ، ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ = Unless he had paid money, he would not have received the goods. If he did not take this medicine, he would not be better.4. .‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺀ، ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﺘﺤ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺄﺨﺫ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ = Unless he took this medicine, he would not be better. Exercise No. 14 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬I) Choose the correct answer: :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬1. If she (had – has – have) time, she will visit us.2. What (will – would – do) you do if you (has – had – have) a lot of money?3. If he (came – come-comes), I (should – shall – would) forgive him.4. (Was – Were – Am) I a car, I (will – would – shall) be Ford.5. If she (stayed – stays – had stayed) at home, she would have received the telegram.II) Correct the verbs between brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺤ‬1. If she (win) some money, she would have (buy) presents to her friends.2. Unless they (obey) me, the work would (stop).3. If you (to eat) too much, you will be sick.4. Unless he (tell) us the truth, we would not punish him.5. If he played well, he (win) the match.  Books and friends should be few but good.    53
  •  If   Time           Form   Examples  Usage   Probability  percentage The Zero Conditional if + Present Simple Present Simple any time ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿ ﺮ ﻋ ﻦ اﻟﺤﻘ ﺎﺋﻖ‬ If water freezes, it turns into ice.  If  %100 ‫ﻣﻀﺎرع ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ُﻀﺎرع ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ .ً ‫اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ داﺋﻤ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أي وﻗﺖ‬ .(‫ﻟﻮ ﯾﺘﺠ ّﺪ اﻟﻤﺎء، ﻓﺈ ّﮫ ﯾﺘﺤ ّل إﻟﻰ ﺛﻠ ٍ )ﺣﻘﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺞ‬ ‫ﻮ‬ ‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﻤ‬  1) If you clean my bike, Ill give The First you a dollar. Conditional ‫ء‬ ٍ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿ ﺮ ﻋ ﻦ ﺷ ﻲ‬ future .ً‫ﻟﻮ ُﻨﻈﻒ دراﺟﺘﻲ، ﻓﺴ ُﻋﻄﯿﻚ دوﻻر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺄ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ if + Present Simple Future Simple  If  %50 ‫ُﺤﺘﻤﻞ اﻟ ُﺪوث‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ .(‫)ﻣﻤﻜﻦ أن ﯾﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟ ُﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ 2) Should he studies hard, he will ‫ﻣﻀﺎرع ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ُﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬‫ﻣ‬ succeed.  (will, shall + ‫)ﻣﺼﺪر اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ .‫ﻟﻮ ﯾﺪرس ﺑﺠ ٍ، ﻓﺴﯿﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ 1) If he won the prize, he would The Second buy a car. conditional if + Past Simple should, would + ‫ﻣﺼﺪر اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ future .ً ‫إذا ﻛﺴﺐ اﻟﺠﺎﺋﺰة، ﻓﺴﯿﺸﺘﺮي ﺳﯿﺎر‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ء‬ ٍ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲ‬  If  %10 ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ُﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ .‫ﻏﯿﺮ ُﺤﺘﻤﻞ اﻟﻮ ُﻮع‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟ ُﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ 2) If I were a bird, I would fly. .‫ﻟﻮ ُﻨ ُ ُﺼ ُﻮرً، ﻓﺴﺄﻃﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺖﻋ ﻔ ا‬  3) Were I a bird, I would fly. .‫ﻟﻮ ُﻨ ُ ُﺼﻔﻮرً، ﻓﺴﺄﻃﯿﺮ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﻛﺖﻋ‬ 1) If he had studied hard, he would have succeeded. The Third if + Past Perfect should (would) have + P.P ‫ء‬ ٍ ‫* ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲ‬ .‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎن ﻗﺪ درس ِﺠ ٍ، ﻟﻜﺎن ﻗﺪ ﻧﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺑ ﺪ‬ Conditional past ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬ ‫ُﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺎم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻣ‬ .‫ُﺴﺘﺤﯿﻞ اﻟﻮﻗﻮع‬ ‫ﻣ‬If %0 ‫* ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻨﺪم‬ ‫أو اﻷﺳﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ 2) If I had listened to his advice, 3) I would not have lost my money.  .‫ﺣﺪث‬ ‫ﻟﻮ ُﻨ ُ ﻗﺪ اﺳﺘﻤﻌ ُ إﻟﻰ ﻧﺼﯿﺤﺘ ِ، ﻟﻤﺎ ُﻨ ُ ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺖ‬ ‫ﮫ‬ ‫ﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺖ‬     ‫ﻓﻘﺪ ُ ُﻘﻮدي‬   ‫تﻧ‬ 54
  •   Active Voice and Passive Voice .‫( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬subject) ‫ﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬ ‫( ﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟ‬Active Voice) ‫1. ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺘ‬      ç       1. Ahmed rides a bicycle. .‫ﻴﺭﻜﺏ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺠ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬2. Huda plays games. .‫ﺩﻯ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺒﹰ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ .‫( ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬Object) ‫ﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ‬ ‫( ﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟ‬Passive Voice) ‫2. .ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺘ‬     ç    Verb To Be       by  ‫ل ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل، ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻨﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل، ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻨﺭﻏﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ، ﹸﺤ‬ ‫* ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬1. A bicycle is ridden by Ahmed. .‫ﺭﺍﺠﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺏ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﹸﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬2. Games are played by Huda. .‫ﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﹸﻠﻌﺏ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﺘ‬   ç  Active & Passive Voice                 (Statement)  (Order)  (Question)55
  • ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ 1. Statement‬‬ ‫‪ :Passive Active   ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫7‬ ‫1. ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﺎﻋ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل )ﻏﺎﻟﺒ ﹰ ‪‬ﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩﻩ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ (.‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺎﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫2. ﻨﻀﻊ ) ‪ ( Verb To Be‬ﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺯﻤﻥ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ )ﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ(.‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫3. ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ ) ‪.( Verb To Be‬‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬‫4. ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﹰ ﺒﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ ،by‬ﻭﻗﺩ ‪‬ﺸﻁﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻀﻤﻴﺭﹰ، ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻻ ‪‬ﻀﻴﻑ ﺸﻴﺌﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠـﺔ،‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻷ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻫﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل، ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﹼﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ، ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻷﻫﻤ ‪‬ﺘﻪ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪Verb To Be    ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪by‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫| ‪   ‬‬ ‫1‪    ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫ﺃ( ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل.‬ ‫ﺏ( ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺯﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ‪‬ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻴﻪ، ﻷ ‪ ‬ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ‪‬ﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﺍ ‪ ‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل.‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺝ( ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ، ﻟﻜﻲ ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭل ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل. )ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒ ﹰ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ(.‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ‬‫2. ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﹸﺼﺒﺢ ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗ ﹰ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ‪ by‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل، ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﹸﺠﻤـل‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺤ ‪‬ﺙ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﻤﻥ ‪ active‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪-:passive‬‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪he‬‬ ‫‪she‬‬ ‫‪it‬‬ ‫‪we‬‬ ‫‪they‬‬ ‫‪you‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪me‬‬ ‫‪him‬‬ ‫‪her‬‬ ‫‪it‬‬ ‫‪us‬‬ ‫‪them‬‬ ‫‪you  ‬‬ ‫‪To Be  ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ç‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ Tenses‬‬ ‫‪Verb To Be‬‬ ‫‪Present Simple‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫‪am, is, are‬‬ ‫‪Past Simple‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫‪was, were‬‬ ‫‪Present Continuous‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫‪am being, is being, are being‬‬ ‫‪Past Continuous‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫‪was being, were being‬‬ ‫‪Present Perfect‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫‪has been, have been‬‬ ‫‪Past Perfect‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫‪had been‬‬ ‫‪Future Simple‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫‪shall be, will be‬‬‫65‬
  •       ç  be am, is, are was, were been being‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻌل ﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟـﺔ ﺯﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻤـﻥ‬ :‫ﻤﻠﺔ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ .‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ ـﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤـ‬ ‫ﻤـ‬ ‫ ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘ ـﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﹼـ‬ ‫ﻤـ‬will, would, shall, should can, .‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .‫ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ‬could, must, had to, ought to Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬  Active Voice  Passive Voice Shadi studies English. English is studied by Shadi. 1. .‫ﺔ‬‫ﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬ .‫ﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺸﺎﺩﻱ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬  ‫ﹸﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺭﺱ‬ She bought many books. Many books were bought by her. 2. .ِ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹸﹸ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺏ‬ .‫ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹸ ﹸ ِ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹸﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫ﺸ ﻱ‬ They visited the farm. The farm was visited by them. 3. .‫ﻫﻡ ﺯﺍﺭﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻋﺔ‬ .‫ ﺯﻴﺎﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺘ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ Samia is studying the map. The map is being studied by Samia. 4. .‫ﺱ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﹸﺩ‬  ‫ﺘﺭ‬ .‫ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬  ‫ﹸﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺭﺱ‬ 5. She is cooking dinner. .‫ ﻫﻲ ﺘﻁﺒﺦﹸ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ‬Dinner is being cooked by her. .‫ﻁﺒﺦﹸ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬ She was arranging them. They were being arranged by her. 6. .‫ﻫﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﹸﺭ ﹼﺒﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺘ‬ .‫ﺭ ﹼﺒﻭﻥ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺘ‬ They were watching television. Television was being watched by them. 7. .‫ ﹶﺎﻫﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴﺸ‬ .‫ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬  ‫ﺸﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻫﺩ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ Huda is writing the letters. The letters are being written by Huda. 8. .‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻯ ﺘﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ُ ﺭ‬ .‫ﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﹸﻜﺘ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺏ ﺭ‬ 9. They congratulated us. .‫ ﻫ ﹼــﺎﺅﻨﺎ‬We were congratulated by them. .‫ﻨ ﱢ ِﻨﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻫ ـﺌ‬ He has mended a chair. A chair has been mended by him. 10. .‫ﹰ‬‫ ﹸﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﻠﺢ ﻜ ﻴﺎ‬ .‫ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‬‫ ﹸﺭﺴ‬ ‫ﱢ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﻠﺢ ﻜ ﻴﺎ‬ They have built the road. The road has been built by them. 11. .‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺒﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ .‫ ِﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴﻕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻨ ﻁ‬ 12. He drives a car. .‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻘﻭ‬ ‫ ﻫﻭ‬A car is driven by him. ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺩ‬ .ِ ‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘ‬ ‫ﹸﻘ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺎﺩ‬ 13. We met them. .‫ ﻨﺤﻥ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻨﺎﻫﻡ‬They were met by us. .‫ﹸ ِﻠﻭﺍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺒ‬ She had prepared everything. Everything had been prepared. 14. .‫ﺕ ﻜل ﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ . ِ ُ ‫ﻜل ﺸﻲﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺩ‬ It was making much noise. Much noise was being made by it. 15. .‫ ﻀﺠ ﹰ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﹰ‬ ِ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﹸﺼ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺍ ِﻬﺎ‬  ‫ ﻀﺠ ﹰ ﻋﺎﻟﻴ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬ َ‫ﺩ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﹸﺼ‬ ‫ﺠﺭ ﺌ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺭ‬ 16. I have remembered it. . ‫ ﹶ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﹶ ﹶ ﹼـﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺫ ﻜ ﺘ ﻪ‬ It has been remembered by me. .  ‫ ﻟﻲ ﺘﺫ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻜﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ The government will build a bridge. A bridge will be built. .‫ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺠﺴﺭ‬ 17. .‫ﺴﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺠﺴﺭﹰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ .(‫ﺫﻓﺕ‬ ‫ ﻗﺩ‬the government ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬) ‫ﺤ‬57
  •     | :‫ﺼﺒﺢ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ِ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭ‬ ‫ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫( ﻓﺈ‬Defective Verb) ‫ﻤﻠ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻓﻌل ﻨﺎﻗﺹ‬ ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒ‬ ‫ل ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬ The Defective Verb + be + P.P  be         ×  will – would – shall – should – can – could – may – might – must - ought to (had to).  Active Voice  Passive Voice He may bring them. They may be brought by him. 1. .‫ﻡ‬  ِ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻀﺭﻫ‬ .ِ ِ ‫ﺭﻭﺍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁ‬  ‫ﻫﻡ ﻗﺩ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺤﻀ‬ They will cross the lake. The lake will be crossed by them. 2. .‫ﺤﻴﺭ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﺴﻴﻌﺒﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺒ ﺓ‬ .‫ﺒﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘ ِﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺭﺓ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻬ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ She can not carry it. It can not be carried by her. 3. .‫ﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬ .‫ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﹸﺤﻤلَ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁ ِﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ -:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻜﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  have to / has to / (am, is, are + going to) + -: ‫( ﹸﺼﺒﺢ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬Passive) ‫ﻓﺈﹼﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨ‬  have to / has to / (am, is, are + going to) + be +       Active Voice  Passive Voice Everyone has to follow the orders. The orders have to be followed. .‫ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﺘﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻉ‬1. .‫ ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻓﺭ ٍ ﺃﻥ ﻴ ﹼﺒﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻤﺭ‬The ‫( ﻷ‬have) ‫ل ﺇﻟـﻰ‬‫( ﺘﺤﻭ‬has) ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .‫ ﺠﻤﻊ‬orders They are going to carry out the new The new project is going to be carried out.2. project. . ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺫﻩ‬ .‫ﺴﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ِ (‫ﻔﺭﺩ‬ project ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ ﻷ‬is ‫ ﺘﺤﻭﻟﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ‬are  ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ I am going to prepare the new lessons. The new lessons are going to be prepared.3. .‫ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﺴُﺤ‬ ‫ﺄ ﻀﺭ ﺩ ﺱ‬ .‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ ﺱ‬ .(Passive) ‫ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻤﻨﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬Verb To Be  ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻤﻨﻔﻲ ﻓﺈ‬ ‫4. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  Active Voice  Passive Voice He does not make the mistake. The mistake is not made by him. 1. .‫ ﹸﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﻁﺄ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻘ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻪ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‬ I did not write the lesson. The lesson was not written by me. 2. . ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﻜﹾ ﹸﺏ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﺩ ﺱ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ .‫ُ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻲ‬ ‫ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺩ ﺱ‬58
  •  They have not met Ali. Ali has not been met by them. 3. .‫ﹰ‬‫ﻘﺎﺒﻠﻭﺍ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ .‫ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﻘﺎﺒل ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ She wont write the letter. The letter wont be written by her. 4. .‫ﺴﺎﻟ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻥ ﺘﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫َ ﺭ ﺔ‬ .‫ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔﹶ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﹸﻜﹾﺘﹶﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺭ‬‫( ﻓﺈﹼﻨﺎ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤ ُ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨـﻲ‬Passive) ‫ٍ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫( ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻴﻤﺘِﻙ ﻜﻔﻌل‬Verb to Have) ‫5. ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﻠ‬ -:‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬    possess  own  belong to + P.P    Active Voice  Passive Voice 1. I have a car. .‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬ ِ ‫ ﺃﻤﺘ‬A car is had by me. ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻠﻙ‬ XX ‫ﺨﻁﺄ‬ A car is owned by me. Or: A car is possessed by me. .(‫ﻤﺘﻠﻜ ﹰ ﻟﻲ )ﻤﻥ ِﺒﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﺓﻤ ﺔ‬ Or: A car belongs to me. 2. I had a car. .‫ ﺍﻤﺘﻠﻜ ﹸ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬A car was owned by me. ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ Or: A car was possessed by me. Or: A car was belonged to me. .‫ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﺍﻤ ﹸ ِﻜﺕ ﻤﻥ ِﺒﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﺓ ﺘﻠ‬‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻑ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻗﺒـل ﺍﻟﹼـﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟـﺙ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ، ﻓﺈ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨ‬ ‫( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬Adverb of Manner) ‫6. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻅﺭﻑ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻅ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ .‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺓ‬  Active Voice  Passive Voice The teacher punished the lazy boy severely. The lazy boy was severely punished by the teacher.1. .ٍ ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﻭل ﺒﻘﺴﻭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻭﻟ‬ ‫ﺱ ﻋﺎ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺏ ﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ .‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻭﻟﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﻭل ﺒﻘﺴﻭ ٍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ِ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻋ ﻗﺏ‬ Mother cooks the food excellently. The food is excellently cooked by mother.2. .ٍ ‫ ﺒﺼﻭﺭ ٍ ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺘﻁﺒ ﹸ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺎ‬ ُ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺦ ﻁ ﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻤ‬ .‫ﻲ‬ ُ ‫ ﺒﺼﻭﺭ ٍ ﺠﻴﺩ ٍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺒ ﹸ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻤ‬ ‫ﺓ ﺓ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺦ ﻁ ﻡ‬ He speaks English well. English is well spoken by him.3. .‫ﺔ ﺠﻴﺩﹰ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ .‫ﺔ ﹸﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﺠﻴﺩﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺘ ﻠ‬‫ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﹰ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻠﻔﻌ ِ ﻋﻨﺩ‬  ‫( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل، ﻓﺈﹼ‬Preposition) ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻠ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺠﺭ‬ ِ ‫7. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ ﻴﻅل‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺩ‬ .‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  Active Voice  Passive Voice They are looking for the map. The map is being looked for by them. 1. .ِ ‫ﺇﹼﻬﻡ ﻴﺒﺤﺜﻭﻥَ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ ﹸ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔﹶ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺤﺙ‬ She looks after her children. Her children are looked after by her. 2. .‫ﻫﻲ ﺘﺭﻋﻰ ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻫﺎ‬ .‫ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻋ ﻥ‬ I looked at the picture carefully. The picture was carefully looked at by me. 3. .(ٍ ‫ﻭﺭ ِ ﺒﻌﻨﺎﻴ ٍ )ﺒﺎﻫﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭ ﹸ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺼ ﺓ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ .‫ﻭﺭﺓ ﹸ ِﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﻨﺎﻴ ٍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻅ‬ ‫ﺼ‬59
  • ‫‪‬‬‫8. ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤل ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻔﻌﻭ ٍ ﺒﻪ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ )ﺘﺄﹼ ‪ ‬ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌ ِ(، ﻭﻤﻔﻌﻭ ٍ ﺒﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ )ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﺴـﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻀـﻤﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍﻤ‬ ‫ﺜﺭ‬ ‫ل ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﹼﺭ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌ ِ(.‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ﺜ‬‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ، ﻓﺈ ‪ ‬ﻟ ‪‬ﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ‪‬ﻁﻠﻕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃ ‪ ‬ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻟﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻨﺎﺌﺏ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺤ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫§‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل.‬ ‫ﺠ‬‫ﻭ ‪‬ﻼﺤﻅ ﺍﻻﻀﻁﺭﺍﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺭ ‪ to‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻨﻲ }ﺃ ‪ ‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺍﺌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫§‬ ‫)ﺍﹸﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ( ﻨﻀﻊ ‪ to‬ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﻭل )ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ({.‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫.‪They gave me a present‬‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﺃﻋﻁﻭﻨﻲ ﻫﺩ‪ ‬ﹰ.‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )1(‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ )2(‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ ‪‬ﺴﻤﻰ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺍﻷﻭل( ﻭﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ.‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺓﻴ‬ ‫§‬ ‫‪ Active Voice‬‬ ‫‪ Passive Voice‬‬ ‫.‪They gave me a present‬‬ ‫.‪A present was given to me by them‬‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻁﻭﻨﻲ ﻫﺩ‪ ‬ﹰ.‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺩ‪ ‬ﹰ ُﻋ ِﻴﺕ ﻟﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ.‬ ‫ﻴﺔ ﺃ ﻁ‬ ‫.1‬ ‫.‪Or: I was given a present by them‬‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ُﻋﻁﻴﺕ ﻫﺩ‪ ‬ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ.‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫.‪He taught them many lessons‬‬ ‫.‪They were taught many lessons by him‬‬ ‫ﻋﹼ ‪ ‬ﻡ ‪‬ﺭﻭﺴﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﹰ.‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻠﻤﻬ ﺩ ﺎ‬ ‫‪‬ﱢﻤﻭﺍ ‪‬ﺭﻭﺴﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁ ِ ِ.‬ ‫ﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ ﺩ ﺎ‬ ‫.2‬ ‫.‪Or: Many lessons were taught to them by him‬‬ ‫‪‬ﺭﻭﺴﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﹰ ‪‬ﱢ ‪‬ﺕﹾ ﻟﻬﻡ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ.‬ ‫ﺓ ﻋﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺩ ﺎ‬‫ٍ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺠﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل، ﻓﻤﺜ ﹰ ﻻ ﻴﺠـﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫9. ﻻ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺒﺄﻱ ﺤﺎ ٍ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺼﻭﻍﹶ ﺠﻤﻠ ﹰ ﻤﻔﻌﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻭﻤﺴﺒﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻨﺼﻭﻍ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل:‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫.‪Samy went to school‬‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴ ِ.‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺠﺭ‬‫01. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺎﺀ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل )ﻤﺼﺩﺭ + ‪ ،(to‬ﻓﺈ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻴﻅل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬـﻭل، ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎل ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻴـﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫)ﻤﺼﺩﺭ + ‪ (to‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻔﻌﻭِﻬﺎ ، ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫ﻟ‬‫‪tell‬‬ ‫‪ advise‬ﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫‪ send‬ﻴﻨﺼﺢ‬ ‫‪‬ﺭ ِل‬ ‫ﻴ ﺴ‬‫‪ask‬‬ ‫‪ expect‬ﻴﺴﺄل‬ ‫‪ offer‬ﻴﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫‪ Active Voice‬‬ ‫‪ Passive Voice‬‬ ‫.‪He advised me to give up smoking‬‬ ‫.‪I was advised to give up smoking‬‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻨﺼﺤﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‪ُ ‬ﻗ ِﻊ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﺩﺨﻴ ِ.‬ ‫ﺘ ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻠ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﹸ ِﺤ ﹸ ﺒﺄﻥ‪ُ ‬ﻗ ِﻊ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﺩﺨﻴ ِ.‬ ‫ﺘ ﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻠ‬ ‫ﻨﺼ ﺕ‬‫06‬
  •  -:‫ﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺎﻴ‬ §  Active Voice  Passive Voice I never expected the police to arrest the thief. I never expected the thief to be arrested. .ِ ‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﹼﻠ‬ ‫ ﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺒ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺹ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ .ِ ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ ﻋﻠﻴ‬ ِ ‫ ُﻟ‬ ‫ ﺍﹼﻠ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﺘﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻗ ﻥ ﻟ ﺹ ﺃ ﻘﻲ‬‫ﻤﻠـﺔ ﻤﺠﻬـﻭل‬ ‫ ﻓﺎﻋـل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀﻴﻑ ﺸﻴﺌﹰ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻨـﻰ )ﺃ‬ ‫ﻔﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ، ﺃﻭ ﻻ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨ‬ ‫11. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻋل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ -:‫( ، ﻤﺜل‬Passive) ‫ﻤﻠ ِ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬ ‫ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺨﺼﻴﺔ(، ﻓﺈﹼﻪ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺸ‬people ‫ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ‬somebody ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ ﺸﺨ‬nobody ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺃﺤﺩ‬someone ‫ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ ﺃﺤ‬the police ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ‬the government ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺤ‬  Active Voice  Passive Voice The police arrested the thief. The thief was arrested.1. .‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺃﻭﻗﻔﺕ )ﺃﻟﻘﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ( ﺍﹼﻠﺹ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ .(‫ﺍﹼﻠﺹ ُﻭ ِﻑ )ُﻟ ِﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃ ﻗ ﺃﻘ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ .‫ ِﻓﺕ ﻷ ﹼﻬﺎ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﺔ ﻀﻤﻨ ﹰ‬ ‫ ﻗﺩ‬The police ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺤﺫ‬ Someone stole her jewels yesterday. Her jewels were stolen yesterday. .ِ ‫ ﻤﺎ ﺴﺭ ﹶ ﺠﻭﺍﻫﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﺤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .ِ ‫ ِﻗﺕ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻫﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺴﺭ‬2. ‫ﺫﻓﺕ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﺔ ﻀﻤﻨ ﹰ ﻭﻻ ﹸـﻀﻴﻑ‬ ‫ ﻗﺩ‬Someone ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬  ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ .‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺸﻴﺌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ Nobody has attacked him yet. He has not attacked yet.3. .(‫ ﺃﺤﺩﹰ ﺒﻌﺩ )ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﻬﺎﺠﻤ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻪ ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ .(‫ﻡَ ﺒﻌﺩ )ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺠ‬ .‫ ِﻓﺕ‬ ‫ ﻗﺩ‬Nobody ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺫ‬ -:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﺒﺈﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫21. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬People say ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ Scientists know ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻴﻌﻠﻤﻭﻥ‬ One newspaper reports ‫ﺭ‬  ‫ﺤﻑ ﺘﻨﺸ‬ ‫ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬Doctors believe ‫ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﺀ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ‬ People think ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ‬The police allege ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺘ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ -:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻨﺎ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﺈ ﹼﻬﺎ ﹸﺤ‬ ‫ﺀ ﺠ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺘ ﻭ‬  Active Voice  Passive Voice People say…. ‫ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬It is said.... ‫ﻨ‬ ....  ‫ﻘﺎل ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ People said …. ‫ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻟﻭﺍ‬It was said …. ‫ﻨ‬ ....  ‫ﻗﻴل ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ Doctors believe.... ‫ﻥ‬  ‫ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﺀ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺄ‬It is believed …. ....  ‫ﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ People knew.… ‫ ً ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻋِﻤﻭﺍ / ﻋ ِﻓﻭﺍ‬t was known …. ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ ﻨ‬I .... ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺎ‬ ً The police allege…. ‫ﻋﻲ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺘ‬It is alleged…. ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ .... ‫ﻋﻲ‬ ُ ‫ﺃﺩ‬61
  •  Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬  Active Voice  Passive Voice People say that he is mad. It is said that he is mad.1. .‫ ﻤﺠﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﺱ‬ Or: He is said to be mad. .‫ ﻤﺠﻨﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻘﺎل ﺒﺄﹼ‬ / َ‫ِﻴل‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ People say that peace will prevail soon. It is said that peace will prevail soon.2. .‫ ﻗﺭﻴﺒﹰ‬  ‫ ﺴﻴ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎ‬Or: The peace is said to be prevailed soon. ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺴ ﻡ ﻌﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺱ‬ .‫ ﻗﺭﻴﺒﹰ‬  ‫ ﺴﻴ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻘﺎل ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺴ ﻡ ﻌﻡ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ The police allege that the thief escaped. It is alleged that the thief escaped.3. .‫ ﻫﺭﺏ‬ ‫ ﺍﹼﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﻲ ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺘ‬Or: The thief is said to be escaped. ‫ﻥ ﻟﺹ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ .‫ ﻫﺭﺏ‬ ‫ ﺍﹼﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﻰ ﺒﺄ‬   ‫ﺇﻨ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻟﺹ‬ ‫ﻪ ﻴﺩ‬ People think that the Earth is not exactly round. It is thought that the Earth is not exactly round.4. .‫ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﺩﻴﺭ ﹰ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰ‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺄ‬Or: The Earth is thought to be not exactly round. ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﺴﺘﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰ‬  ‫ ﻏﻴ‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﺭ‬ ‫ ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﻌﺘﻘ‬  ‫ﺇ ﹼ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺽ ﺭﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ ﻴ ﺩ ﻥ‬‫( ﻴﻌﻭﺩ‬Reflexive Pronoun) ‫ﻨﻌﻜﺱ‬ ‫ َ(، ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻀﻤﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ /    ) Let ‫31. ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ، ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺸﺎﺌﻊ ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺩﻉ ﻴ ﻌ ل‬ -:‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬  Active Voice  Passive Voice Dont let people hear you. Dont let yourself (or: yourselves) be heard.1. .‫ﻭﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﺩﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﺴﻤ‬ ‫ﻌ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﻻ ﺘﺩﻉ ﻨﻔﺴﻙ )ﺼﻭﺘﻙ( ﻤﺴﻤﻭﻋ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ He let people cheat him. He let himself be cheated.2. . ‫ﻫﻭ ﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻐﺸﻭ‬ ‫ﻩ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﻫﻭ ﺠﻌل ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﹸﻐﺵ‬ ‫ﺘ‬  Smile . . . tomorrow may be worse.  .      62
  •  2.Order .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ، ﺇﺫ ﻴﻐﹸﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ ﺒﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺇ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺀ‬ § -:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬  ‫ﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ، ﻓﺈ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﻥﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ §  Let + object + be + P.P   be       Active Voice  Passive Voice Open the window. Let the window be opened.1. .‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻓـﺫ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺓ‬ .‫ﺍﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻓﺫﺓﹶ ﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ Keep this medicine away from heat. Let this medicine be kept away from heat.2. .‫ﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻔﻅ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﺤﻔﻭﻅﹰ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ Clean the room. Let the room be cleaned.3. .‫ﻨ ّﻑ ﺍﻟ ﹸﺭﻓـ ﹶ‬ ‫ِ ﻐ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻅ‬ .‫ﺍﺠﻌل ﺍﻟ ﹸﺭﻓﺔﹶ ﻨﻅﻴﻔ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻐ‬ Give me your book. .‫ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻙ‬ Let your book be given to me. .‫ﻌﻁﻰ ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻉ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻙ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬4. Or: Let me be given your book. .‫ﻋﻨﻲ ُﻋﻁﻰ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻙ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ If you think education is expensive -- try ignorance. .                          63
  •  3. Question      ç   Question     begins with a question word begins with a helping verb (Yes, NO question) (Wh- question)      (Yes, NO question)      ç .(‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ، ﻭﹸﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟‬ ‫ﺔ، ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺅﺍل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠ ٍ ﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ .1 ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ٍ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻭ ﺴ‬ .‫( ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ‬Passive ) ‫ﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫2. ﹸﺤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻭ ﺠ‬‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻗﺒـل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـل، ﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐ ِ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ، ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫3. ﹸﻭﻀ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻊ ﺠ‬ .ِ ‫ﻤﻠ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬    (Wh- question)          ç    ‫( ﻤﻊ ﺇﹼﺒـﺎﻉ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫( )ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬By whom) ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋل ( ﻓﺈﹼﻬﺎ ﹸﺤ‬‫ﻥ‬ ) (Who) ‫ﺅﺍل ﺒﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺘ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ (By whom Who) .‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬‫ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋـل( ﻤـﻊ ﺇﹼﺒـﺎﻉ‬‫ـﻥ‬ ) (Who) ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻭل( ﻓﺈﹼﻬﺎ ﹸﺤ‬‫ﻥ‬ ) (Whom) ‫ﺅﺍل ﺒﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺘ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ (Who Whom) .‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬  Active Voice  Passive Voice Did she help him? 1. She helped him. ‫؟‬ ‫ .2 ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘ‬He was helped by her. ‫ﻪ‬1. 3. Was he helped by her? ‫ﻭ ِﺩ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ؟‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ‫ﺴ ﻋ‬ Can anyone answer this question? 1. Anyone can answer this question. ‫ﺅﺍل؟‬ ‫ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ .2 ﻫل ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺃ‬This question can be answered. ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻱ‬2. 3. Can this question be answered? ‫ﺅﺍل؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎ ِ ﺤل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ Does she break the plates? 1. She breaks the plates. ‫ﺭ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ؟‬ ‫ .2 ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﹸﻜﹶ‬The plates are broken by her. ‫ﺘﺴ‬3. 3. Are the plates broken by her? ‫ﺭ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﹸﻜ‬ ‫ﺘﺴ‬ Were they playing football? 1. They were playing football. ‫ .2 ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ ﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ؟‬Football was being played by them. ‫ﻜ‬4. 3. Was football being played them by? ‫ﻫل ﹸ ِﺒﺕ ﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ؟‬ ‫ﻟﻌ ﻜ‬ 64
  •  Have they painted the walls? 1. They have painted the walls. ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻥ؟‬ ‫ .2 ﻫل ﻫﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺩﻫﻨﻭﺍ ﺍﻟ‬The walls have been painted by them. ‫ﺠ‬5. 3. Have the walls been painted by them? ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻥ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ؟‬ ‫ ِﻨﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺩﻫ‬ Why are you making a fuss? 1. You are making a fuss. ‫ ﹰ؟‬ ‫ﹶ‬  ‫ﺩ ﹸﻭ‬‫ .2 ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﹸﺤ‬A fuss is being made by you. ‫ﺘ ﺜ ﻥ ﺠﻠﺒﺔ‬6. 3. Why is a fuss being made by you? ‫ ﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻜﻡ؟‬ ‫ﻠﹶ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﹸﺤ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺩﺙ ﺠ ﺒﺔ‬ Will Ali write the lesson? 1. Ali will write the lesson. ‫ﺭﺱ؟‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ .2 ﻫل ﺴﻴﻜ ﹸ‬The lesson will be written by Ali. ‫ﺘﺏ ﻲ ﺩ‬7. 3. Will the lesson be written by Ali? ‫ً ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ؟‬‫ﺭﺱ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻜﺘﻭﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ Where did she hide it? 1. She hid it. ‫؟‬ ‫ـﺄﺘ‬ ‫ .2 ﺃﻴﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺨ‬It was hidden by her. ‫ﺒ ﻪ‬8. 3. Where was it hidden by her? ‫ﺊ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺘﻬﺎ؟‬ ‫ﺃﻴﻥ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺨﺒ‬ Who killed the cat? 1. The cat was killed. ‫ .2 ﻤﻥ ﻗﹶﺘﹶلَ ﺍﻟﻘِ ﹼﺔ؟‬Was the cat killed? ‫ﻁ‬9. 3. By whom was the cat killed? ‫ ﹸ ِﻠﺕ ﺍﻟ ِ ﹼﺔ؟‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻗﺘ‬ Who will carry out the project? 1. The project will be carried out. ‫ﻨ ﹼ ﹸ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ؟‬ ‫ ﺴ‬‫ .2 ﻤﻥ‬Will the project be carried out? ‫ﻴ ﻔﺫ‬10. 3. By whom will the project be carried out? ‫ﻨﻔ ﹸ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ؟‬ ‫ ﺴ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻴ ﺫ‬ Whom did you meet? 1. I met someone. ‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﺕ؟‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ .2 ﺒ‬Someone was met by me. َ ‫ﻤ‬11. 3. Was someone met by me? 4. Who was met by you? ‫ ﹸﻭ ِلَ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻙ؟‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻗ ﺒ‬ All great discoveries are made by mistake. .   65
  •   Exercise No. 15 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ General Exercises on Active Voice and Passive Voice    Change Into Passive Voice: :‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻭ‬1. Kamel wrote many letters. .‫ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﹶﺘﹶ‬ ٍ ٍ ‫ﺏ‬2. They may have to cancel the meeting. .‫ﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻥ ﻷﻥ ﻴﻠﻐﻭﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﻴﻀﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺒ‬3. He was carrying two big bags . .‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺤﻤل ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﻴﻥ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺘﻴﻥ‬4. I shall help him. .  ‫ﺴـُﺴﺎﻋ‬ ‫ﺄ ﺩﻩ‬5. She ate an apple. .‫ ﹰ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﻜﹶﻠﹶﺕﹾ ﹸﻔﹶﺎﺤ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺔ‬6. Passing cars have crushed it. .‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺩﻫﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺴ‬7. The man is carrying a heavy box. .‫ﻨﺩﻭﻗﹰ ﺜﻘﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ل‬  ‫ﻴﺤﻤل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭﺠ ﺼ ﺎ ﻼ‬8. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary. .‫ﺔ ﻭﺃﻋﻁﺎﻩ ﻗﺎﻤﻭﺴﹰ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴ‬  ‫ ﻤﺎ ﻋﹼ‬ ‫ﺸﺨ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺹ‬9. She was washing clothes. .‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺒﺱ‬10. You can keep these papers. .‫ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ )ﺘﺤﺘﻔﻅ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ( ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬11. They could not open the door. .‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻌﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻔﺘﺤﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬12. She has written twenty letters to her friends. .‫ﺕﹾ ﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺭﺴﺎﻟ ﹰ ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﹶﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺒ‬13. He is looking for his bag. .ِ ِ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺤﻘﻴﺒ‬ ‫ﺘﻪ‬ He gave them many useful lessons. .‫ﺭﻭﺴﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﹰ ﻤﻔﻴﺩ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻁﺎ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻫ ﺩ ﺎ‬14. a) Begin with: They…….. b) Begin with: Many useful lessons……. I showed him my new book. .‫ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﻴ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺘﻪ‬15. a) Begin with: He……… b) Begin with: My new book……. He offered us a big house in Gaza. .‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻤﻨﺯ ﹰ ﻀﺨﻤﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻏ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺩ‬16. a) Begin with: We……. b) Begin with: A big house in Gaza………..17. People say that there is no water on the moon. .ِ ‫ ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻨ‬18. I am having a car. .‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺍﻤﺘﻠ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻙ‬19. Dont open the door. .‫ﻻ ﹸﻐﻠﻕﹶ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺘ‬20. Give this book to Emad. .‫ ﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻋ ِ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻁ‬21. I dont want any buildings here. .‫ﻨﺎ‬ ٍ ‫ ﺃﻱ ﻤﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺃﺭﻴ‬ ‫ﻥﻫ‬ ‫ﺩ‬22. You must leave everything as it is. .‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺭﻙ ﻜل ﺸﻲ ٍ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺀ‬23. They have not cleaned the room. .‫ﺠﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻨ ِﻔﻭﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻴﻅ‬66
  • 24. I have looked up this word. .ِ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺸﻔ ﹸ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺕ‬25. People say that she is innocent. .‫ ﻴ ﹸﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺇﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﺭﻴﺌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹼﺎ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻨﺱ ﻘ‬26. People said that she is innocent. .‫ ﺇﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﺭﻴﺌ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟﹼﺎ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺱ ﻨ‬27. Bring all necessary things. .‫ﺔ‬‫ﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ ِﺭ ﻜلَ ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺃﺤ‬ ‫ﻀ ﻴ‬ ‫ﻀ‬28. Where have you left my car? ‫ﺃﻴﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﺕﹶ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻲ؟‬29. Do people speak English all over the world? ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺃﻨﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ؟‬ ‫ ﺍﹼﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻴﺘﻜﻠﻡ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻨﺱ ﻟ‬30. Will they allow us five minutes break? ‫ﻫل ﺴﻴﺴﻤﺤﻭﻥ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺒﺨﻤﺴ ِ ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺤ ِ؟‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬31. Did you buy any spare parts? ‫ ﻗﻁﻊ ٍ ﻟﻠﻐﻴﺎ ِ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﺍﺸﺘﺭﻴﺕﹶ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻱ‬32. Who asked both boys to leave? ‫ﻟﹶﺩﻴﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻴﻐﺎﺩﺭﺍ؟‬ ‫ ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬33. Who showed him the way? ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴ ِ )ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴﻘ ِ(؟‬ ‫ ﺃﺭﺸﺩ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻁ ﻕ ﻁ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻩ‬34. Who has cooked the food? ‫ﺦ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌﺎﻡ؟‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻗﺩ ﻁﹶ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﹶ ﻁ‬35. Who told this story? ‫ﺔ؟‬ ‫ ﺃﺨﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺼ‬36. When did they find the ring? ‫ﻤﺘﻰ ﻭﺠﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺘﻡ؟‬37. Is Ali writing the letter now? ‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻴﻜﺘﺏ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺭ‬38. Has anybody answered your question? ‫ ﻤﺎ ﺴﺅﺍﻟﻙ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﺃﺠﺎﺏ ﺃﺤ‬ ‫ﺩ‬39. Do they gain much money? ‫ﻭﻥ ﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰ؟‬ ‫ﻫل ﻴﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺤ‬40. Why did not they tell me the truth? ‫ﻭﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘ ِ؟‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺨﺒ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ For a "TRUE" problem, there is no solution. .     67
  •   Direct and Indirect Speech   Reported Speech ‫ﻜﺘﺏ ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜـﻼﻡ‬ ‫ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ، ﻭ‬ ‫(:- ﻭﻫﻭ ﻨﻘل ﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺨﺹ ﺤﺭﻓﻴﹰ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃ‬) Direct Speech ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ç .(‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﻼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ )ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻜـﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫(:- ﻭﻫﻭ ﻨﻘل ﻓﺤﻭﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻜﻼﻡ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺁﺨﺭ، ﻭ‬ ) Indirect Speech ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻫ‬  ç .‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﻼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‬ -:‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻜﻼ ٍ ﻤﺒﺎﺸ ٍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻼﻡ ٍﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸ ٍ ﻫﻲ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ 7  Sentences                     (Statement) (Question) (Command) (Request) (Exclamation) begin with begin with a question word a helping verb              (Yes / No - questions)        What, Where, Who :‫ ﻤﺜل‬ Are, Do, Have, Will :‫ﻤﺜل‬  1. Statement   indirect (direct)       7  :‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ( ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ )ﺃﻱ: ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ‬1 ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   say ‫ ﻴ ﹸﻭل‬say - declare ‫ﻘ‬ ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ / ‫ﻌِﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻠ ﻴ ﺭ‬ says ‫ ﻴ ﹸﻭل‬says - declares ‫ﻘ‬ ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ / ‫ﻌِﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻠ ﻴ ﺭ‬ say to ‫ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬tell - declare ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ /‫ﺨ ِـﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺒ‬ says to ‫ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬tells - declares ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ / ‫ﺨـ ِﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺒ ﻴ ﺭ‬ said ‫ ﻗﺎل‬said - declared ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل / ﺼ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ said to ‫ ﻗﺎل ﺇﻟﻰ‬told - declared ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺒـﺭ/ ﺼ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ shall say ‫ ﺴﻴﻘﻭل‬shall say - shall declare ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭ/ ﺴ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ 68
  • ‫‪‬‬ ‫2. ﹸﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻼﻤﺘﺎ ﺍﻟﹼﻨﺼﻴﺹ )ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ( ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ )‪ (that‬ﻜﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﺃﻥ‪ (‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻓﻬﺎ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫3. ﹸﻐ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺒﻀﻤﺎﺌ ٍ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ.‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻴ ﻀ‬‫4. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻥ )ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل( ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻓﺄ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟـ ‪‬ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺯ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻐ‪‬ﺭ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬‫5. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻥ )ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل( ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ ﻓﺄ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻴﺘﻐ‪‬ـﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺯ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ:-‬ ‫‪ Direct Speech ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ Indirect Speech ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Present Simple‬‬ ‫‪ Past Simple‬ﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫‪Past Simple‬‬ ‫‪ Past Perfect‬ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪Present Perfect‬‬ ‫‪ Past Perfect‬ﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪Present Continuous‬‬ ‫‪ Past Continuous‬ﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪Past Continuous‬‬ ‫‪ Past Perfect Continuous‬ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪ ‬ﺸﻜل )ﺼﻴﻐﺔ( ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻫﻲ: ‪. had + been +  + ing‬‬ ‫ﺘ ﻤ‬ ‫×‬ ‫‪ Direct Speech ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ Indirect Speech ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪shall‬‬ ‫‪ should‬ﺴﻭﻑ/ ﺴـ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬ ‫‪will‬‬ ‫‪ would‬ﺴﻭﻑ / ﺴـ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬ ‫‪can‬‬ ‫‪ could‬ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬ ‫‪may‬‬ ‫‪ might‬ﺭﺒﻤﺎ / ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ/ ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺒ‬ ‫‪must‬‬ ‫)‪ had to (must‬ﻴﺠﺏ / ‪‬ﻠ ِﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫‪ought to‬‬ ‫‪ to ought‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫‪should +‬‬ ‫‪ should have + P.P‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺴـ‬ ‫‪would +‬‬ ‫‪ would have + P.P‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺴـ‬ ‫‪could +‬‬ ‫‪ could have + P.P‬ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ‬ ‫‪might +‬‬ ‫‪ might have + P.P‬ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ‬‫6. ‪‬ﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ )ﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ( ﺘﺘﻐ ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻼ ٍ ﻏﻴﺭ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ، ﻫﺫﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻥ ﺨـﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗـﻭﺍﺱ )ﻓﻌـل‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻫ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل( ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ، ﺃ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘـﻭل ‪‬ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒـﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ‪‬ـﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﺴﻴﻁ، ﻓﺈﹼﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻐ‪‬ﺭ ﻭﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ، ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﺠﺩﻭل ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺫﻟﻙ:-‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬‫96‬
  •   Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   this ‫ ﻫﺫﺍ / ﻫﺫﻩ‬that ‫ﺫﻟﻙ / ﺘﻠﻙ‬ these ‫ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬those ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌـﻙ‬ here ‫ ﻫﻨـﺎ‬there ‫ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬ thus ‫ ﻫﻜـﺫﺍ‬so ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ / ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬ now ‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬then / at once ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﺌﺫ / ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ/ ﻓﻭﺭﹰ‬ that day ‫ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ today ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ the same day ‫ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ that night ‫ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ tonight ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ the same night ‫ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ yesterday ‫ ﺃﻤﺱ‬the day before / the previous day ‫ﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ the day before yesterday ‫ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻷﻤﺱ‬two days before ‫ﻗﺒل ﻴﻭﻤﻴﻥ‬ yesterday afternoon ‫ ﻤﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻤﺱ‬the previous afternoon ‫ﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ tomorrow ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ ﻏﺩﹰ‬the following day / the next day ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ tomorrow morning ‫ ﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻐﺩ‬the following morning ‫ﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ the day after tomorrow ‫ﺩ‬ ٍ ‫ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻏ‬in two days time ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﻏ ٍ /ﻓﻲ ﻏﻀﻭﻥ ﻴﻭﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ the previous ….. last .... ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ /ﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ...‫ﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ the .....before the previous night last night ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ the night before ago ‫ ﻤﻨـﺫ‬before / previous ‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒـل‬ a year before ‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺴﻨﺔ‬ a year ago ‫ﻤﻨـﺫ ﺴﻨﺔ‬ the previous year ‫ﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ come here ‫ﻨﺎ‬ ‫ ﺘﻌﺎﻟﻰ‬go there ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﺫﻫﺏ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ bring this ‫ ﺍﺤﻀﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ‬take that ‫ﹸـﺫ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺨ‬ He said, "yes ". ."‫ ﻗﺎل: "ﻨﻌﻡ‬He agreed. .‫ﻫﻭ ﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ He said," No". ." ‫ ﻗﺎل: " ﻻ‬He refused. / He disagreed. .‫ﻫﻭ ﺭﻓﺽ / ﻟﻡ ﻴﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬ He said, "Good morning". ."‫ﻗﺎل: "ﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺭ‬ He wished …. good morning. .‫ﻫﻭ ﺘﻤﻨﻰ ﺼﺒﺎﺤﹰ ﻁﻴﺒﹰ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺎ‬ He said, "thank you". ." ‫ ﻗﺎل: " ﺃﺸﻜﺭﻙ‬He thanked me. .‫ﻫﻭ ﺸﻜﺭﻨﻲ‬ .‫ﻀﺎﺭﻋﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ )ﺯﻤﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل( ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻐ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ×        70
  •  Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   He said to me, "I shall see you tomorrow". He told me that he would see me the next day.1. ."‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﺴﺄﺭﺍﻙ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ .‫ ﺴﻴﺭﺍﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ They say, "We shall play basketball tomorrow". They say that they will play basketball tomorrow.2. ."‫ﻠﺔ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ: "ﺴﻨﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ .‫ﻠﺔ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﺍ ﺒﺄﹼﻬﻡ ﺴﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .(‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻼ ﺘﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ • She says, "I am very happy today". She says that she is very happy today.3. ."‫ﻫﻲ ﺘﻘﻭل: "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺴﻌﻴﺩﺓ ﺠﺩﹰ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ .‫ﻫﻲ ﺘﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﹼﻬﺎ ﺴﻌﻴﺩ ﹲ ﺠﺩﹰ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺓ ﺍ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫( ﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻼ ﺘﺘﻐ‬says) ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻴ‬ • We say, "We are playing football now". We say that we are playing football now.4. ."‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﻘﻭل: "ﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ .‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﹼﻨﺎ ﻨﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬ (says) ‫ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻷ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ • We told Ali that we were playing football at once. We said to Ali, "We are playing football now".5. .‫ﹰ ﺒﺄﹼﻨﺎ ﹸﹼﺎ ﻨﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ‬‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻨﺎ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻴﺎ ﻨ ﻜﻨ‬ ."‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﹸﻠﻨﺎ ﻟﻌﻠ ٍ: "ﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ .‫( ﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬said to)‫ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻷ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ He said to me, "I went to Rafah with my He told me that he had gone to Rafah with6. father yesterday". his father the day before. ."‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﺫﻫﺒﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﻓﺢ ﻤﻊ ﺃﺒﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬ .‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﻓﺢ ﻤﻊ ﺃﺒﻴ ِ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻨﺎ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ Maged says to his sister, "I remember my Maged tells his sister that he remembers his7. fathers advice to me". fathers advice to him. ."‫ﻤﺎﺠﺩ ﻴﻘﻭل ﻷﺨ ِ ِ: "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺘﺫ ﹼﺭ ﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﺒﻲ ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﺘﻪ‬ .‫ ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ ﻴﺘﺫﻜﺭ ﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺨ ِﺭ ُﺨﺘﻪ ﺃﹼ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺒ ﺃ‬ I said to the boy, "You have neglected your I told the boy that he had neglected his duties.8. duties". .ِ ِ ‫لَ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎ‬ ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻫ‬ ‫ ﺒﺄﹼ‬‫ﻟﹶﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭ ﹸ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻭ ﻨﻪ‬ ."‫ﹸﻠ ﹸ ﻟﻠﻭﻟﹶ ِ: "ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻫﻤﻠﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎ ِﻙ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ ﺩ‬ He said," I must go now". He said that he had to go at once.9. ."‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬  ‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﹾ‬ ‫ﻫﺏ‬ .‫ ﻓﻭﺭﹰ‬  ‫ﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺫﹾ‬‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ﻫﺏ ﺍ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ He said, "I must not go there". He said that he had not to go there.10. ."‫ﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل: " ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃ ﹼ ﺃﺫﻫﺏ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ .‫ﻨﺎﻙ‬   ‫ﺫﹾ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ‬‫ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻴﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل: ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻫﺏ ﻫ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬    | .‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻠ ِ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼ ِ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭ ِ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻓﻀ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺁﺨ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ل ﺠ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻡ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺠ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   The boy said that he had written his lessons "I wrote my lessons yesterday", the boy said.1. the day before. . ‫"ﻜﺘﺒ ﹸ ﺩﺭﻭﺴﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ ِ" ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟﻭﻟ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ .‫ﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺏ ﺩﺭﻭﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟﻭﻟ‬ ‫ﻡ ﺴ‬ ‫ﺩ ﻨﻪ‬ "You have written a good letter", said my father. My father said that I had written a good letter.2. .‫"ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﺕﹶ ﺭﺴﺎﻟ ﹰ ﺠﻴﺩ ﹰ" ﻗﺎل ﺃﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺓ‬ .‫ﺃﺒﻲ ﻗﺎل ﺒﺄﹼﻨﻲ ﹸﻨ ﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺒ ﹸ ﺭﺴﺎﻟ ﹰ ﺠﻴﺩ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺓ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻜﺕ‬71
  • ‫ـﺭ‬‫( ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌ ٍ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻐ‬shall say ‫ ﺃﻭ‬says to ‫ ﺃﻭ‬say to ‫ ﺃﻭ‬says ‫ ﺃﻭ‬say) :‫ﻀﺎﺭﻋﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒ ﹰ ِﺜل‬ ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ ‫ﻼﻤ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﹼﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﹼﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﺯﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺘ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   He says, "I feel hungry". He says that he feels hungry.1. ."‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل: "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻭﻉ‬ .ِ ‫ ﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ I shall say to him, "There is no room for you I shall say to him that there is no room for2. in the house". him in the house. ."ِ ‫ ﹸﺭﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ‬ ‫: "ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺴﺄﻗﻭل ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻙ ﻏ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ .ِ ‫ ﹸﺭﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴ‬ ‫ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﺴﺄﻗﻭل ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻪﻏ‬ ‫ﻪ ﻨﻪ‬ Ahmed says to Ali, "I shall buy a new car Ahmed tells Ali that he will buy a new car3. tomorrow". tomorrow. ."‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻴﻘﻭل ﻟﻌﻠ ٍ: "ﺴﺄﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﹰ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﺓ ﺍ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ .‫ً ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ ﺴﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺃﺨﺒﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﹰ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻨﻪ‬ -:‫ﻤﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ) ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺯﻤﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل( ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫3. ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺌﻕ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺜ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   He said," The earth is round". He said that the earth is round.1. "‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل: "ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻜﺭﻭﻴﺔ‬ .‫ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻜﺭﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ Our teacher said to us, "The earth moves Our teacher told us that the earth moves round2. round the sun". the sun. ."ِ ‫ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟ ﹼﻤ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺴﻨﺎ: "ﺘﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﺍﻷﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺸ ﺱ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .ِ ‫ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺘﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟ ﹼﻤ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺴﻨﺎ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺸ ﺱ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ .‫ﺨﺭﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫4. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻁﺏ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬ ‫ﻴ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   I said," I want to speak to you, Ali". I told Ali that I wanted to speak to him. ." ‫ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻙ ﻴﺎ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﹸﻠ ﹸ: "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺭﻴ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ‬ .ِ ‫ﹰ ﺒﺄﹼﻨﻲ ﺃﺭﺩ ﹸ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﺇﻟﻴ‬‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭ ﹸ ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻠ ﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻴﺎ ﻨ‬‫ﺓ‬ٍ ‫ﻤل، ﻓﺈ ﹼﻨﺎ ﻨﺩﻤﺠﻬﺎ ﻤﻌﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻠـ ٍ ﻭﺍﺤـﺩ‬ ‫ ٍ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺒﺎﻟ ﹼﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠ‬‫ﻤﻠ ٍ ﺇﺨﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫5. ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬‫ ...( ﻭﻨـﻀﻊ‬‫ ﺒﻤﻌﻨـﻰ )ﻭﺃﻥ‬that ‫( ﻭﻨﻀﻊ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟـ ﹼﻭﻟﺔ ﻜﻠﻤـﺔ‬Comma) (‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭُﺨﺭﻯ ﺸﻭﻟﺔ )ﻓﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻔﹾ ِل ﺒﻴﻥ ﻜل‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴﺼ‬ .‫ﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫( ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟ‬and added that) ‫ …( ﺃﻭ‬and that …) ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   She said to him, "I cannot pay. I lost my bag. She told him that she could not pay, that she I hung it to this chair. Now, I do not find it". had lost her bag, that she had hung it to that chair and then she did not find it.1. ‫ ﹸ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﻲ. ﺃﻨﺎ‬‫: "ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺩﻓﻊ. ﺃﻨﺎ ﹶ ﹶﺩ‬ ‫ ﺃ ﹼﻬﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺘ ﹸﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺩﻓﻊ، ﻭﺃ ﹼﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ ﻗـﺩ ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﺨﺒﺭﺘ‬ ‫ﻓﻘ ﺕ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻪ ﻨ‬ .‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺩﺕ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﻬﺎ، ﻭﺃ ﹼﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﻋﹼﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟ ﹸﺭﺴﻲ، ﻭﺃ ﹼﻬﺎ ﻋﹼﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ ﹸﺭﺴﻲ. ﺍﻵﻥ، ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺠ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ .‫ﺒﻌﺩﺌ ٍ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺠﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ I prepared my passport yesterday", Mary said. Mary said that she had prepared her passport "Tomorrow I shall travel abroad ". the day before and that (and added that) the2. ‫ﺯ ﹸ ﺠﻭﺍﺯ ﺴﻔﺭﻱ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ" ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻤﺎﺭﻱ. "ﻏﺩﹰ ﺴُﺴﺎﻓﺭ‬ ‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺠ‬next day she would travel abroad. ‫ﺍ ﺄ‬ ‫ﻬ ﺕ‬ ‫ﻡ ﺴ ﻕ‬ ِ ‫ﺎﺒ‬ ‫ﺯﺕ ﺠﻭﺍﺯ ﺴﻔﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﺒﺄ ﹼﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺠ‬ ‫ﻬ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ."‫ﻟﺨﺎﺭ ِ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬ ‫ﺝ‬ .ِ ‫ﻭﺃ ﹼﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺴ ﹸﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﻟﺨﺎﺭ ِ ﺍﻟﺒﻼ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻨ‬72
  •  Khalil said to Ahmed, "You have come very Khalil told Ahmed that he had come very late late. I was about to leave when I saw you". and that he had been about to leave when he3. ‫ﻗﺎل ﺨﻠﻴل ﻷﺤﻤﺩ: "ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺘﻴ ﹶ ﻤﺘﺄﺨﺭﹰ ﺠﺩﹰ. ﹸﻨﹾ ﹸ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺸ ِ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺍ ﺍ ﻜﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ had seen him. ‫ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺨﺭﹰ ﺠﺩﹰ ﻭﺃ ﹼ‬ ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺠﺎﺀ‬ ‫ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺃ ﹼ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻴل ﺃﺨﺒ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺍ ﺍ ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ."‫ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻴﺘﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺝ‬ . ‫ﺝ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺁ‬ ‫ﻭﺸ ِ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺨ‬ ‫ﻩ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ .ِ ِ ‫ﻤﻠ‬ ‫( ﺜﻡ ﻨﻀﻊ ﻜل ﻓﺎﻋل ﺃﻤﺎﻡ‬and) ‫ﻤﻠﺘﻴﻥ ﺨﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺎﻋل، ﻓﺈﹼﻬﻤﺎ ﹸﺭﺘﺒﻁﺎﻥ ﺒـ‬ ‫6. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺘ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech  Samy said, "I found this book". "It is my Samy said that he had found that book and Ahmedbook", said Ahmed. said that it was his book..‫ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ" ﻗﺎل ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﻗﺎل: "ﻭﺠﺩ ﹸ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ". "ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ . ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻜﺘﺎﺒ‬ ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻭﺠﺩ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﹰ ﻭﻗﺎل ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ Always has been * always will be          73
  •  Exercise No. 16 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬*) Put the following sentences into indirect speech (Reported Speech):- :‫ﻤل ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻶﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﺼﻴﻐ ٍ ُﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ُﻨ ﹸل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺔﺃ‬ ‫ﺃﻘ ﺠ‬ Ill bring you some tea when you have finished, he ‫"ﺴُﺤ ِﺭ ﻟﻜﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﻱ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻨـﻭﺍ ﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺄ ﻀ‬1. said to them. .‫ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻴﺘﻡ" ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻬﻡ‬2. I said to her, I have something to show you. ."‫ ﻟﻙ‬  ‫ﹸﻠ ﹸ ﻟﻬﺎ: "ﻤﻌﻲ ﺸﻴﺌﹰ ُﺭ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻷ ﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ‬3. She said to him, I lost my keys yesterday. ."ِ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻪ: "ﻓﻘﺩ ﹸ ﻤﻔﺎﺘﻴﺤﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺕ‬4. He says, Adel has written me a long letter. ."‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل: "ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺘﺏ ﻟﻲ ﻋﺎﺩل ﺭﺴﺎﻟ ﹰ ﻁﻭﻴﻠ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬5. She said, It is foggy today as it was yesterday. ."ِ ‫ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﺒﺎﻟﺠ ِ ﻀﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ Hassan says, When I get up, I find a cup of milk ‫ ﻜﻭﺒﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ ﻴﻘﻭل: "ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻘﻅ، ﺃﺠ‬ ‫ﺩ ﺎ‬6. beside my bed". ."‫ﺒﺠﻭﺍﺭ ﺴﺭﻴﺭﻱ‬ She said to him, I stayed with my brother in our house7. ."‫: "ﺃﻨﺎ ﻤﻜﺜ ﹸ ﻤﻊ ﺃﺨﻲ ﺒﻤﻨﺯﻟﻨﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ this morning.8. He said to us, The sun shines every morning". ."‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻨﺎ: "ﺍﻟ ﹼﻤﺱ ﹸﺸﺭﻕ ﻜ ّ ﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺸ‬9. He said," I must go again next week". ِ ‫ﻷ‬ ."‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺏ ﻤﺭ ﹰ ُﺨﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍ ُﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺓﺃ‬10. He said, "I hope to go there. ."‫ﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل: "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺁﻤل ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺏ‬ ‫ﻫ‬11. He says, "I am busy today"." I have bought a new book". ."ً‫ﻴﻘﻭل: "ﺃﻨﺎ ﻤﺸﻐﻭ ٌ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ". "ﻟﻘﺩ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﻴ ﹸ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺎ‬ ‫ل‬12. She said, "Iron is heavier than gold". ." ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﺜﻘل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻫﺏ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ He said to them, "Good morning. I have brought all ‫ﻜﻡ. ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺤـﻀﺭ ﹸ ﹸـل‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻬﻡ: "ﻁﺎﺏ ﺼﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻜ‬ ‫ﺤ‬13. papers. I hope to reach an agreement". ."ٍ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ. ﺃﻨﺎ ﺁﻤل ﺃﻥ ﻨﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺘﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻕ‬14. She said to him," I want to come with you to see with myself". ."‫: "ﺃﻨﺎ ُﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺏ ﻤﻌﻙ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻪ‬15. The man said, "Spring is the best season of the year". ."‫ﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻊ ﻫﻭ ﺃﺤﺴﻥ ﻓﺼﻭ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ل: "ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ل ﺴ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺠ‬ She said to him," No. I cannot sign this contract unless ‫: "ﻻ. ﻻ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ُﻭ ﹼﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟ‬ ‫ﺃ ﻗ‬ ‫ﻪ‬16. you pay 300.000 dollars for me now". ."‫ﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺩﻓﻊ ﻟﻲ 000.003 ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺍﻵﻥ‬17. She said to him, "My bag was full of money". ."ِ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻪ: " ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﻲ ﻤﻤﻠﻭﺀﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﱡﻘﻭ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺩ‬ She said to me, "I shall help you. I can lend you some ‫ ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫. ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ُ ِﺭ‬  ‫: "ﺴُﺴﺎﻋ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟ‬ ‫ﺃﻋ ﻙ‬ ‫ﻪ ﺄ ﺩﻙ‬18. books. I have many useful books on this subject". ."‫ﻔﻴﺩ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹸﺘﺏ. ﻋﻨﺩﻱ ﹸﺘﺒﹰ‬ ‫ﻜ ﺎﻤ ﺓ‬ ‫ﻜ‬19. He said to me, "I have phoned you twice. ."‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﻟﻘﺩ ﺍﱟﺼﻠ ﹸ ﺒﻙ ﻤﺭﺘﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺕ‬ He says, "We are living in a house near to my school. ‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل: "ﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﻌﻴﺵ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﻨـﺯ ٍ ﻗﺭﻴـ ٍ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ل‬ I neednt to take the bus. I can reach my school in20. 5 minutes". ‫ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻲ. ﻻ ﺃﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺭﻜﺏ ﺍ ُﺘﻭﺒﻴﺱ. ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ." ‫ﺃﻥ ﺃﺼل ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ 5 ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ‬74
  •  2.Questions    begin with begin with a question word a helping verb              What, Where, Who :‫ ﻤﺜل‬ (Yes / No - questions)          Are, Do, Have, Will :‫ﻤﺜل‬ Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ He said to me, "Where did you go yesterday?". (Direct) ."‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﺃﻴﻥ ﺫﻫﺒﺕﹶ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ ِ؟‬ ‫ﺱ‬1. He asked me where I had gone the day before. (Indirect) .ِ ‫ﻫﻭ ﺴﺄﻟﻨﻲ ﺃﻴﻥ ﺫﻫﺒ ﹸ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ Salem said, "Are you staying long, Nabil?. (Direct) ."‫ﺴﺎﻟﻡ ﻗﺎل: "ﻫل ﺴﺘﻤﻜﺙ ﻁﻭﻴ ﹰ ﻴﺎ ﻨﺒﻴل؟‬ ‫ﻼ‬2. Salem asked Nabil if he was staying long. (Indirect) .‫ﺴﺎﻟﻡ ﺴﺄل ﻨﺒﻴل ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻤﻜﺙ ﻁﻭﻴ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ Indirect  Direct    ç .‫ﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ‬ ‫1. ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻠ‬ -:‫ل ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻜﺎﻷﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ .2 ‫ﻴ ﻭ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   ask ‫ﻴﺴﺄل‬ enquire ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻔﺴﺭ‬ saysay to ‫ﻴﻘﻭل / ﻴﻘﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬ want to know ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌ ِﻑ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ question ‫ﻴﺴـﺄل / ﻴﺴﺘﺠﻭﺏ‬ asks ‫ﻴﺴـﺄل‬ sayssays to ‫ ﻴﻘﻭل / ﻴﻘﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬enquires ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻔﺴﺭ‬ wants to know ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌ ِﻑ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ asked ‫ﺴﺄل‬ said / said to ‫ ﻗﺎل / ﻗﺎل ﺇﻟﻰ‬enquired (inquired) ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻔﺴﺭ ﻋﻥ‬ wanted to know ‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌ ِﻑ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ shall say ‫ﺴﻴﺴـﺄل‬ shall say ‫ﺴﻴﻘﻭل‬ shall enquire ‫ﺴﻴﺴﺘﻔﺴﺭ‬ .(‫3. ﻨﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ )ﻋﻼﻤﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﻨﺼﻴﺹ‬ ‫ﺘ‬75
  • ‫‪‬‬ ‫4. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺒﻔﻌ ٍ ﻤﺴﺎﻋ ٍ )‪(Defective Verbs - Verb to Have - Verb to Do - Verb to Be‬‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪ if‬ﺃﻭ ‪ whether‬ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ...( ﻜﺄﺩﺍ ِ ﺭﺒﻁ.‬ ‫ﺓ ٍ‬ ‫5. ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺒﺄﺩﺍ ِ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎ ٍ، ﻤﺜل:‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺴ‬‫‪When - Why - Who - Which - Whom - Whose - What - Where - How - How many - How much … etc‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹸﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ، ﻭ ﹸﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ )ﻜﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺒﻁ(.‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫6. ﹸﺤ ‪‬ل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل )ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ: ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻴﺴﺒﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل( ﺇﻟﻰ ‪‬ﻤﻠ ٍ ﺨﺒﺭ‪) ٍ ‬ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل(.‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻭ ﺴ‬ ‫7. ﹸﺤ ‪‬ل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻀﻤﺎﺌ ٍ ُﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﹼﻡ )ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل( ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺨﺎﻁﺏ )ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ(.‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺭﺃ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻭ ﻀ‬ ‫8. ﻨﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )?( ﻷ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ‪‬ﻤﻠ ﹰ ﻭﻨﻀﻊ ﻨﻘﻁ ﹰ )‪.(.) (Full stop‬‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺴ‬ ‫9. ﺒﺎﻟ ﹼﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ:‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺃ( ﻻ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ )ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ( ﺃﻭ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒل.‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ )ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ( ﻓﺈ ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﹸﻐ‪‬ﺭ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‪‬ﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫‪ Direct Speech ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ Indirect Speech ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Ameera said, "Did you watch the film Ameera asked Azza if she had watched the‬‬‫.1‬ ‫."?‪yesterday, Azza‬‬ ‫.‪film the day before‬‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻴﺭﺓ ﺴﺄﻟﺕ ﻋ ‪‬ﺓ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺸﺎﻫﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺎﺒﻕ. ﺃﻤﻴﺭﺓ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﻫل ﺸﺎﻫﺩ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻡ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ ِ ﻴﺎ ﻋ ‪‬ﺓ؟".‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫."?‪She says to Ali, "Are you happy today‬‬ ‫.‪She asks Ali if he is happy today‬‬‫.2‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻌﻠ ٍ:" ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕ ﺴﻌﻴ ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ؟".‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺘﺴﺄل ﻋﻠﻴﹰ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴﻌﻴﺩﹰ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ.‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤ ‪‬ﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻷ ‪ ‬ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ.‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫"?‪I said to Mazen, "Have you met the teacher‬‬ ‫.‪I asked Mazen if he had met the teacher‬‬‫.3‬ ‫ﹸﻠ ﹸ ﻟﻤﺎﺯﻥ: "ﻫل ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺱ؟".‬ ‫َ ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﺄﻟ ﹸ ﻤﺎﺯﻥ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺱ.‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫."?‪She said, " Have they departed‬‬ ‫.‪She wanted to know whether they had departed‬‬‫.4‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﻫل ﻫﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺤﻠﻭﺍ؟".‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺤﻠﻭﺍ.‬ ‫‪I said to the boys "Were you busy I asked the boys if they had been busy the‬‬‫.5‬ ‫."?‪yesterday‬‬ ‫.‪day before‬‬ ‫ﹸﻠ ﹸ ﻟﻸﻭﻻﺩ: "ﻫل ﹸﻨﹸﻡ ﻤﺸﻐﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ ِ؟".‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻜﺘ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﺄﻟ ﹸ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ ﻋ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻤﺸﻐﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻷﻤ ِ.‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫‪Beesan said to me, "Can you solve the Beesan wanted to know if I could solve the‬‬‫.6‬ ‫."?‪problem‬‬ ‫.‪problem‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻌﺕﹸ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺤلّ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ. ﺒﻴﺴﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻲ: "ﻫل ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﹶ ِ ﱢ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺸﻜﻠﺔ؟".‬ ‫ﺘﺤل ﻤ‬ ‫‪Nora said to her friend, Could you solve Nora asked her friend if she could have solved‬‬‫.7‬ ‫"?‪the question‬‬ ‫.‪the question‬‬ ‫ﻨﻭﺭﻩ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ: "ﻫل ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻌ ﹶ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤ ّ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل؟"‬ ‫ل ﺴ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﺭﻩ ﺴﺄﻟﺕ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻋ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺤﹼﺕ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺅﺍل.‬ ‫ﻠ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫‪He said to his father, "Will you buy a car He asked his father if he would buy a car the‬‬‫.8‬ ‫"?‪tomorrow‬‬ ‫.‪next day‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻭﺍﻟﺩ ِ : "ﻫل ﺴﺘﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﻏﺩﹰ؟"‬ ‫ﺓ ﺍ‬ ‫ﻩ‬ ‫ﺴﺄل ﻭﺍﻟﺩ ‪ ‬ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ.‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻩ‬ ‫.‪I said to Ali, "Dont you believe this story?" I asked Ali if he didnt believe that story‬‬‫.9‬ ‫ﹸﻠ ﹸ ﻟﻌﻠ ٍ: "ﺃﻻ ﹸﺼﺩﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘ ‪‬ﺔ؟"‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ ﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﺄﻟ ﹸ ﻋﻠﻴﹰ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻻ ‪‬ﺼﺩﻕ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻘ ‪‬ﺔ.‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺎ‬ ‫.‪"What are you doing now? said John‬‬ ‫.‪John asked what I was doing at once‬‬‫.01‬ ‫"ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﻔﻌل ﺍﻵﻥ؟": ﻗﺎل ﺠﻭﻥ.‬ ‫ﺠﻭﻥ ﺴﺄل ﻋ ‪‬ﺎ ﹸﻨ ﹸ ﺃﻓﻌل ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ.‬ ‫ﻤ ﻜﺕ‬‫67‬
  •  I said to him, "When will you travel to I wanted to know when he would travel to11. London?" London. "‫ﹸﻠ ﹸ ﻟﻪ: "ﻤﺘﻰ ﺴﹸﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻟﻨﺩﻥ؟‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ‬ .‫ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻟﻨﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺩ ﹸ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﺭﻑ ﻤﺘﻰ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ "Who has finished his work?" said the man. The man asked who had finished his work.12. .‫ل‬  ‫ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ؟" ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻥ‬ " ‫ﺭﺠ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ . ‫ل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻤﻠ‬  ‫ﺴﺄل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺠ‬ He said to Adel, "Where do you learn English?" He asked Adel where he learnt English.13. "‫ﺔ؟‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻌﺎﺩل: "ﺃﻴﻥ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﺴﺄل ﻋﺎﺩل ﺃﻴﻥ ﺘﻌﹼﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬    |‫ل‬ ‫، ﻭﻨﺤـ‬told ‫ ﺃﻭ‬said ‫ـﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫، ﻭﻗﺒل ﺍﻟ‬asked ‫ﺅﺍل‬ ‫ﺔ، ﻓﻨﻀﻊ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘ ِ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺅﺍل، ﻭﻨﺤ‬ ‫ﺅﺍل ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺠ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺴ‬ ‫ﺴ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech  He said to me, "It is too late. Where are you He told me that it was too late and askedgoing now?" where I was going then. "‫ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺨﺭ ﹲ ﺠﺩﹰ. ﺃﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﺕ ﺫﺍﻫ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺨﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ ﻭﺴﺄﻟﻨﻲ ﺃﻴﻥ ﻜﹸﻨﺕ ﺫﺍﻫﺒﺎﹰ ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ. ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﺇﹼﻬﺎ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻤ ﺓ ﺍ‬ .and asked ‫2. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺴﺅﺍﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻨﺭﺒﻁﻬﻤﺎ ﺒـ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech  "Do you want to go to the sea?" "How will you go Ramy asked if I wanted to go to the seathere?" said Ramy. and asked how I should go there. .‫ﻨﺎﻙ؟" : ﻗﺎل ﺭﺍﻤﻲ‬ ‫ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـ ِ "ﻫل ﹸﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤ ِ؟"، " ﻜﻴﻑ ﺴﺘﺫﻫﺏ‬ ‫ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫ‬ ‫ﺴﺄل ﺭﺍﻤﻲ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﻨ ﹸ ُﺭﻴ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ ﺃ ﺩ‬ .‫ﻨﺎﻙ‬  ‫ﻭﺴﺄل ﻜﻴﻑ ﹸﻨ ﹸ ﺴﺄﺫﻫ‬ ‫ﺏﻫ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬    | :‫ﻎ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬ ِ ‫1. ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺼﻴ‬  Direct   Indirect What about..? ‫ ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻋﻥ...؟‬suggest ‫ﻴﻘﺘﺭﺡ‬ Why dont you ..? ‫ ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ.....؟‬advise ‫ﻴﻨﺼﺢ‬ Could I have... ? ‫ ﻫل ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ.....؟‬ask ‫ﻴﻁﹸﺏ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ offered ‫ﻋ ﺭﺽ‬   ‫ـ‬ Would you like….? ‫ﻫل ﺘﺭﻏﺏ....؟‬ offered to + ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ ......‫ ﺒﺄﻥ‬  ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻋ ﺭﺽ‬‫ ) ﻫل ﺴـ...؟( ﻫـﺫﻩ‬Will you...? / (‫ )ﻫل ﺴـ ....؟‬Would you…? / (‫ )ﻫل ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻌﺕ....؟‬Could you ...? .2 .‫ﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﹸﻌ‬ ‫ﺘﺒ‬‫ﻱ‬ٍ ‫ل ﻜـﺴﺅﺍ ٍ ﻋـﺎﺩ‬ ‫، ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤ‬asked …. to ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ )ﻫل ﹸﻤﺎﻨﻊ......؟ ، ﻫل ﺘﺴﻤﺢ....؟( ﺘﺤ‬Would you mind….? .3 ‫ل‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ .(if ) ‫ﻭﺘﻅل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﺔ ﺒـ‬ 77
  •  Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   "What about flying?" he said. He suggested flying.1. ."‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل: "ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻴﺭﺍﻥ ؟‬ ‫ﻁ‬ .‫ﻫﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺡ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ."‫ﺃﻭ ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل: "ﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻴﻙ ﺒﺎﻟ ﹼﻴﺭﺍﻥ؟‬ ‫ﻁ‬ "Why dont you ask him?" she said to me". She advised me to ask him.2. ."‫؟‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻲ: "ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻻ ﺘﺴﺄﹶ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ . ‫ ﺃﺴـﺄﻟﹶ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﻨﺼﺤﺘﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ "Could I have a cup of tea?" she said to me. She asked me for a cup of tea.3. ."‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻲ: "ﻫل ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺸﺎﻱ؟‬ .‫ﻫﻲ ﻁﻠﺒﺕ ﻤﹼﻲ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺸﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ "Could you sign the book, please?" he said. He asked me to sign the book.4. "‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻫل ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﹸﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ، ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ؟‬ ‫ﺘ ﻗ‬ .‫ ﻤﹼﻲ ﺃﻥ ُﻭ ﹼﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻁﻠ‬ ‫ﺃ ﻗ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻨ‬ "Would you mind opening the door?" he He asked me to open the door. said. .‫ﺴـﺄﻟﻨﻲ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﻨ ﹸ ُﻤﺎﻨﻊ ﺒﻔﺘ ِ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺢ‬ ‫ﻜﺕﺃ‬5. ."‫ ﻗﺎل: "ﻫل ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﻔﺘ ِ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ؟‬Or: He asked me if I would mind opening the ‫ﺢ‬ door. .‫ﺴـﺄﻟﻨﻲ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﻨ ﹸ ﺍﺭﻏﺏ ﺒﻔﺘ ِ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺢ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬ Would you like a drink?" he said. He offered me a drink.6. ."‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻫل ﺘﺭﻏﺏ ﺒﻤﺸﺭﻭ ٍ؟‬ ‫ﺏ‬ .‫ ﻟﻲ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﺒﹰ‬   ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺽ‬ Shall I wait you, I shall wait for you if you He offered to wait for me.7. like?" he said. .‫ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺘ ِﺭﻨﻲ‬   ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻋﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﹸﻨ ﹶ ﺘﺭﻏﺏ؟": ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل‬ ‫، ﺴﺄﻨﺘﻅ‬  ‫"ﻫل ﺃﻨﺘﻅ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻙ‬ It is the end that counts         78
  •  Exercise No. 17 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬Change Into Indirect Speech:- :‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ Soha said, "What do you want to do on 1. ."‫ﻤﻌﺔ ﻴﺎ ﻨﺎﺩﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻬﺎ: "ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﺭﻏﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻌﻠ ِ ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ Friday, Nadia?". Mona said, "How are you going to travel to 2. ."‫ﻨﻰ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﻜﻴﻑ ﺴ ﹸﺴﺎﻓﺭﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ ﻴﺎ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ France, Samia?". 3. I said to my friend, "When did you arrive?". ."‫ﹸﻠ ﹸ ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘﻲ: "ﻤﺘﻰ ﻭﺼﻠﺕﹶ؟‬ ‫ﻗﺕ‬ Mr. Hesham said, "Where was the voice 4. ."‫ﻭﺕ؟‬ ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﺩ ِﺸﹶﺎﻡ ﻗﺎل: " ِﻥ ﺃﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻥ‬ ‫ﺴ ﻫ‬ coming from?". 5. I said, "Did I make anything wrong?". ."‫ﹸﻠ ﹸ: "ﻫل ﺃﻨﺎ ﻓﻌﻠ ﹸ ﺃﻱ ﺨﻁﺄ؟‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ‬ 6. "Would you mind waiting?" he said. ."‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻫل ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺘﻅﺎﺭ؟‬ He said to her, "How did you come here?" ‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻬﺎ: "ﻜﻴﻑ ﺤﻀﺭ ِ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﻨﺎ؟" "ﻫل ﺤﻀﺭ ِ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ 7. "Did you come here on foot?". ."‫ﻨﺎ ﻤﺸﻴﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﺩﺍ ِ؟‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ 8. She said, "Why do you blame me?". ."‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﹸﻭﺒﺨﻨﻲ )ﺘﻠﻭﻤﻨﻲ(؟‬ ‫ﺘ‬ 9. Mohammed said, "Is the flat cheap?". ."‫: "ﻫل ﺍﻟ ﹼ ﹼﺔ ﺭﺨﻴﺼﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻤﺤﻤ‬ ‫ﺸﻘ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ 10. "Could you wait a moment?" he said. ."‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻫل ﺘﻨﺘﻅﺭ ﻟﺤﻅﺔ؟‬ "Would you like a lift?" Tariq said, "Which ٍ‫ ﻁﺭﻴـﻕ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﻁﺎﺭﻕ: "ﻫل ﺘﺭﻏﺏ ﺒﺘﻭﺼﻴﻠﺔٍ؟". ﻗﹸﻠـﺕﹸ: ﻤـﻥ ﺃﻱ‬ 11. way are you going?" I said. ."‫ﺴﺘﺫﻫﺏ؟‬ She said to me, "Can you do it before 12. ."‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻲ: "ﻫل ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺒل ﻴﻭﻡ ﻏ ٍ؟‬ ‫ﺩ‬ tomorrow?" 13. Her husband said, "What is a suitable dress?". ."‫ﻗﺎل ﺯﻭﺠﻬﺎ: "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺴﺘﺎ ٍ ﺠﻤﻴل؟‬ ‫ﻥ‬ "Why are you looking through the keyhole?" 14. ."‫ﻔﺘﺎﺡ؟‬ ‫ﹸﻠ ﹸ ﻟﻪ: "ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﻨﻅﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﹸﻘﺏ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻗﺕ‬ said to him. "Where were you last night, Mr. Hazem?" 15. ."‫ﻗﺎل: "ﺃﻴﻥ ﹸﻨﹾﺕﹶ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﻴﺎ ﺴﻴﺩ ﺤﺎﺯﻡ؟‬ ‫ﻜ‬ he said. She said, "Need we go to the shops in order to ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﻫل ﻨﺤﻥ ﺒﺤﺎﺠ ٍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻼ ِ ﻟﻨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ 16. see suitable dresses and unsuitable prices?". ."‫ﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ "How long are you staying in Gaza, Khalil?" 17. ."‫ﻗﺎل ﺤﺴﺎﻥ: "ﻜﻡ ﺴﺘﻤﻜﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺯﺓ ﻴﺎ ﺨﻠﻴل؟‬ Hassan said. 18. He says, "Is the weather good today?". ."‫ﻴﻘﻭل: "ﻫل ﺍﻟﺠﻭ ﺠﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ؟‬ 19. He said, "Is the weather good today?". ."‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻫل ﺍﻟﺠﻭ ﺠﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ؟‬ He said to me, "Did you answer this ."‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﻫل ﺃﺠﺒﺕﹶ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﹼﻤﺭﻴﻥ؟‬ ‫ﺘ‬ exercise?". 20. I replied, "Yes". ." ‫ﺃﺠﺒ ﹸ: "ﻨﻌﻡ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ Or: I replied, "No". ."‫ﺃﻭ: ﺃﺠﺒ ﹸ: "ﻻ‬ ‫ﺕ‬79
  • ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ 3. Command (Order)  ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪4. Request ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫1. ‪  ‬ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫."‪The teacher said to us, "Clean the floor‬‬ ‫)‪(Direct‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺩﺭﺱ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻨﺎ: "ﻨ ﹼ ﹸﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﺭ ‪."‬‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻅﻔ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫.‪The teacher ordered us to clean the floor‬‬ ‫)‪(Indirect‬‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ ‬ﻨﺎ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺩ ‪‬ﺱ ﺒﺄﻥ‪ ‬ﻨﻨ ﹼﻑ ﺍﻷﺭ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ ﻤ ﺭ‬ ‫2. ‪  ‬ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫."‪My father said to me, "Dont be late‬‬ ‫)‪(Direct‬‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻲ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﻻ ﺘﺘﺄ ﹼﺭ".‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫.‪My father advised me not to be late‬‬ ‫)‪(Indirect‬‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻲ ﻨﺼﺤﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻻ ﺃﺘﺄ ﹼﺭ.‬ ‫ﺨ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ ‬ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫.‪1. "Give me your pen, please, Omar "said Mazen‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻤﺎﺯﻥ: "ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ، ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﻗﻠﻤﻙ ﻴﺎ ‪‬ﻤﺭ".‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫.‪2. Mazen asked Omar to give him his pen‬‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺯﻥ ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ ‪‬ﻤﺭ ﺒﺄﻥ ‪‬ﻌﻁﻴ ‪ ‬ﻗﻠﻤ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻴ ﻪ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫| ‪   ‬ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﻜ ﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل )ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل(.‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪    ç‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫1. ﹸﻐ ‪‬ﺭ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴ ِ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ:‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻨﻴ‬‫ﺃ( ‪ said to‬ﹸﺤ ‪‬ل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ordered‬ﺃﻭ ‪) command‬ﺃ ‪ ،( ‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺼﺎﺩﺭﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺨ ٍ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ِﻨﹰ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺘﺒ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻘﺎﻤـﹰ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺎ ﺭ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺸﺨ ٍ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ِﻨﹰ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺘﺒ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻘﺎﻤﹰ.‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺎ ﺭ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺹ‬‫ﺏ( ‪ said to‬ﹸﺤ ‪‬ل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) prayed‬ﻴﺘﻭ ‪‬ل( ﺃﻭ ‪) begged‬ﻴﺭ ‪‬ﻭ(، ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺼﺎﺩﺭﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺨ ٍ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ِﻨﹰ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺘﺒـ ﹰ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﺎ ﺭ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﻤﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﺨ ٍ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ِﻨﹰ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺘﺒ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻘﺎﻤﹰ، ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ Please‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﹸﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ.‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺎ ﺭ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺝ( ‪ said to‬ﹸﺤ ‪‬ل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ asked‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،told‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺼﺎﺩﺭﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺨ ٍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﺨ ٍ ﺁﺨﺭ ‪‬ﺘﺴﺎ ٍ ﻤﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺘﺒﺔ.‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ( ‪ said to‬ﹸﺤ ‪‬ل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) advised ... to‬ﻨﹶﺼ ‪ ،(‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻨﺼﻴﺤ ﹰ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺸﻲﺀ.‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺢ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻭ‬‫ﻫـ( ‪ said to‬ﺘﺤﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ... ‪ advised ... not to‬ﻭ ‪ ordered ... not to‬ﻭ ‪ ،begged ... not to‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺒﻌﺩﻡ ﻓﻌل ﺸﻲﺀ.‬‫2. ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل )ﺃﻤﺭ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺸﻲﺀ( ﻨﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﹼﻨﺼﻴﺹ )ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ( ﻭﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ )ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ + ‪ (to‬ﻜﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻤﻌﻨـﻰ )ﺃﻥ(‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨ‬‫ﺃ ‪‬ﹼ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻨﻲ )ﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺸﻲﺀ( ﻨﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻭﻨﺴﺘﺒﺩل ‪ Dont‬ﺒـ )ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ + ‪ (not to‬ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ) ﺃﻥ ﻻ....(.‬ ‫ﺜ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫3. ﹸﺤ ‪‬ل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴ ِ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ( )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴ ِ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺨﺎﻁﺏ(.‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻤ ﻠ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻭ ﻀ‬ ‫4. ﹸﺤ ‪‬ل ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴ ِ ﻤﺎ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺩﻭل )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ ‪‬ﺔ(.‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻭ‬‫08‬
  •  Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   He said to the manager, "Let me have an other He begged the manager to give him an other1. chance to improve my honesty and ability". chance to prove his honesty and ability. ."‫ﺩﻴﺭ: "ﺩﻋﻨﻲ ﺃﻨﹶل ﹸﺭﺼ ﹰ ُﺨﺭﻯ ﻟﻜﻲ ُﺜﺒﺕ ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺘﻲ ﻭ ﹸﺩﺭﺘﻲ‬ ‫. ﻗﺎل ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ ﻭ ﹸﺩﺭﺘ‬ ‫ﺜﺒﺕ ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺘ‬ ‫ ﹶلْ ﹸﺭﺼ ﹰ ُﺨﺭﻯ ﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻓ ﺔﺃ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻪ ﻗ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﻨ ﻓ ﺔ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺭﺠ ﻤ‬ The manager said to him, "Give her an other The manager ordered him to give her an2. dress". other dress. ."‫ﺩﻴﺭ: "ﺃﻋ ِﻬﺎ ﺜﻭﺒﹰ ﺃﺨﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻪ ﻤ‬ .‫ﻌ ِﻬﺎ ﺜﻭﺒﹰ ﺃﺨﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ‬   ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻩ‬ Ali said to his friend, "Give me your bicycle Ali asked his friend to give him his bicycle3. for half an hour". for half an hour. ."‫ﺩﺓ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺘ‬ ‫ ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘ ِ: "ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻙ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ .‫ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺘ‬ ‫ ﺩ‬ ‫ﻌﻁﻴ‬ ‫ ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ ﺼﺩﻴﻘ‬ ‫ﺴﺄل ﻋﻠ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻪ ﺭ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ The pupil said to the teacher, "Please, explain The pupil begged the teacher to explain that4. this point again". point again. ."‫ ﹰ ُﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺱ: "ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ، ﺍﺸﺭﺡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﱡﻘﻁﺔ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻤﻴﺫ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﺭﺓ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ .‫ ﻴﺸﺭﺡ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﱡﻘﻁﺔ ﻤﺭ ﹰ ُﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺱ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻤﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﺓﺃ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺘ ﺭﺠ ﻤ ﺭ‬ The teacher said to the boys, "Write your The teacher advised the boys to write their5. names clearly". names clearly. ."ٍ ‫ﺱ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻸﻭﻻﺩ: "ُﻜﺘﺒﻭﺍ ﺃﺴﻤﺎ َ ﹸﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﺌﻜ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ .ٍ ‫ ﻴﻜﺘﺒﻭﺍ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺌﻬﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻭ‬‫ ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ‬‫ﺢ‬‫ﺱ ﻨﹶﺼ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭ‬ She said to her husband, "Don’t trouble She advised her husband not to trouble6. troubles till troubles trouble you". troubles till troubles trouble him. ." ‫، ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺴﺘﺜﻴﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﻋ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﺯﻭﺠﻬﺎ: "ﻻ ﺘﺴﺘﺜﻴ ٍ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﻋ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ . ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﻋ‬ ‫، ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺴﺘﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﻋ‬ ‫ﻬﺎ ﺃﻻ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻨﺼﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻩ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺯ ﺠ‬ The mother said to the child," Dont be afraid. The mother told the child not to be afraid.7. ."‫ﺍ ُﻡ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻠﻁﻔ ِ: "ﻻ ﹶﺨﻑﹾ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻷ‬ .‫ ﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺨﺎﺌﻔﹰ‬‫ﺍ ُﻡ ﺃﺨﺒﺭﺕ ﺍﻟ ِ ِل ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻁﻔ‬ ‫ﻷ‬    |،that ‫ـﺔ، ﺃﻱ ﻴـﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ل ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺔ ﹸﺤ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺔ(، ﻓﺈ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻤﺭ‬ ) ‫ﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫1. ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩﺕﹶ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺘ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ .asked  ‫ ﻴﺴﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﺅﺍل، ﺃ‬ ‫ل ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺔ، ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺴﺅﺍل‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ل ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘ ِ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺔ( ﹸﺤ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺭ )ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺔ ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺘ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   The doctor said to me, "Stay in bed and take The doctor advised me to stay in bed and this medicine. I shall visit you tomorrow". take that medicine and said that he would1. ‫ﻭﺍﺀ. ﺃﻨـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺒﻴﺏ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﺍﺒ ﹶ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍ ِ ﻭ ﹸﺫ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺵ ﺨ‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ ﻁ‬visit me the next day. ."‫ﻭﺍﺀ ﺴﺄﺯﻭﺭﻙ ﻏﺩﹰ‬ ‫ ﺃﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍ ِ ﻭﺃ ﹸ ﹸ ﺫﻟـﻙ ﺍﻟـ‬‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺒﻴﺏ ﻨﺼﺤﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺵ ﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ .‫ ﺴﻴﺯﻭﺭﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭ ِ ﺍﻟﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﻡ ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ‬ The poor man said to me, "Please, give me The poor man begged me to give him some some food to eat, will you help me cross the food to eat and asked if I should help him to road?" cross the road.2. ‫ل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ، ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﺒﻌـﺽ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ ﺒﻌـﺽ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻌـﺎﻡ ﻟﻴﺄ ﹼـل‬ ‫ ُﻋﻁﻴ‬ ‫ﺴل ﺃﻟ‬ ‫ل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭ ﺘ‬  ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻲﻷ ﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺠ‬ "‫ ﺃﻗﻁﻊ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴﻕ؟‬‫ﺤﺘﻰ ﺃ ﹸل، ﻫل ﹸﺴﺎﻋﺩﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ .‫ ﻟﻴﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺄﻟﻨﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﹸﻨ ﹸ ﺴُﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻩ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ ﺄ‬81
  •  .(‫ )ﻴﻘﺘﺭﺡ‬suggest ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫( )ﺩﻋﻨﺎ( ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰ ﻤﺎ ﹸﻌّﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻗ ِﺭﺍ ٍ ﻭ ﹰﺤ‬Let us) Lets .2 ‫ﺘ ﺡ ﺘ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ِ ‫ﺓ ﺘ‬  suggested thatshould  Or:suggested  gerund + ..... Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   "Lets go to the cinema", Mary said. Mary suggested that they (we) should go to ."‫ﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺎ ﻨﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻤﺎﺭﻱ: "ﺩ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ the cinema. 1. .‫ﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ ﻴﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ )ﻨﺫﻫﺏ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺤﺕ ﺒﺄﹼﻬﻡ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ Or: Mary suggested going to the cinema. .‫ﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻫﺎﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ He said, "Lets not say anything about this He suggested not saying anything about that subject". subject. ."‫ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺎ ﻻ ﹶ ﹸل ﺃ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل: "ﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘ ﻱ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ .‫ ﺸﻲ ٍ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ ﺒﻌﺩﻡ ﻗﻭل ﺃ‬  ‫ﺍﻗﹾﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺀ‬ ‫ﺭﺡ‬ 2. Or: He suggested saying nothing about that subject. .‫ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬ ‫ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻗﻭل ﺃ‬  ‫ﺍﻗﹾﺘﹶ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﺭﺡ‬        3        .asked ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ‬said ‫ل‬ ‫ﺃ( ﹸﺤ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻭ‬ .Please ‫ﺏ( ﻨﺤﺫﻑ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   "Please, take a seat", he said to me. He asked me to take a seat. ."‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ، ﺍﺠﻠﺱ‬ .‫ﻁﻠﺏ ِﹼﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺠﻠﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻨ‬ A chip of the old block.        82
  •  Exercise No. 18 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬*) Change Into Indirect Speech:- :‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ 1. He said to his friend, "Lend me your camera". ."‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘ ِ: "ﺃﻋﺭﻨﻲ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﺼﻭﻴﺭ ﺨﺎﺼﺘﻙ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ The officer said to the soldier, "Bring me 2. ."‫ﻨﺩﻱ: "ﺃﺤﻀﺭ ﻟﻲ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﺎﺒﻁ ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ the bag of maps". Heba said to Latefa, "Give me your English 3. ."‫ﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺘﻙ‬ ‫ِﺒﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ِﻠﻁﻴﻔﺔ: "ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ book". 4. The father said to his son, "Dont go alone". ."‫ﺍﻷﺏ ﻗﺎل ﻻﺒﻨ ِ: "ﻻ ﺘﺫﻫﺏ ﻟﻭﺤ ِﻙ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ 5. She said, "Forgive me". ."‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﺍﺼﻔﺢ ﻋﹼﻲ / ﺴﺎﻤﺤﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ 6. "Go on, Nagi, hit him", she said. ." ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻴﺎ ﻨﺎﺠﻲ، ﺍﻀﺭﺒﻪ‬ "Please, dont smoke", said the lady to the 7. .‫ل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺠﻠﺱ ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺭ‬ ‫"ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ، ﻻ ﹸﺩ ﹼﻥ": ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺘﺨ‬ man sitting beside her. "Wait for me at the bridge, Can you bring ‫ـﺴﺭ. ﻫـل ﺘـﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻲ: "ﺍﻨﺘﻅﺭﻨﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ 8. this bag with you?" said my friend. ."‫ﹸﺤﻀﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﻙ؟‬ ‫ﺘ‬ Nader said to me, "Go and tell my father ‫ﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ: "ﺍﺫﻫﺏ ﻭ ﹸل ﻷﺒـﻲ ﺒـﺄﹼﻨﻲ ﻻ ﺃﺴـﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻗ‬ 9. that I cannot come home tonight". ."‫ﺃﺤﻀﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯ ِ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ل‬ He said to her, "Dont waste our money in 10. ."‫ ِﻲ ﺃﻤﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎ ﺒﻬﺫ ِ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻴﻘ ِ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻘﺎﺀ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻬﺎ: "ﻻ ﹸﻀ‬ ‫ﻩ ﻁ ﺔ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻴﻌ‬ this foolish way". Every cloud has a silver lining  .      83
  •   5. Exclamation           ‫ﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﹰ ﻨﻔـﺱ‬‫ﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﺸﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﹼﺩﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺴﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺤﺔ، ﻭ‬ ‫ﺢ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﹼﻬﺎ ﹸ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ‬   ç ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺒ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﻨ ﺘﻭﻀ ﺩ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  .‫ﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺸﻲ ٍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬‫ﺏ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ ﻭﻨﻌﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺘﻌ‬how , what :‫، ﻤﺜل‬     ç ‫ﺠ‬     :‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﹰ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺏ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ ﻭﻨﻌﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺘﻌ‬   ،(!) ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬   ‫ﺠ‬ Ugh! ‫ﻋﺏ‬ ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺘﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻻﺸﻤﺌﺯﺍﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟ‬Alas! ‫ﺭ‬ !‫ ﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺴﻰ‬Oh! !‫ ﺃﻭﻩ‬Hurrah! !‫ﻤﺭﺤﻰ‬              ç            .ٍ ‫ﺒ‬ ِ ‫ ﻜﺄﺩﺍ‬that ‫1. ﺍﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺓ ﺭﻁ‬ -:‫ ُ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺏ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺘ‬  ‫2. ﺍﺤﺫﻑ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﱠ‬ ‫ﹶﺩل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺠ‬ 1. say, cry, exclaim with joy …. .... ٍ ‫ﺏ ِﻔﺭ‬ ‫ / ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل / ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺒ ﺡ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ 2. say, cry, exclaim with anger …. .... ٍ ‫ﺏ ِﻐﻀ‬ ‫ / ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل / ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺒ ﺏ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ 3. say, cry, exclaim with sorrow …. .... ٍ ‫ﺏ ﺒﺄﺴ‬ ‫ / ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل / ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ 4. say, cry, exclaim with admiration …. .... ٍ ‫ﺏ ﺒﺈﻋﺠﺎ‬ ‫ / ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل / ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ 5. say, cry, exclaim with sadness…. .... ٍ ‫ﺯ‬ ِ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ / ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل / ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺒﺤ ﻥ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ 6. say, cry, exclaim with regret ….. .... ٍ  ‫ﺏ ِﻨﹶ‬ ‫ / ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل / ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺒ ﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ 7. say, cry, exclaim with horror ….. .... ٍ ‫ﺏ ِﻔﺯ‬ ‫ / ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل / ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺒ ﻉ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ 8. say, cry, exclaim with pleasure …. .... ٍ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺏ ِﺴ‬ ‫ / ﺘﻌ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل / ﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺠ ﺒ ﺭ ﺭ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ .(‫ﺨﺎﻁﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋ ِ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ )ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟ‬‫3. ﻏ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻠ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻴ ﻀ‬‫ﺔ‬ٍ ‫ﺘﻌﹼﻘﺔ ﺒﺤﺎﻟ‬ ‫ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬‫ﺒﺎﺸ ٍ ﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﹶ ﹸﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻼ ٍ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤ‬ ‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫( ﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬Tense) ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺍﻟ‬‫4. ﻴﺘﻐ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻠ‬ ‫ﺘﻜ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺯ‬ .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺭ )ﺁﺨﺭﻴﻥ(، ﻭﺘﺘﻐ‬‫ﺤﺎﻀﺭ ٍ ﻤﺎﺜﻠ ٍ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺓ ﺔ‬ Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬  Direct Speech    Indirect Speech   He said, "Alas! My shop is completely He said with sorrow that his shop was1. damaged". completely damaged. ."‫ﺭ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل: "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺴﻰ! ﻤﺤل ِﺠﺎﺭﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ .‫ﺭﹰ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ ﻤﺤل ِﺠﺎﺭﺘ‬ ‫ﺯ ٍ( ﺇ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﺒﺄﺴﻰ )ﺒ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻤ ﺍ‬ ‫ﺘ ﻪ‬ ‫ﺤ ﻥ ﻥ‬ He said," Hurrah! Ive won the first prize". He cried with joy that he had won the first2. ."‫ﻰ! ﻟﻘﺩ ﹸﺯ ﹸ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯ ِ ﺍ ُﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ " :‫ﻗﺎل‬ ‫ﺓ ﻷ‬ ‫ﻓ ﺕ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺤ‬ prize. .‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ ﺍ ُﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﺡ ﺒﻔﺭ ٍ ﻗﺎﺌ ﹰ ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﺡ ﻼ ﻨﻪ‬84
  •  He said, "How foolish I have been!". He said with regret that he had been foolish.3. ."‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻜﻡ ﹸﻨ ﹸ ﻏﺒﻴﹰ‬ ‫ﻜﺕ ﺎ‬ .‫ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﺒﻴﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﺒﻨﺩ ٍ ﺒﺄﹼ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻡ ﻨﻪ‬ Fadi said, "What a great idea". Fadi said with admiration that the idea was4. ."ٍ ‫ ﻗﺎل ﻓﺎﺩﻱ: "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻓﻜﺭ ٍ ﻋﻅﻴﻤ‬very great. ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ .‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻋﻅﻴﻤﺔ ﺠﺩﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻓﺎﺩﻱ ﺒﺈﻋﺠﺎ ٍ ﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺏ ﻥ‬5. He said, "Thank you". ."‫ﻗﺎل: " ﹸﻜﺭﹰ ﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺸ ﺍ‬ He thanked me. .‫ﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺸﹶﻜﹶ‬ ‫ﺭ‬6. He said, "Congratulation". ." ‫ﻗﺎل: "ﺘﻬﺎﻨ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ He congratulated me. .‫ﹼــﺄﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻨ‬7. He said, "Liar". ."‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻜﺫﺍﺏ‬ He called me a liar. .‫ﺎ ِﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻜ ﹼﺍﺏ‬  ‫ﺫ‬ ‫ﺩﻋ ﻨ‬  The absent party is not faulty.          Exercise No. 19 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬*) Change the following sentences into indirect ( Reported) speech:- -:‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻤل ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ She said, "What a fool! You have spoilt 1. ."ٍ ‫: "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﻤ ٍ! ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻓﺴﺩﺕﹶ ﻜ ّ ﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ل ﺀ‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ everything." 2. He said, "Happy Christmas." ."‫ ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻋﻴ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ The poor man said, "Alas! I have lost my 3. ."‫ل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭ ﻗﺎل: "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺴ ِ! ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻀﻌ ﹸ ِﻔﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ‬  ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺕﻁ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﺠ‬ only child." She said, "Hurry! My daughter has 4. ."‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﻤﺭﺤى! ﻟﻘﺩ ﻨﺠﺤﺕ ﺍﺒﻨﺘﻲ‬ succeeded." She said, "Oh! What a nice dress. Thanks 5. ."‫ ﻤﻥ ﹸﺴﺘﺎ ٍ ﺠﻤﻴ ٍ. ﺃﺸ ﹸﺭﻙ ﻴﺎ ﺃﺒﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﺃﻭﻩ! ﻴﺎ ﻟﹶ‬ ‫ﻓ ﻥ ل ﻜ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ daddy." 6. "What a lovely girl!", he said. ."!‫ﻗﺎل: "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻨ ٍ ﺠﻤﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ She said, "Oh! Its a snake. Dont get near it 7. ."‫ ﻴﺎ ﺃﻁﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ: "ﺃﻭﻩ! ﺇﹼﻪ ﹸﻌﺒﺎﻥ. ﻻ ﺘﻘﺘﺭﺒﻭﺍ ِﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﻪ‬ ‫ ﺜ‬‫ﻨ‬ children". Khalil said, What a surprise! I have not seen 8. ."‫ ﹸﹼﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺎﺭﻴﺱ‬‫ﻨﺫ ﺃﻥ‬  ‫ﻗﺎل ﺨﻠﻴل: "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺎﺠﺄﺓ! ﻟﻡ ﺃﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﻨ‬ ‫ﻙﻤ‬ you since we were in Paris ". He said, "Oh! My son has returned to me 9. ."‫ﻌﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻠﻴﻤﹰ‬  ‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل: "ﻭﺃﻓﺭﺤﺘﺎﻩ! ﻟﻘﺩ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﺒﻨﻲ ﺇﻟ‬ ‫ﻲﺴ ﺎﻤ‬ safe and sound ". 10. He said," Alas! I shant recover my money". ."‫ ﻨﻘﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل: "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺴﻑ! ﻟﻥ ﺃﺴﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ‬    Do as you would be done.         85
  •  Exercise No. 20 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ General Exercise on Direct and Indirect Speech        *) Change into Indirect Speech:- -:ٍ ‫ﺒﺎﺸ‬ ‫ﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻼ ٍ ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ She said to him, "I didnt find anything here. Where did she hide the bag? Go and make ‫ﺄﺘﻬـﺎ ؟ ﺍﺫﻫـﺏ‬‫ﻨﺎ. ﺃﻴـﻥ ﺨ‬ ٍ ‫ ﺸﻲ‬ ‫: "ﻟﻡ ﺃﺠﺩ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺀﻫ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ 1. her think weve found it. She will come and .‫ ﺘﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬‫ﻭﺍﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﻨﺎﻫﺎ. ﺴﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻭﺘﺤﺎﻭل ﺃﻥ‬ try to make sure. What a surprise! Ive !‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺘﻬﺎ! ﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺎﺠﺄﺓ‬ found it!". She said to me, "What a foolish deed you ‫! ﺍﺫﻫﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻲ:" ﻴﺎ ُﻟﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﻴ ٍ ﺃﺤﻤﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻓﻌﻠﺘ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻊ‬ have done! Go by your own means to the ‫ﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ. ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻫﻡ ﺒﻜل ﺸـﻲ ٍ ﻜﻤـﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﺎ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ 2. police. Tell them everything as it has happened. Do not tell any lies. It is better to ‫ ﺃﻜﺎﺫﻴﺏ. ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﺃﻥ ﺘﺫﻫﺏ ﺃﻨﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺙ. ﻻ ﺘ ﹸل ﻟﻬﻡ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ go to the police than to be arrested". ."‫ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﻘﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺽ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ Cut your coat according to your cloth.      86
  • ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪Adjectives  ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫1. ‪  ‬ﻫﻲ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﺩ ﹰ ﺘﺼﻑ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻤﻴﺭ، ﺴﻭﺍ ‪ ‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﻜﺎﺌﻨﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺸﻴﺌﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻜﺭﹰ، ..... ﺍﻟﺦ.‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫2. ﻗﺩ ‪‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺒﺄﻜﺜ ِ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻔﺔ.‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻴ ﺼ‬‫3. ﻻ ﻴﺤ ‪‬ﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻟﻠ ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﺴﻭﺍ ‪ ‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻭﻑ ﻤﻔﺭﺩﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺠﻤﻌﹰ، ‪‬ـﺫﻜﺭﹰ ﺃﻭ ‪‬ﺅﻨﺜـﹰ )ﺃ ‪ ‬ﻫـﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨـﻲ ﺃ ‪ ‬ﺼـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻱ‬ ‫ﺍ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻤ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﹰ ﺼﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ )ﺃﻱ: ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﻻ ﹸﺠﻤﻊ، ﻭﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﺫﹶ ﹼﺭ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻴﻀ ﹰ ﺼﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺅ ﹼﺙ(.‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻜ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ ‪Examples‬‬ ‫.‪1. He is clever‬‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﺫﻜ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫.‪2. She is clever‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺫﻜ ‪‬ﺔ.‬ ‫ﻴٌ‬ ‫.‪3. They are clever‬‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﺃﺫﻜﻴﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫‪  ‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪ç‬‬ ‫1. ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻻﺴﻡ.‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫‪a clever boy‬‬ ‫‪ an old woman‬ﻭﻟ ‪ ‬ﺫﻜ ‪ / ‬ﻤﺎﻫ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺩ ﻲ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺭﺃ ﹲ ﻋﺠﻭ ‪‬‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫‪a red book‬‬ ‫‪ a new house‬ﻜﺘﺎ ‪ ‬ﺃﺤﻤ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ ﺭ‬ ‫ﺕ ﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴ ﹲ ﺠﺩﻴ ‪‬‬ ‫-‬ ‫2. ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ ،Verb to Be‬ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ ‪Examples‬‬ ‫.‪1. Fadi is polite‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﺅﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫.‪2. She is tall‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻁـﻭﻴﻠ ﹲ.‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫.‪3. I am happy‬‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺴـﻌﻴ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫| ‪   ‬‬ ‫1. ﻗﺩ ﹸﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ، ﻭﻴﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ ‪ the‬ﻭ ‪‬ﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﻭﹸﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ، ﻤﺜل:-‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫‪poor‬‬ ‫ﻓـﻘﻴﺭ‬ ‫‪the poor‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﹸـﻘﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻔ‬ ‫‪rich‬‬ ‫ﻏـﻨﻲ‬ ‫‪the rich‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏـﻨﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫‪brave‬‬ ‫ﹸﺠﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫‪the brave‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟ ﱡـﺠﻌﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫2. ﺍﻟ ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﹸﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ:-‬ ‫ﺼ ﺘ‬ ‫?… ‪What sort‬‬ ‫? …‪ Which‬ﻤﺎ ﻨﻭﻉ...؟‬ ‫ﺃ ‪ ...‬؟‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫?…‪How many‬‬ ‫?… ‪ How much‬ﻜﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺩﺩ...؟‬ ‫ﻜﻡ ﻟﻠﻜﻤﻴﺔ... ؟‬‫78‬
  • Numerous people buy these micros because they are such reliable machines. .‫ﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺕ ﻷﹼﻬﺎ ِﺜﺎل ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻜﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻜ‬ ‫ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ُﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻨ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺒ‬ ‫ﺃ ﺱ‬   × .(How many...?) ‫ﺅﺍل‬ ‫( ﹸﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‬numerous) ‫ﻔﺔ‬ ‫1. ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ .(Which…?) ‫ﺅﺍل‬ ‫( ﹸﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‬these) ‫ﻔﺔ‬ ‫2. ﻭﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ .(What sort…?) ‫ﺅﺍل‬ ‫( ﹸﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟ‬reliable) ‫ﻔﺔ‬ ‫3. ﻭﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ Comparison of adjectives ‫ﻔﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ، ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﹸﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠ ِ ﺘﻭ ﹼﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺔ ﻓ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ 7 -:‫ﻔﺎﺕ ﺘﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ )ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ( ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨﻌﻠﻡ ﺃ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺼ‬،‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘ ِﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻭﻑ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤـﻊ ﻏﻴـﺭﻩ‬ (Positive Degree)   .1 ‫ﺼ‬    -:‫ﻤﺜل‬ 1. He is a tall man. .ٌ ‫ ٌ ﻁﻭﻴ‬ ‫ﺇﹼﻪ ﺭ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﻨ ﺠل‬ 2. She is an old woman. .‫ﺇﹼﻬﺎ ﺍﻤﺭﺃ ﹲ ﻋﺠﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ 3. I saw a tall tree near a big shop. .ٍ ‫ ﻤﺤ ٍ ﻜﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﻴ ﹸ ﺸﺠﺭ ﹰ ﻋﺎﻟﻴ ﹰ ﹸﺭ‬ ‫ﺔﻗ ﺏ ل ﺭ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺕ‬‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬   (Comparative Degree) .2     .‫ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ‬‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬    (Superlative Degree )   .3 ‫ﺘ‬     .‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬            7            ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬‫ﻑ‬ٍ ‫ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻜﺜ ِ ﻤـﻥ ﺼـﻭ ِ ﺤـﺭ‬ ‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺜ ِ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﻁ ٍ ﻭﺍﺤ ٍ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﹼﻠﻔﻅ )ﺃ‬ .1 ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻊ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ -:‫ﻤﺘﺤﺭ ٍ(، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻙ‬ expensive ‫ ﻏﺎﻟﻲ‬dangerous ‫ ﺨﻁﻴﺭ‬wonderful ‫ﺭﺍﺌﻊ‬ beautiful ‫ ﺠﻤﻴل/ ﺠﻤﻴﻠﺔ‬important ‫ ِﻡ‬ valuable ‫ﻤﻬ‬ ‫ﻡ / ﺜﻤﻴﻥ / ﺫﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﻗﹶ‬ ‫ﻴ‬88
  • ،(‫ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻭ ِ ﺤﺭ ٍ ﻤﺘﺤﺭ ٍ ﻭﺍﺤ ٍ ﻓﻘـﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﻁ ٍ ﻭﺍﺤ ٍ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﹼﻠﻔﻅ )ﺃ‬ .2 ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻑ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻊ‬ -:‫ﻤﺜل‬ short ‫ﻗﺼﻴﺭ‬ fat ‫ﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ cold ‫ﺒـﺎﺭﺩ‬ big ‫ﻀﺨﻡ/ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ old ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻴﻡ / ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ tall ‫ﻁﻭﻴل‬ quick ‫ﺴﺭﻴﻊ‬ hot ‫ﺤـﺎﺭ / ﺴﺎﺨﻥ‬ thin ‫ﻨـﺤﻴﻑ‬     ç .‫ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬than ‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ‬more ‫ﺃ( ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻨﻀﻊ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺼ ﻁ‬   more + + than   -:‫ﻔﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ü 1. Nadia is more beautiful than Samira. .‫ ﺠﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻤﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺜ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻻ‬ 2. The lion is more dangerous than the dog. .‫ ﺨﻁﺭﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺩ ﺃﻜﺜ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ .‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ )ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ( ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ‬the most ‫ ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ( ﻓﺈﹼﻨﺎ ﻨﻀﻊ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ( ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ )ﺴﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺼ ﻁ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺀ‬  the most +    -:‫ﻔﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍ ُﺨﺭﻯ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ü 1. Water is the most important thing in our life .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟ ﹼﻲﺀ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺃﻫﻤﻴ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ 2. Beesan is the most beautiful girl in the class. .‫ﺒﻴﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺠﻤل ﺒﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬      1. Arabic is more difficult than English. .‫ﺔ‬‫ﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺼﻌﻭﺒ ﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﻴ‬2. Ibrahim is wearing the most expensive jacket. . ‫ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ ﻴﺭﺘﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻜﻴﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻏﻼ‬ ‫ﺀ‬3. Ahmed is more intelligent and more careful than Ibrahim. .‫ ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺤﺫﺭﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺫﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺀ‬4. The earth quake is more dangerous than the volcano. .‫ﺭﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻟﺯﺍل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺨﻁﻭﺭ ﹰ )ﺃﺨﻁﺭ( ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺓ‬    ç   .‫ﻔﺔ‬ ‫ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟ‬than ‫ﻔﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒ ﹰ، ﺜﻡ ﹸﻀﻴﻑ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ‬er) ‫ﺃ( ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ )ﺸﻴﺌﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﻤﻴﻥ ( ﻨﻀﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺼ‬89
  •   er than  er  -:‫ﻔﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ü 1. Fadi is older than Ahmed. .‫ ِﹼﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻜﺒ‬ ‫ﺭ ﺴﻨﺎ‬ 2. Tagreed is taller than her brother. .‫ﺘﻐﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻁﻭ ُ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ل‬ .‫ﻔﺔ‬ ‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ‬est) ‫ﻔﺔ ﻭ ﹸﻀﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁﻊ‬ ‫ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟ‬the ‫ ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ( ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ )ﺴﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺏ( ﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺀ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ the + est 1. Sameer is the tallest pupil in the class. .ِ ‫ﺴﻤﻴﺭ ﺃﻁﻭ ُ ﺘﻠﻤﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ 2. Huda is the cleverest girl in the class. .ِ ‫ﻫﺩﻯ ﺃﺫﻜﻰ ﺒﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼ‬ ‫ل‬    1. He is the tallest of them all. .‫ﻡ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﻁﻭل ﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻬ‬ 2. The lion is the strongest in the world. .‫ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻗﻭ ﹰ )ﺍﻷﻗﻭﻯ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﺴ‬ ‫ﺓ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ 3. This book is the cheapest one. .‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﺨﺹ‬     | (er) ‫ﺘﺤﺭ ٍ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰ )ﺃﻱ: ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬ ٍ ‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ، ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﹰ ﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺎﻜﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﻑﻤ ﻙ ﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻴ ﻌ‬ .1 -:‫ﻔﺔ(، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫( ﻟﻠ‬est) ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺼ‬              fat ‫ﺒﺩﻴﻥ / ﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ fatter than the fatter big ‫ﻀﺨﻡ‬ bigger than the bigger hot ‫ﺴﺎﺨﻥ‬ hotter than the hotter thin ‫ﺭﻓﻴﻊ / ﻨﺤﻴﻑ‬ thinner than the thinner‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﺜﻨـﻴﻥ ﻓﻘـﻁ، ﺃﻱ‬ ‫( ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺍﻟ‬er) ‫( ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬r) ‫( ﻨﻀﻴﻑ ﻟﻬﺎ‬e) ‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ .2‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﺜﻨـﻴﻥ، ﺃﻱ‬ ‫( ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟ‬est) ‫( ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﺩ ﹰ ﻤﻥ‬st) ‫(، ﻭﻨﻀﻴﻑ ﻟﻬﺎ‬ + r + than) ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ -:‫(، ﻤﺜل‬the + + st)90
  •               large (‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ )ﻭﺍﺴﻊ‬ larger than the largest nice ‫ﻟﻁﻴﻑ‬ nicer than the nicest simple ‫ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ simpler than the simplest fine ‫ﺠﻤﻴل‬ finer than the finest (er) ‫( ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬i) ‫ﻘﻠﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ (y) ‫ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬ ‫( ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗ ﹰ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺴﺎﻜﻥ، ﻓﺈ‬y)‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺕ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ .3 -:‫ﻔﺔ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟ‬est) ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺼ‬              easy ‫ﺴﻬل‬ easier than the easiest happy ‫ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬ happier than the happiest Funny ‫ﻀ ِﻙ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺤ‬ funnier than the funniest heavy ‫ﺜـﻘﻴل‬ heavier than the heaviest noisy ‫ﺯ ِﺞ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻋ‬ noisier than the noisiest pretty ‫ﺠﻤﻴل‬ prettier than the prettiest‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ )ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ( ﻋﻥ ﹸـل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋـﺩ‬ ‫ﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟ ﹼﺎﺫﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ç -:‫ﹰ، ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺎﺒﻘ ِ ﺍﻟ ِﻜﺭ ﹸﺫﻭﺫﹰ ﻜﺎﻤ ﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ ﺔ ﺫ ﺸ ﺍ ﻼ‬              good ‫ﺤﺴﻥ / ﺠﻴﺩ‬ better than the best bad ‫ﺭﺩﻱﺀ / ﺴﻴﺊ‬ worse than the worst ill ‫ﻤﺭﻴﺽ‬ worse than the worst far ‫ﺒﻌﻴﺩ‬ further than the furthest little ‫ﻗﻠﻴل‬ less than the least less ‫ﺃﻗل‬ lesser than the least many ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﺩﺩ‬ more than the most much ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ more than the most old ‫ﻋﺠﻭﺯ‬ older than the eldest Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬ 1. Nabil is better than Usama. .‫ ﻤﻥ ُﺴﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﻴل ﺃﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ 2. Ramzy is the best pupil in the class. .‫ﺭﻤﺯﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬91
  •                more ++ than  the most +  Huda is more beautiful than Nadia. Samira is the most beautiful in the class. .‫ ﺠﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻯ ﺃﻜﺜ‬ ‫ﺭ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ .ِ ‫ ﺠﻤﺎ ﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻜﺜ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺭ ﻻ‬  er (r)than   the ++ est (st) 1) Ahmed is taller than Ali. 1) Ahmed is the tallest of them all.  .‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺃﻁﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ .‫ﻡ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﹰ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺍﻷﻁﻭل ﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻬ‬ 2) This question is simpler than that. 2) This question the simplest of them all. .‫ﺅﺍل ﺃﺴﻬل ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ .‫ﺅﺍل ﺍﻷﺴﻬل ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﹰ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴ‬     | -:‫ﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ ﺍﻟﹼﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﹸﺒ‬ ‫ﻔﺔ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫1. ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻨﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺘﻴ ﺘ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺼ‬   as ++ as 1. She is as tall as me. .‫ﻫﻲ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﺜﻠﻲ‬ 2. Mosab is as clever as Abed Allah. .‫ ﻤﺜل ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﺏ ﺫﻜﻲ ﻤﺜﻠ‬ ‫ﻪ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ -:‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ، ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ‬ ‫2. ﻋﻨﺩ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺼ‬  not ( as / so) + + as 1. Mosab is not as clever as Abed Allah. .‫ﺼﻌﺏ ﻟﻴﺱ ﺫﻜﻴﹰ ﻤﺜل ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ 2. She is not so tall as me. .‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻁﻭﻴﻠ ﹰ ِﺜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺔﻤ‬‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺼﻔﺔ ﻁﻭﻴﻠـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺼـﻔﺔ‬ (‫ﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤ‬ ‫ﻔﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﻘﻁﻌﻴﻥ ﻟﻔﻅﻴﻴﻥ )ﺃﻱ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫3. ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺭ ﻴ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ :‫ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ، ﻤﺜل‬                  ‫ﺼﻔﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ‬ polite ‫ﻤﺅﺩﺏ‬ politer than the politest ‫ﺼﻔﺔ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬ polite ‫ﻤﺅﺩﺏ‬ more politer the most politer،‫ ﻟﻸﻤﺎﻜﻥ‬in ‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ( ﻏﺎﻟﺒ ً ﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺭ‬ ‫ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﺤﺴﻥ )ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﹼﻔﻀﻴل ﺍﻟ ﹸﺼﻭﻯ( )ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫4. ﺒﻌ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻘ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ :‫ ﻟﻸﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻸﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ، ﻤﺜل‬of ‫ﻭﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺭ‬92
  •  1. Samia is the most beautiful girl in the class. .ِ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟ ِﻨﹾ ﹸ ﺍﻷﺠﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ﺒﺕ‬ 2. Khalil is the cleverest of them all. .‫ﺨﻠﻴل ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﺫﻜﻰ ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﹰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ 3. He is the tallest man in our house. .‫ل ﺍﻷﻁﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺘﻨﺎ‬  ‫ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺇﹼ‬ ‫ﻨﻪ ﺭﺠ‬‫( ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ‬est) ‫( ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃﻭ‬er) ‫ﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻬﺎ‬ (ow) ‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﻁﻌﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒـ‬ ‫5. ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ :‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ، ﻤﺜل‬              narrow ‫ﻕ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ narrower than the narrowest If an experiment works, something has gone wrong.  .     93
  •  Exercise No. 21 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬I) Correct the words between brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬ ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ﺤ‬1. Hany is the (old) student in our classroom.2. A train is (fast) than a car.3. Huda is the (thin) girl in the class.4. Football is the (popular) game in Gaza.5. Ali is the (good) football player in our school.6. Old men need (little) sleep than children.7. This is the (difficult) lesson in the book.8. Magda is the (clever) girl in the class.9. My table is (high) than yours.10. August is the (hot) month in the year.II) Choose the right word:- :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺼ‬1. Ali is as (old – older – oldest) as his friend.2. This is the (easy – easier – easiest) exercise.3. Oxygen is the (useful – more useful – most useful) gas.4. I have bought the (good – better – best) television.5. This is the (interesting – more interesting – most interesting) book I have read.  Conciliation is the matter of the law.           94
  •  Answers Exercise No. 1 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. It 5. We 9. my 13. ourselves 17. Those 2. He 6. You 10. it 14. myself 18. These 3. They / It 7. Your 11. them 15. themselves 19. This 4. I 8. mine 12. yourself 16. themselves Exercise No. 2 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ I 1. is 2. am 3. are 4. is 5. are II 1. was 2. were 3. were 4. were 5. was Exercise No. 3 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. Did 2. does 3. do 4. do 5. Does Exercise No. 4 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. have 2. have 3. has 4. have 5. hhas 6. has Exercise No. 5 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. help 2. get 3. write 4. buy 5. study 6. help Exercise No. 6 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ I 1. takes 2. speak 3. watches 4. meet 5. gives 6. drives 1. drinks 2. reaches 3. visits 4. answers 5. goes / catches II 6. enjoys 7. studies 8. gets 9. shines 10. visits95
  •  Exercise No. 7 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. bought 2. made 3. had 4. climbed 5. finished Exercise No. 8 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. are shouting 6. are standing Are you listening / 2. 7. is building I am saying 3. is typing 8. am answering 4. is making 9. is doing / does 5. are welcoming 10. am not wearingII 1. is waiting 2. is having 3. driving 4. is raining 5. hear 6. think / know Exercise No. 9 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. met 6. was Samy telling 2. were playing / wrote 7. was shouting / was studying I 3. found / was digging 8. was living / began 4. arrived / was still sleeping 9. was getting 5. was sitting / saw 10. was talking / began 1. rang / was leaving 6. was sleeping / came 2. had (was having) / was having 7. were you doing II 3. was cooking 8. were coming / stopped 4. were working / knocked 9. jumped / was moving 5. were playing / rained 10. was watching / came Exercise No. 10 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. have not seen 2. has already eaten 3. has never been 4. have not finished 5. has not met Exercise No. 11 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. had drunk / finished 4. went / had taken 2. had cooked / came 5. thanked / had saved 3. had left / reached 6. arrested / had stolen96
  •  Exercise No. 12 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ I 1. are going 2. will study 3. shall start 4. shall swim 5. will build 1. will clean 6. will arrive 2. shall see 7. will study II 3. will visit 8. shall meet 4. will be 9. will you meet / shall meet 5. shall take (am going to take) 10. will leave (is going to leave) Exercise No. 13 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. visits 14. had left / reached 2. make / makes 15. havent seen 3. has lived 16. saw / sat 4. shall finish 17. are learning 5. move 18. visited 6. will travel 19. was learning / had I 7. will see 20. came / had eaten 8. examined / gave 21. are buying 9. had worked / heard 22. directs 10. shall wait 23. will fall 11. waited 24. was travelling / met 12. will come 25. had seen / went 13. became 1. borrowed 14. will visit 2. has lived 15. ever 3. is watching 16. never 4. had had 17. goes 5. was making / opened 18. was walking / saw 6. since 19. is jumping II 7. see 20. rang / had finished 8. done 21. had finished / rang 9. hasnt finished 22. writes 10. think 23. were they doing 11. went / had left 24. have lived / was 12. slept / received 25. felt / had eaten 13. shall move97
  •  Exercise No. 14 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. has 1. had won / bought 2. would / had 2. obeyed / would not stop I 3. comes / shall II 3. eat 4. Were / would 4. told 5. had stayed 5. would win Exercise No. 15 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬1. Many letters were written by Kamel.2. The meeting may have to be canceled by them.3. Two big bags were being carried by him.4. He will be helped by me.5. An apple was eaten by her.6. It has been crushed by passing cars.7. A heavy box is being carried by the man. He was taught French and was given a dictionary.8. Or: French was taught to him and a dictionary was given to him.9. Clothes were being washed by her.10. These papers can be kept by you.11. The door couldnt be opened by them.12. Twenty letters have been written to her.13. His bag is being looked for by him. a) They were given many useful lessons by him14. b) Many useful lessons were given to them by him. a) He was shown my new book by me.15. b) My new book was shown to him by me. a)We were offered a big house in Gaza by him.16. b) A big house in Gaza was offered to us by him.17. It is said that there is no water on the moon. A car is being possessed by me.18. Or: A car is being owned by me. Or: A car is being belonged to me.19. Dont let the door be opened.20. Let this book be given to Emad.21. Any building are not wanted here.22. Everything must be left as it is by me.23. The room has not been cleaned by them.24. This word has been looked up by me.25. It is said that she is innocent.26. It was said that she is innocent.27. Let all necessary things be brought.28. Where has my car been left?98
  • 29. Is English spoken all over the world? Shall we be allowed five minutes break?30. Or: Will five minutes break be allowed to us by them?31. Were any spare parts bought by you?32. By whom were both boys asked to leave? By whom was he shown the way?33. Or: By whom was the way shown to him?34. By whom has the food been cooked?35. By whom was this story told?36. When was the ring found?37. Is the letter being written by Ali now?38. Has your question been answered?39. Is much money gained by them? Why was not I told the truth by them?40. Or: Why was not the truth told to me by them? Exercise No. 16 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬1. He told them that he would bring them some tea when they had finished.2. I her that I had something to show her.3. She told him that she had lost her keys the day before (the previous day).4. He says that Adel has written him a long letter.5. She said that it had not been foggy that day as it had been the day before.6. Hassan says that when he gets up, he finds a cup of milk beside his bed.7. She told him that she had stayed with her brother in their house that morning.8. He told us that the sun shines every morning.9. He said (that) he would have to go again next week.10. He hoped to go there.11. He says that he is busy today and that he has bought a new book.12. She said that iron is heavier than gold. He greeted them that morning and told them that he had brought all papers and that he hoped13. to reach an agreement.14. She told him that she wanted to go with him to see by herself.15. The man said that Spring is the best season of the year. She did not agree telling him that she couldn’t sign that contract unless he paid 300,00016. dollars for her at once.17. She told him that her bag had been full of money. She told me that she would help me, that she could lend me some books and that she had18. many useful books on that subject.19. He told me that he had phoned me twice. He says that they are living in a house near to his school, that he needs not to take the bus20. and that he can reach his school in 5 minutes.99
  •  Exercise No. 17 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬1. Soha asked Nadia what she wanted to do on Friday.2. Mona asked Samia how she was going to travel to France.3. I asked my friend when he had arrived.4. Mr. Hesham asked where the voice had been coming from.5. I asked whether I had made anything wrong.6. He asked me to wait. Or: He asked me if I would mind waiting.7. He asked her how she had gone there and inquired (‫ )ﺍﺴﺘﻔﺴﺭ‬if she gone there on foot.8. She asked why I blamed her.9. Mohammed asked if the flat was cheap.10. He asked me to wait a moment.11. Tariq offered me a lift and I asked which way he was going.12. She asked me if I could do it before the next day.13. Her husband asked what a suitable dress is.14. I asked him why he was looking through the keyhole.15. He asked Mr. Hazem where he had been the previous night. She asked whether they needed to go to the shops in order to see suitable dresses and16. unsuitable prices.17. Hassan asked Khalil how long he was staying in Gaza.18. He asks if the weather is good today.19. He asked if the weather was good that day. He asked me if I had answered that exercise.20. I replied that I had answered it. Or: I replied that I had not answered it. Exercise No. 18 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬1. He asked his friend to lend him his camera.2. The officer ordered the soldier to bring him the bag of the maps.3. Heba asked Latefa to give her her English book.4. The father advised his son not to go alone.5. She asked for forgiveness. (‫ﻤﺎﺡ‬‫)ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴ‬6. She urged (‫ )ﺤﺜﹼﺕ‬Nagi to hit the other boy.7. The lady asked the man sitting beside her not to smoke.8. My friend asked me to wait for him at the bridge and asked if I could bring that bag with me.9. Nader told me to go and tell his father that he could not go home that night.10. He advised her not to waste their money in that foolish way.100
  •  Exercise No. 19 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬1. He said with anger that he was a fool and that he had spoilt everything.2. He wished me a happy Christmas.3. The poor cried with sorrow that he had lost his only child.4. She cried with joy that her daughter had succeeded.5. She said with joy that it is a nice dress and thanked her daddy.6. He said with admiration that she is a lovely girl.7. She exclaimed with disgust (‫ )ﺍﺸﻤﺌﺯﺍﺯ‬that it was a snake and told the children not to get near it.8. Khalil said with joy that he hadn’t seen me sine we had been in Paris.9. He said with pleasure that his son had returned to him safe and sound.10. He said with sorrow that he wouldn’t recover (‫ ) ﻴﺴﺘﺭﺩ‬his money. Exercise No. 20 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ General Exercise on Direct and In direct Speech She told him that she hadn’t found anything there. She asked where she had hidden the bag.1. She ordered him to go and make her think they had found it. She told him that she would come and try to make sure. Then she cried with joy that she had found it. She said with anger that I had done a foolish deed. She ordered me to go by my own means2. to the police. She asked me to tell them everything as it had happened. She advised me not to tell any lies. She told me that it was better to go to the police than to be arrested. Exercise No. 21 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬ 1. oldest or eldest 6. less 2. faster 7. most difficult I 3. thinner 8. cleverest 4. most popular 9. higher 5. best 10. hottest II 1. old 2. easiest 3. most useful 4. best 5. most interesting After black clouds* clear weather.          101