Tcp Congestion Avoidance
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Tcp Congestion Avoidance

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Unit 4 Of ACN

Unit 4 Of ACN

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Tcp Congestion Avoidance Tcp Congestion Avoidance Presentation Transcript

  • Congestion avoidance
    • TCP contain four algorithms
      • Slow start
      • Congestion avoidance
      • Fast retransmit
      • Fast recovery
    • Other Techniques
      • Random early discard
      • Traffic shaping
  • Congestion avoidance : requirement
    • Congestion can occur when data arrives on a big pipe (a fast LAN) and gets sent out a smaller pipe (a slower WAN).
    • Congestion can also occur when multiple input streams arrive at a router whose output capacity is less than the sum of the inputs.
    • Congestion avoidance is a way to deal with lost packets.  
  • Congestion avoidance : set up
    • The assumption of the algorithm is that packet loss caused by damage is very small (much less than 1%)
    • Therefore the loss of a packet signals congestion somewhere in the network between the source and destination.
    • There are two indications of packet loss: a timeout occurring and the receipt of duplicate ACKs.
  • Congestion avoidance: set up
    • Congestion avoidance and slow start are independent algorithms with different objectives
    • In practice they are implemented together
    • Congestion avoidance and slow start require that two variables be maintained for each connection: a congestion window, cwnd, and a slow start threshold size, ssthresh
  • Slow start: requirement
    • TCPs would start a connection with the sender injecting multiple segments into the network, up to the window size advertised by the receiver.
    • This is OK when the two hosts are on the same LAN
    • If there are routers and slower links between the sender and the receiver, problems can arise.
    • Some intermediate router must queue the packets, and it's possible for that router to run out of space.
  • Slow start : operation
    • It operates by observing that the rate at which new packets should be injected into the network is the rate at which the acknowledgments are returned by the other end.
    • Defines window “congestion window” (cwnd) for a new connection with size one segment
    • Every time an ACK is received this window is increased by one window
    • Sender can send data up to cwnd or advertised window
      • Cwnd -> sender’s flow control
        • Network Traffic based
      • Advertised window-> receiver’s flow control
        • Receiver processor dependent
  • Slow start : algorithm
    • The sender starts by transmitting one segment and waiting for its ACK.
    • When that ACK is received, the congestion window is incremented from one to two, and two segments can be sent.
    • When each of those two segments is acknowledged, the congestion window is increased to four.
    • This provides an exponential growth, although it is not exactly exponential because the receiver may delay its ACKs, typically sending one ACK for every two segments that it receives.
    • At some point the capacity of the internet can be reached, and an intermediate router will start discarding packets.
    • This tells the sender that its congestion window has gotten too large.
  • Congestion avoidance: operation
    • 1. Initialization for a given connection sets cwnd to one segment and ssthresh to 65535 bytes.
    • 2. The TCP output routine never sends more than the minimum of cwnd and the receiver's advertised window.
    • 3. When congestion occurs (indicated by a timeout or the reception of duplicate ACKs), one-half of the current window size (the minimum of cwnd and the receiver's advertised window, but at least two segments) is saved in ssthresh. Additionally, if the congestion is indicated by a timeout, cwnd is set to one segment (i.e., slow start).
    • 4. When new data is acknowledged by the other end, increase cwnd, but the way it increases depends on whether TCP is performing slow start or congestion avoidance.
  • Congestion avoidance: operation
    • If cwnd is less than or equal to ssthresh, TCP is in slow start; otherwise TCP is performing congestion avoidance.
    • Slow start continues until TCP is halfway to where it was when congestion occurred (since it recorded half of the window size that causedthe problem in step 2), and then congestion avoidance takes over.
  • Fast Retransmit
    • TCP may generate an immediate acknowledgment (a duplicate ACK) when an out- of-order segment is received.
    • This duplicate ACK should not be delayed. The purpose of this duplicate ACK is to let the other end know that a segment was received out of order, and to tell it what sequence number is expected.
    • Since TCP does not know whether a duplicate ACK is caused by a lost segment or just a reordering of segments, it waits for a small number of duplicate ACKs to be received.
  • Fast Retransmit
    • It is assumed that if there is just a reordering of the segments, there will be only one or two duplicate ACKs before the reordered segment is processed, which will then generate a new ACK.
    • If three or more duplicate ACKs are received in a row, it is a strong indication that a segment has been lost.
    • TCP then performs a retransmission of what appears to be the missing segment, without waiting for a retransmission timer to expire.
  • Fast Recovery: Requirement
    • When dup ACK is received, the sender is aware that segments are only missed
    • Fast retransmit is done for missing segment
    • Congestion avoidance is performed, but not slow start .
    • This is the fast recovery algorithm.
    • It is an improvement that allows high throughput under moderate congestion, especially for large windows
  • Fast Recovery: Algorithm
    • The fast retransmit and fast recovery algorithms are usually implemented together as follows.
    • (a) When the third duplicate ACK in a row is received
      • set ssthresh to one-half the current congestion window, cwnd, but no less than two segments.
      • Retransmit the missing segment.
      • Set cwnd to ssthresh plus 3 times the segment size.
      • This inflates the congestion window by the number of segments that have left the network and which the other end has cached .
  • Fast Recovery: Algorithm
    • (a) Each time another duplicate ACK arrives,
      • increment cwnd by the segment size.
      • This inflates the congestion window for the additional segment that has left the network.
      • Transmit a packet, if allowed by the new value of cwnd.
  • Fast Recovery: Algorithm
    • (c) When the next ACK arrives that acknowledges new data
      • set cwnd to ssthresh (the value set in step (a)).
      • This ACK should be the acknowledgment of the retransmission from step (a), one round-trip time after the retransmission.
      • Additionally, this ACK should acknowledge all the intermediate segments sent between the lost packet and the receipt of the first duplicate ACK.
      • This step is congestion avoidance, since TCP is down to one-half the rate it was at when the packet was lost.
  • Random Early Discard (RED)
    • This is a proactive approach in which the router discards one or more packets before the buffer becomes completely full.
    • Each time a packet arrives, the RED algorithm computes the average queue length, avg .
    • If avg is lower than some lower threshold, congestion is assumed to be minimal or non-existent and the packet is queued.
  • RED, cont.
    • If avg is greater than some upper threshold, congestion is assumed to be serious and the packet is discarded.
    • If avg is between the two thresholds, this might indicate the onset of congestion. The probability of congestion is then calculated.
    • Traffic Shaping
    • Another method of congestion control is to “shape” the traffic before it enters the network.
    • Traffic shaping controls the rate at which packets are sent (not just how many). Used in ATM and Integrated Services networks.
    • At connection set-up time, the sender and carrier negotiate a traffic pattern (shape).
    • Two traffic shaping algorithms are:
      • Leaky Bucket
      • Token Bucket
  • The Leaky Bucket Algorithm
    • The Leaky Bucket Algorithm used to control rate in a network. It is implemented as a single-server queue with constant service time. If the bucket (buffer) overflows then packets are discarded.
  • The Leaky Bucket Algorithm
    • (a) A leaky bucket with water. (b) a leaky bucket with packets.
    • Leaky Bucket Algorithm, cont.
    • The leaky bucket enforces a constant output rate (average rate) regardless of the burstiness of the input. Does nothing when input is idle.
    • The host injects one packet per clock tick onto the network. This results in a uniform flow of packets, smoothing out bursts and reducing congestion.
    • When packets are the same size (as in ATM cells), the one packet per tick is okay. For variable length packets though, it is better to allow a fixed number of bytes per tick. E.g. 1024 bytes per tick will allow one 1024-byte packet or two 512-byte packets or four 256-byte packets on 1 tick.
  • Token Bucket Algorithm
    • In contrast to the LB, the Token Bucket Algorithm, allows the output rate to vary, depending on the size of the burst.
    • In the TB algorithm, the bucket holds tokens. To transmit a packet, the host must capture and destroy one token.
    • Tokens are generated by a clock at the rate of one token every  t sec.
    • Idle hosts can capture and save up tokens (up to the max. size of the bucket) in order to send larger bursts later.
  • The Token Bucket Algorithm
    • (a) Before. (b) After.
    5-34
    • Leaky Bucket vs Token Bucket
    • LB discards packets; TB does not. TB discards tokens.
    • With TB, a packet can only be transmitted if there are enough tokens to cover its length in bytes.
    • LB sends packets at an average rate. TB allows for large bursts to be sent faster by speeding up the output.
    • TB allows saving up tokens (permissions) to send large bursts. LB does not allow saving.