Oral communication (part I) / Web communication (part II) (Service Management_2nd semester)

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This presentation gives you a short, helpful introduction to understand the importance of signs of words, images and body language (part I). Part II is a framework to analyze and plan for online service design/comunication. The presentation comes with some suggestions for class activities and workshops, but the slides can be used as study materials as well. Fully validated with a bibliography and references/links.

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Oral communication (part I) / Web communication (part II) (Service Management_2nd semester)

  1. 1. Service and Communication 3 Oral communication Web communication COMMUNICATION
  2. 2. communication 3 part i Oral communication: Signs: Semiotics Body language Tone of voice Presentation
  3. 3. communication 3 Signs communicate: Semiotics (theory) How can we describe how signs communicate? It’s difficult, but the field of semiotics can provide a theoretical framework for how to understand signs and how to strategically use signs. Denotation Connotation Context / Culture Semiotics is the study of- and the making use of signs in communication. Signs are: • ords, written and spoken w • melled and tasted s • isual artefacts v • ody language b • ultural codes. c Busch et al., 2011: 277 ff. Dictionary definition Literal / objective meaning Perception Cultural / emotional meaning
  4. 4. communication 3 Signs communicate You say: “Apple” Etc. Denotation Connotation Context / Culture Dictionary definition Literal / objective meaning Busch et al., 2011: 277 ff. Perception Cultural / emotional meaning
  5. 5. communication 3 Signs communicate: Face to face Tone of voice Face to face Words McPheat, 2012: 22 f. / See also tips in Beckett, 2013: 40 f. Body language
  6. 6. communication 3 Signs communicate A sign never has any “real” meaning; the sign represents what you percieve as meaningful. The sign corresponds with your or other’s cultural codes of reality; the sign refers to a particular lifeworld. But still, the sign is also arbitrary and it’s encoded in a certain context. This is important in relation to the way you intend to make people react to the signs in your strategic communication. Workshops Visit these websites. What is relevant and can pe presented in short for the other groups? Apply a reflection of the signs according to the theory of denotation and connotation. Groups present the content for each other. Think about: 1) your body language and tone of voice at the presentation + 2) What kind of images do you use in your speech (rhetorics) and for the visual design of the slides? Academic audience/class! a : http://stilettosontheglassceiling. com/2014/02/3-body-language-considerations-on-international-business-trips-bykara-ronin.html b : http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/ Body_Language.htm Busch et al., 2011: 277 ff.
  7. 7. communication 3 part ii Web communication: Analysis and planning via The Star Analysis
  8. 8. communication 3 Web communication: The Star Analysis The star analysis operates with a “party metaphor”: A website is like a party, where there is a host who’s inviting guests. The host is interested in making a good impression. This analysis can then be applied to see how the host and the website do the job. ▼  he Foundation Triangle Why and T how the party is to be created: Purpose, Goal and Resources. ▼  he Design Triangle Visual context T and the visual signs: Tradition, Situation and Trend/motives. Tradi ti on e s po r Pu Situa tion s rce u o s Re d/ s n e re tiv T o m Go al Agerbæk 2002, 2010.
  9. 9. communication 3 Web communication: The Star Analysis ▼  he Foundation Triangle : Purpose, Goal and Resources. T Purpose : Host The host’s overall and general purpose can be varied in genres: To communicate information, to establish dialogue, to sell, to change behaviour – or a mix of these for the sake of a purpose. Purpose : Guest What can the guest achieve? He/she also takes part in the communication and must therefore have a reason to come. The greater the interactivity, the more important it is to make the design appealing and create a wish on the part of the guest to participate/act on a call to action. Agerbæk 2002, 2010. Image resource: http://tympanus.net/codrops/2010/01/23/24-beautiful-hotel-website-designs-to-get-inspired/
  10. 10. communication 3 Web communication: The Star Analysis ▼  he Foundation Triangle : Purpose, Goal and Resources. T Goal : Host The goal is a concept covering concrete results which both host and the guests expect by taking part in the communication on the site. The content and the form of the website must be user friendly to support the goal oriented tasks of the user (usability) and the general purpose. Goal : Guest The goals of the guest in looking up the website can be very varied: searching, surfing, complaining, buying, booking, contacting staff etc. Agerbæk 2002, 2010. Image resource: http://khiri.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Khiri-Travel-Homepage.jpg
  11. 11. communication 3 Web communication: The Star Analysis ▼  he Foundation Triangle : Purpose, Goal and Resources. T Resources : Host It is of great importance how many resources the host invests in the project in the form of money, people and time. This limits the scope of the interactive production. The technology chosen for the interactive solution must fit the tech-resources of the guests. Resources : Guest Guests have in advance a number of resources. They can be economic, knowledge, technology, networks etc. Agerbæk 2002, 2010. Image resource: https://portal.ehawaii.gov/assets/images/rwd-portal.png
  12. 12. communication 3 Web communication: The Star Analysis ▼  he Design Triangle Tradition, Situation and Trend/motives T Tradition : Host The design must be recognised as coming from a definite host. It is relevant here to follow a line of branding and to be able to make the layout within the visual identity. It must be possible for the guests to recognise who has made the invitation. Tradition : Guest The important thing is to be aware of which visual expectations the guests have. The visual expectations often relate to how the branch generally presents itself. Signs in relation to genres and culture must be coherent. See also Trend/motives. Agerbæk 2002, 2010. Image resource: http://www.awwwards.com/gallery/3381/tasty-design-restaurant-and-catering-websites
  13. 13. communication 3 Web communication: The Star Analysis ▼  he Design Triangle Tradition, Situation and Trend/motives T Situation : Host Guest A piece of visual design always has a situation. That means a specific point in space and time where the conversation between host and the guests actually happens: “the moment”. This is the point of time when the guests visit the web site. It is also relevant to look at what physical situations the guests are in when they actually click into the site. Are they at home? Are they at work? Have they got plenty of time? Are they busy? What device do they use at the time of interaction (mobile or pc etc.)? Agerbæk 2002, 2010. Image resource: http://pages-tdm.au.dk/socialemedier/files/2012/04/Rejseplanen1.png
  14. 14. communication 3 Web communication: The Star Analysis ▼  he Design Triangle Tradition, Situation and Trend/motives T Agerbæk 2002, 2010. Image resource: http://goo.gl/shc15G Trend/motives : Host Guest This goes further than the actual communication: There is also fashion in visual design. This concept is used in so many ways and in so many different branches. There are unique and varying periods of time in which there have been created specific styles in design, but modern design is often a mix of many genres. But overall you can often define specific features such as: experimental, collage, organic, cool or warm, minimalistic etc. The motives (the signs) must be chosen (by the host) in relation to the target groups (guests). Also, think of social media trends.
  15. 15. communication 3 Bibliography References Background literature/resources Anne Mette Busch et al. (2011): Kommunikation i multimediedesign. Hans Reitzel/Gyldendal Akademisk. Sean McPheat (2012): “Effective Communication Skills”. bookboon.com publising. Download the document here (PDF): http://goo.gl/ZNkNAU Lise Agerbæk (2002): “The Star Analysis – an analysis of the visual context of an interactive multimedia production.” Published in a later book version: “Visual Topography – Analysing the Visual Context of an Interactive Interface” in: Lise Agerbæk et al. (2010): Designing New Media. Academica David Beckett (2013): “33 Steps to Great Presentations”. bookboon.com publising. Download the document here (PDF): http://goo.gl/BSS3D0 Graphic design by D. Engelby Slideshare profile: http://www.slideshare.net/engelby

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