Teaching vocabulary

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Excerpt mostly taken from Michael Wallace's (1982) "Teaching Vocabulary"

Excerpt mostly taken from Michael Wallace's (1982) "Teaching Vocabulary"

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  • The receptive vocabulary is term we use in other way of saying the recognized and comprehended words and their use in the context; productive vocabulary roughly refers to results of vocabulary use, appropriately in writing and speaking.

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  • 1. TEACHING VOCABULARYExcerpt from Michael Wallace 1
  • 2. Topic Discussions1. Learning a Foreign Language and Vocabulary2. The Principle of Teaching and Learning Vocabulary3. Vocabulary in the Classroom4. The Teaching of Vocabulary in Context5. Exercises for Vocabulary Development 2
  • 3. LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGEAND VOCABULARY 3
  • 4. Symptoms of bad vocabulary learning and/or teaching are:1. Inability to retrieve vocabulary that has been teaching2. Use of vocabulary inappropriate to the given situation3. Use the vocabulary at the wrong level of formality4. Possessing the wrong kind of vocabulary for one’s needs5. Using vocabulary in an unidiomatic way6. Using vocabulary in a meaningless way7. Incorrect use of a dictionary8. Use of incorrect grammatical form, spelling, pronunciation, or stress 4
  • 5. Basic Elements in Vocabulary• Form & meaning: words • Relationship between and lexical items words• Word-lists • Productive and• General Service List Receptive vocabulary (GSL) • Pronunciation &• ESP vocabulary spelling• Structure & content • Stress• Meaning • Correct form• Connotation • Cognates & ‘false friends’ 5
  • 6. THE PRINCIPLE OF TEACHING ANDLEARNING VOCABULARY 6
  • 7. To ‘know’ a word in a TL means ability to:a) recognise it in its spoken or written formb) Recall it at willc) Relate it to an appropriate object or conceptd) Use it in the appropriate grammatical forme) In speech, pronounce it in a recognisable wayf) In writing, spell it correctlyg) Use it with the words it correctly goes with (i.e. Correct collocation)h) Use it at the appropriate level of formalityi) Be aware of its connotations and associations 7
  • 8. What are the principles?• Aims – how many of the things listed does the teacher expect learners to be able to do? With which word?• Quantity – T may have to decide on the quantity of vocabulary to be learnt. Too many? Too little?• Need – the Ss should feel that they need the target word• Frequent exposure & repetition – until Ss show they have learned the target word 8
  • 9. What are the principles? (cont’d)• Situation presentation – varied meanings according to situation & formal/informal• Presentation in context – words must appear in its natural environment as it were, i.e. collocations & idioms• Learning in the L1 and target language – see if the established principles so far relate to the learning of vocabulary in the L1 and L2• Inference/guessing procedures – by hearing, reading them in certain context/situation 9
  • 10. 4TEACHING OF VOCABULARY INCONTEXT 10
  • 11. Vocabulary is most frequently taught in a spoken or written context• Storing & memorising vocabulary – retrieval & memorisation• They are all means of making Ls think actively about what they are trying to remember 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. EXERCISES FOR VOCABULARYDEVELOPMENT 13
  • 14. use familiarvocabulary visual games card pictures 14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. Word-meaning exerciseInference CarAntonym & synonym Tram vehicle CoachSemantic field exercise CarriageDictionary work hospitality design Boundary BORDER between FRONTIER countries 16
  • 17. Word-structure exerciseCompoundCollocationCohesionVariety 17
  • 18. 18
  • 19. ICT Tools for Teaching Vocabulary Websites for creating and sharing flashcards:1. http://quizlet.com/ (study groups, chats, message boards, space race game, scatter game)2. http://www.flashcardexchange.com (the world‘s largest flashcard library)3. http://www.muchobeets.com/ (picture flashcards)4. http://www.studystack.com/ 19
  • 20. Ideas from concordances How can concordances help us?As teachers we often rely very heavily on our instinctive knowledge of languageuse, especially when confronted by those unpredictable student questionslike; "Which is correct? Welcome to, or welcome in?" 20
  • 21. How does it help teachers?• Having access to a corpora of authentic language can help us to check or reconfirm our assumptions about the way that language is used.• We can check that the uses and collocations of words we are teaching are the most frequent, up to date and correct.• We can find authentic examples to demonstrate and reinforce the language we are teaching. 21
  • 22. Some possible problems There are some areas where the use of concordances can cause problems. The majority of corpora are based on authenticlanguage use and as such this can be far too challenging for lower level students. 22
  • 23. VOCABULARY GAMES AND TESTS 23
  • 24. Aim• to develop Ss’ vocabulary• Task, game, and test = students’ performance• Purpose of the tests is usually to supply information: how good is the S command of vocabulary? What are his areas of weakness? How does his progress compare with that of other members of this class? etc 24
  • 25. Vocabulary games are popular1. An increasing emphasis on the importance of motivation & of the kind of positive atmosphere in the classroom2. An increasing emphasis on the importance of ‘real’ communication 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. IDIOMS AND MULTI-WORD VERBS 28
  • 29. Idioms• Practical idiom for teaching purposes will contain 3 elements:1) Consist of more than one word2) Idioms are fixed collocations3) Idioms are semantically opaque (cannot be encoded from literal/ordinary meaning of the words they contain) 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. Multiword Verbs• A multiword verb is a verb plus a particle (i.e. preposition, adverb) or more, joined to form a new structural unit. 31
  • 32. Problems for learnersIn terms of grammatical form, multi-word verbs present problems for learners as to whether,a) they are separable or inseparableb) they are transitive or intransitivec) they are formal or informal 32
  • 33. Jihyun NamPaper presented in TESL CANADA JOURNAL/REVUE TESL DU CANADAVOL. 28, NO 1, WINTER 2010LINKING RESEARCH AND PRACTICE:EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR TEACHINGVOCABULARY IN THE ESL CLASSROOM 33
  • 34. • ..Topic 20 - Teaching VocabularyLinking Research & Practice - effective strategies for teaching vocabulary in the esl classroom.pdf 34
  • 35. Vocabulary ExercisesBecause vocabulary gains for unknownwords can be augmented more effectively when a reading text is accompanied by text-based vocabulary exercises than without them (Wesche & Paribakht, 2000), teachers need to consider possible ways of developing exercises 35
  • 36. 36
  • 37. Conclusions• One limitation of this advice lies in contradictions among research findings, for example, conflicting perspectives on the role of L1 equivalents in L2 vocabulary-learning.• Moreover, the various vocabulary-teaching strategies developed in this study need to be variably applied to ESL students according to their proficiency levels. 37
  • 38. Conclusions – cont’d methods the use of visual representations such as pictures and drawings can promote vocabulary L1 translation equivalents, as in Figure 2, can promote L2 vocabulary- learninghigher involvement in vocabulary production processing, for example, a composition task or retelling a text, can contribute to vocabulary retention.task-based vocabulary-learning through various activities can promote vocabulary learning. 38
  • 39. Resources• http://teachingvocabulary.org/teaching-vocabulary-strategies• http://pdfcast.org/pdf/ict-tools-for-teaching-vocabulary• http://rachelchanty.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/halloween.j pg• http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/concordancers-elt 39
  • 40. One more thing .... 40