1.3 diesel engine stationary components

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Describes Basic Diesel Engine Stationary components, used by the U.S. Navy.

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  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Purpose of block Provide Strength with relatively simple design. Supports and aligns internal parts. Location Engineroom Main Propulsion Ship’s Service Diesel Generator (SSDG) Emergency Diesel/Auxiliary Machinery Room Used to supply power for emergency electrical generator and in some cases, Fire Pumps
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components En-Bloc or Cast: the block is cast in one piece of aluminum or cast iron and is used in medium speed applications. Used mainly on small applications such as boats, emergency generators and pumps Usually no longer than 6 in line cylinders, or 8 V cylinders Some applications have 2 or more blocks bolted together All contain internal oil passages to distribute oil from the pump to the moving parts inside the engine
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Steel plates are cut and welded vertically and horizontally to construct the frame. A jig is used to hold and align the pieces while they are welded. Some engines contain oil and water passages welded into the frame work, while others have removable pipes or tubing. This type of construction is used for larger engines such as Alco, Fairbanks-Morse, General Motors, and Colt-Pielstick. The barrel or bore the piston moves in may be either an integral part of the main block or may be a separate liner.
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Purpose- Allows individual cylinder bores to be replaced when they become worn. Cylinder liners are inserts placed inside the cylindrical holes in the block.
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Water is in contact with some part of the liner. The wall of the liner is thicker than the dry type, and water circulating in the block comes in contact with the outside surfaces of the liner.
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Purpose: Serves as a housing for the crankshaft. Incorporates the bolting flanges, lower main bearing saddles and an oil trough.
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Purpose: Collects and holds the engine lube oil. Location: Sumps are usually attached directly to the bottom of the engine.
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Purpose- Adds rigidity to the block. Provides a mounting surface for parts such as gears, pumps, blowers, and generators. Location- Attached to each end of the cylinder block
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Also referred to as inspection covers or hand hole covers. Usually secured with a hand wheel or nut operated clamps and are fitted with gaskets to keep dirt and foreign material out of the engine. On some engines, the covers are constructed to serve as safety devices. The covers are equipped with a spring loaded pressure plate which keeps the plate sealed under normal operating conditions. In the event of a crankcase explosion or extreme pressure in the crankcase, the pressure overcomes the spring tension, and the plate acts as a safety vent.
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Greater variation in design than any other single element of an engine. Purpose – Forms a seal for the combustion space. Constructed of cast alloy iron, or aluminum. Each cylinder may have individual heads or cylinders may share heads. Location – bolted to the top of the cylinder block.
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Heads may contain intake and/or exhaust valves, rocker arm assemblies, fuel injection valves and air starting valves. Cooling water passages are provided in the head to remove heat from the head, valves, and injector. Coolant is introduced from the block or liner into cored passages of the head
  • Diesel Engine Construction Stationary Components Purpose To secure the engine to the ship. Can also be used to maintain alignment between the driven unit and the engine Location Beneath the bedplate or engine frame Types Solid – Bolted directly to the frame
  • 1.3 diesel engine stationary components

    1. 1. <ul><ul><li>Purpose of block </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Strength with relatively simple design. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supports and aligns internal parts. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Engineroom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main Propulsion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ship’s Service Diesel Generator (SSDG) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency Diesel/Auxiliary Machinery Room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency generator </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Pumps </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Cylinder Block or Frame
    2. 2. <ul><ul><li>En-Bloc or Cast: the block is cast in one piece of aluminum or cast iron and is used in medium speed applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used mainly on small applications such as boats, emergency generators and pumps. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually no longer than 6 in line cylinders, or 8 V cylinders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some applications have 2 or more blocks bolted together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All contain internal oil passages to distribute oil from the pump to the moving parts inside the engine. </li></ul></ul></ul>Types
    3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Steel plates are cut and welded vertically and horizontally to construct the frame. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A jig holds and aligns the pieces while they are welded. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some engines contain oil and water passages welded into the frame work, while others have removable pipes or tubing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found on larger engines such as Alco, Fairbanks-Morse, General Motors, and Colt-Pielstick. </li></ul></ul></ul>Welded Steel:
    4. 4. Cylinder Liners <ul><li>Purpose- Allow individual cylinder bores to be replaced when they become worn. </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder liners are inserts placed inside the cylindrical holes in the block. </li></ul>Types: Dry Type <ul><ul><li>Liner is a thin wall shell of cast iron or steel and can either be pressed in or loose fitted to the block. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling water does not contact any part of the liner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat is transferred from the liner to the block and from the block to the water passages in the block. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Water is in contact with some part of the liner. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The wall of the liner is thicker than the dry type, and water circulating in the block comes in contact with the outside surfaces of the liner. </li></ul></ul>Wet Type Water Jacketed - Cooling water is circulated in the liner only. Water passages are cast into the liner, coolant does not contact the block. <ul><ul><li>Wet type 2 stroke liners have provisions for additional rubber seals on the belt surrounding the ports. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 cycle liners have scavenging ports, exhaust ports or both. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Crankcase <ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a housing for the crankshaft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates the bolting flanges, lower main bearing saddles and an oil trough. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On some engines the crankcase is an integral part of the cylinder block. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On others, the crankcase is a separate part and is bolted to the lower part of the block or frame. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Base - Combination bedplate and oil pan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires the block to complete the frame for the main bearings. </li></ul></ul></ul>Location:
    7. 7. Sump <ul><ul><li>Purpose: Collects and holds the engine lube oil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: Sumps are usually attached directly to the bottom of the engine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil is contained within the engine, no outside storage is used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually found on small diesel engines </li></ul></ul>Wet Type Sump <ul><ul><li>Crankcase acts as a drain trough. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All oil storage is in the external tanks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry sump design is common in larger engine sizes. </li></ul></ul>Dry Type Sump
    8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Purpose- Adds rigidity to the block. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a mounting surface for parts such as gears, pumps, blowers, and generators. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location- Attached to each end of the cylinder block. </li></ul></ul>End Plates Access Covers <ul><ul><li>Purpose – Allows for inspection of : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cylinder Liners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Main Bearings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting Rod Bearings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Injector Control Shafts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various Other Internal Parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valve Assemblies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intake/Exhaust Manifold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location – Engine Block </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>Usually secured with a hand wheel or nut operated clamps and are fitted with gaskets to keep dirt and foreign material out of the engine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On some engines, the covers are constructed to serve as safety devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The covers are equipped with a spring loaded pressure plate which keeps the plate sealed under normal operating conditions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the event of a crankcase explosion or extreme pressure in the crankcase, the pressure overcomes the spring tension, and the plate acts as a safety vent. </li></ul></ul></ul>Also referred to as inspection covers or hand hole covers. Access Covers continued <ul><ul><li>Rocker/Valve covers allow access to valve mechanisms and prevents dirt from entering the engine. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Greater variation in design than any other single element of an engine. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Forms a seal for the combustion space. Constructed of cast alloy iron, or aluminum. Each cylinder may have individual heads or cylinders may share heads. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– bolted to the top of the cylinder block. </li></ul></ul>Cylinder Head <ul><ul><li>Open Combustion Chamber – Used on large, slow speed engines. </li></ul></ul>Types <ul><ul><li>Pre-Combustion Chamber – A small cavity is built into the head. Cavity is used to provide a small combustion area causing turbulence which flows into the main combustion space to aid in the air/fuel mixture and combustion. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Heads may contain intake and/or exhaust valves, rocker arm assemblies, fuel injection valves and air starting valves. </li></ul></ul>Construction Cooling water passages are provided in the head to remove heat from the head, valves, and injector. Coolant is introduced from the block or liner into cored passages of the head. Cylinder heads may also be fitted with air starting valves, indicator cocks, and safety valves .
    12. 12. <ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To secure the engine to the ship. Can also be used to maintain alignment between the driven unit and the engine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beneath the bedplate or engine frame. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid – Bolted directly to the frame </li></ul></ul></ul>Engine Mountings Shock Absorbers <ul><ul><li>Used to suppress major vibrations that may occur. These vibrations are external from the engine such as bombs, detonation of shells, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vibration Isolators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to suppress minor vibrations caused by the engine. These are high frequency, small amplitude engine vibrations from moving parts. </li></ul></ul>

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