Writing arguments (pros and cons)


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Writing arguments (pros and cons)

  1. 1. Argumentative Essays By James Abela www.jamesabela.co.uk
  2. 2. Today’s Outline Brainstorming Topic Sentence Building Intro Types Conclusion http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  3. 3. Love Triangles Bicycle Train Car http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  4. 4. Quick Planning - Mindmaps  Wide range of uses: from Internet site design to brainstorming in meetings  Generate ideas about 30% faster http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  5. 5. Steps to planning!  Draw a Mindmap as fast as possible  Select 3-5 ideas (In an exam, just choose by instinct)  Each of those ideas can then be made into a paragraph  Once complete – reread your work  Write a conclusion…  Check grammar and spelling http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  6. 6. Planning It… For Against http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  7. 7. Speed Writing  Use instinct…  Use ideas generated  Write as fast as possible  Don’t go over word limit by too much…  Allow time to check http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  8. 8. Topic Sentences I had a wonderful summer. First, I started sleeping in every day. I would then go swimming with my friends. I stayed up late watching TV a lot, and I went to camp for a week. I wished my summer would never end! http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  9. 9. Topic Sentence - Answers  a  a  d – story approach  a  d – 1st sentence to set context  b – 1st sentence for interest  b http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  10. 10. Building an Argument www.jamesabela.co.uk
  11. 11. Building an Argument Smoking should be banned from public places Smoking is dirty. Leave ash Leave cigarette butts Smells bad Causes irritation to the eyes http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  12. 12. Building an Argument Smoking should be banned from public places Smoking is dangerous Careless smokers cause fires causes throat & lung cancer Causes heart disease http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  13. 13. Summarizing text  Look for topic sentences  Highlight them  Look for other key facts  Put together a short summary of this information Key skill for PMR exams http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  14. 14. Cleaning the toilets… www.jamesabela.co.uk
  15. 15. Argumentative – Brainstorm Let’s make students clean the toilets… •Do you agree? •Does anybody else think the same as you? •Why do you think that? •Can you understand the other side? •Why are they wrong? http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  16. 16. Creating an Introduction For exams reword the question Should students be made to clean the toilets ? Students should be made to clean the toilets. http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  17. 17. Add your Opinion…  Students should clean the toilets.  Students should not clean the toilets. http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  18. 18. Add Background… In Japan, students are expected to clean their own toilets and the government believes that this practice may encourage students to be more respectful of their school environment. I believe that students should be made to clean the toilets. http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  19. 19. Argumentative – Order Let’s make students clean the toilets… •Introduce topic - agree / disagree •Tell us why – ideas and examples •Different opinions – not important or not true •Brief summary STRONG LAST SENTENCE http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  20. 20. Vocabulary  First point - First of all / To begin with / To start with  Connect points – And / Also /Furthermore / What’s more / As well  Change sides – On the other hand / conversely / But / That said  Conclude - In conclusion / Therefore  Examples - For example / For instance http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  21. 21. Main Body – Types of Argument www.jamesabela.co.uk
  22. 22. Big Names Important people or experts can make your argument seem more convincing. Example: Jackie Chan says that he enjoys the odd chocolate bar… http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  23. 23. Facts and Numbers Facts, numbers, and information can be very convincing. Example: A Snickers bar has 280 calories and 30 grams of sugar. That’s not very healthy. http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  24. 24. Emotions Getting people to feel happy, sad, or angry can help your argument. Example: Eating chocolate reduces the suffering of gingerbread men… http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  25. 25. Research Using reliable research can help your argument seem convincing. Example: A recent study found that students who eat chocolate have better concentration. http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  26. 26. Writing a conclusion Three Strategies:  Using Quotes  So What?  Summarising the points http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  27. 27. A Quote…  Whether you think you can or whether you think you can't, you're right. Henry Ford  You see things; and you say 'Why?' But I dream things that never were; and I say 'Why not?' George Bernard Shaw  Never look down on anybody unless you're helping him up. Jesse Jackson http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  28. 28. So What… A: Basically, I'm just saying that education was important to Douglass. B: So what? A: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. B: Why should anybody care? A: That's important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  29. 29. Summarise points  Look at your topic sentences  Try to bring them altogether for a conclusion  End with a final statement http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  30. 30. Your Choice…  Are neighbours helpful or a disturbance?  Do branded clothes cause social cliques?  Do uniforms help people to be more united?  Do different cultures make it difficult for people to get along? http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/
  31. 31. Conclusion  Plan it  Write a quick introduction  Arguments Big Names, stats, research and emotions.  Conclusion So what / Quote / Summarise  Once complete – reread your work http://www.jamesabela.co.uk/