Pops

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Pops

  1. 1. POPULISTS 1890s
  2. 2. Farmers Alliances & the Grange <ul><li>Agricultural Wheel (Arkansas), Farmers Union (Louisiana), Farmers Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Greenback Party </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Colored Farmers Alliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Women’s Alliance (1891) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. National Grange <ul><li>Munn v. Illinois (1877): regulated grain storage rates </li></ul><ul><li>Wabash v. Illinois (1886): states can not regulate interstate railroad rates </li></ul><ul><li>Interstate Commerce Act (1887): formed the Interstate Commerce Commission. Railroads lobbied state governments and repealed Grange laws. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Populist Party <ul><li>Various movements combined to form the Populist Party in 1892. </li></ul><ul><li>Omaha Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariff reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated income tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public ownership of railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct election of Senators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federally funded irrigation research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ban on land ownership for aliens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free coinage of silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laws allowing farmers to store goods in federal warehouses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low interest loans with crops as collateral </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Election of 1892 <ul><li>James B. Weaver 8.5% of popular vote </li></ul><ul><li>Won some seats in House and Senate…no real power  …(like William Peffer!) </li></ul><ul><li>Grover Cleveland won and repainted the White House. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Panic of 1893 <ul><li>Reading Railroad files for bankruptcy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent banks/companies also collapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock market crash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European investors pull out stocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worsened agricultural depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Political involvement of agricultural community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe unemployment and protest </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Election of 1896 <ul><li>Candidates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Jennings Bryan (Democrats) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cross of the Gold Speech” against gold standard, favored monetization of silver “We have restored the money of the Constitution, all other necessary reforms will be possible; but…until this is done there is no other reform that can be accomplished” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>William McKinley (Republican) favored gold standard, more conservative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>McKinley wins!!! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Silver <ul><li>“Crime of 1873” Silver Demonetized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checked inflation, angering heavily indebted farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resumption Act 1875 brought paper money to parity with gold </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Gold Bug <ul><li>Democrats who split with party over the silver issue </li></ul><ul><li>Supported the gold standard </li></ul><ul><li>1896: Gold Bugs nominated their own candidate- John M. Palmer </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why the Populists lost the election of 1896… <ul><li>Bi-metallism was not popular with industrial workers because it would cause inflation </li></ul><ul><li>William Jennings Bryan’s defeat threw off the Populist’s agenda and they lost hope </li></ul>
  11. 11. Republican Party (1896) <ul><li>McKinley’s Platform: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose tariff that would hurt American products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase navy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oppose free coinage of silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reassert Monroe Doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help Cuba gain independence! </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Democratic Party <ul><li>Platform: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed gold standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Silver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated Income Tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathy for Cubans </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. THE END

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