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I Pv6 Extension Headers
 

I Pv6 Extension Headers

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Unit 2 Of ACN

Unit 2 Of ACN

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    I Pv6 Extension Headers I Pv6 Extension Headers Presentation Transcript

    • IPv6 Extension headers
    • Introduction
      • The IPv4 header includes all options.
      • Each intermediate router must check for their existence and process them when present
      • This can cause performance degradation in the forwarding of IPv4 packets.
      • With IPv6, delivery and forwarding options are moved to extension headers.
      • Only Hop-by-Hop extension header is processed at each intermediate router in IPv6.
      • This increases IPv6 header processing speed and improves forwarding process performance.
    • Extension headers in ipv6
      • Hop-by-Hop Options header
      • Destination Options header
      • Routing header
      • Fragment header
      • Authentication header
      • Encapsulating Security Payload header
      • Note: Only Hop by Hop options header is compulsory. Others are added when required .
    • Ext headers organization
    • Extension Headers Order
      • Hop-by-Hop Options header
      • Destination Options header (for intermediate destinations when the Routing header is present)
      • Routing header
      • Fragment header
      • Authentication header
      • Encapsulating Security Payload header
      • Destination Options header (for the final destination)
    • Hop by hop options header
      • Following options are defined:
      • The Pad1 option (Option Type 0) is used to insert a single byte of padding.
      • The PadN option (Option Type 1) is used to > 1 bytes of padding.
      • The Jumbo Payload option (Option Type 194) is used to indicate a payload size that is greater than 65,535 bytes.
      • The Router Alert option (Option Type 5) is used to indicate to the router that the contents of the packet require additional processing.
      • The Router Alert option is used for Multicast Listener Discovery and the Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP).
    • Destination Options Header
      • Used to specify packet delivery parameters for
        • either intermediate destinations or
        • the final destination.
      • This header is identified by the value of 60
      • This header is used in two ways:
        • If a Routing header is present, it specifies delivery or processing options at each intermediate destination.
        • It specifies delivery or processing options at the final destination.
    • Routing Header
      • IPv6 source nodes can use the Routing extension header to
        • specify a loose source route
          • a list of intermediate destinations for the packet to travel to on its path to the final destination.
      • This header is identified by the value of 43
    • Fragment Header
      • Used for IPv6 fragmentation and reassembly services
      • This header is identified by the value of 44
      • In IPv6, only source nodes can fragment payloads.
      • If the payload ( data) from the upper layer protocol is larger than the link or path MTU, then IPv6 fragments the payload at the source and uses the Fragment extension header to provide reassembly information.
    • Fragment header format
    • Fragment Header
      • IPv6 packet fragment, is divided into unfragmentable and fragmentable parts:
      • The unfragmentable part
        • must be processed by each intermediate node between the fragmenting node and the destination.
        • This part consists of the IPv6 header, the Hop-by-Hop Options header, the Destination Options header for intermediate destinations, and the Routing header.
      • The fragmentable part
        • must only be processed at the final destination node.
        • This part consists of the Authentication header, the Encapsulating Security Payload header, the Destination Options header for the final destination, and the upper layer PDU.
    • Fragmentation
    • Authentication Header
      • This header provides
        • data authentication(verification of the node that sent the packet)
        • data integrity (verification that the data was not modified in transit)
        • anti-replay protection (assurance that captured packets cannot be retransmitted and accepted as valid data)
    • Authentication Header
      • The Authentication header contains
        • a Next Header field
        • a Payload Length field
        • a Security Parameters Index (SPI) field that identifies a specific IP Security (IPSec) security association (SA)
        • a Sequence Number field that provides anti-replay protection, and
        • an Authentication Data field that contains an integrity check value (ICV). The ICV provides data authentication and integrity.
      • The Authentication extension header does not provide data confidentiality services by encrypting the data.
    • Encapsulating Security Payload Header and Trailer
      • The ESP header and trailer provide
        • data confidentiality,
        • data authentication, and
        • data integrity services to the encapsulated payload
      • The ESP header contains
        • a Security Parameters Index (SPI) field that identifies the IPSec SA and
        • a Sequence Number field that provides anti-replay protection.
        • The ESP trailer contains the Padding, Padding Length, Next Header, and Authentication Data fields. The Authentication Data field contains the integrity check value (ICV).