Philosophy of science summary presentation engelby
Philosophy of Science • Summary Edward Burne-Jones: Pan and Psyche (1872)Presentation and slides by David EngelbySee also: http://www.slideshare.net/engelby
Philosophy of Science • A Quick OverviewEpistemology What do we know and how do we know it? Defined narrowly, Knowledge Natural science Social Science Humanities epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. As the and traditions study of knowledge, epistemology is concerned with the follow- of science Hypothetic-deductive Hermeneutics ing questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions method of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure, and Quantitative methods Qualitative methods what are its limits? As the study of justified belief, epistemology aims to answer questions such as: how are we to understand the Explanation Explaining Intentional concept of x as a concept (ontology): of causes causes by actions explanations Ontology What exists and what is “the thing” we deal with? An ontology is Makes laws of Laws based on individual a specification of a conceptualization. What “exists” is that which universal validity statistical possibility correspondance can be represented. When the knowledge of a domain is repre- sented in a declarative way or if it’s normative, the set of objects Truth as correspondence Truth as meaning that can be represented is called the universe of discourse. and coherenceMethodology What do we want to do with our theory and our concepts? Gen- Stratification erally speaking, methodology does not describe specific meth- model Meta level: ods. It is the constitution of a constructive generic framework in concepts, theory which the theories can be combined. It could be the design of a and methodology survey in relation to a theoretical approach Space ofKey concepts description, demarcation, definition, explanation, knowledge, reflexivity and research verification, falsification, hypothetic deduction, hypothesis, con- cepts, falsification, postmodern, discourse, perception psychol- Theory → KNOWLEDGE ← Emperical data use of knowledge ogy, capital, field theory. tip: Read the PoS-slides. References Carsten Rønn (2006): Kapitlerne 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12 samt References Lisa Bartolotti (2010): Chapter 1, 2, and 4 DK Almen videnskabsteori for side 159-166 (intro til del 3 i bogen) INT An Introduction to (there arealso handouts via professionsuddannelserne. og s. 236-243 (en metateoretisk Philosophy of Science. powerpoints, see the wiki) Alinea. model) Polity UK. Experience economy, references at: http://www.slideshare.net/engelby/e-communication-experience-economy-10271777
Philosophy of Science • On Research It‘s all about Concepts are the bodies of knowledge that are used by default The research The Hypothesis … is a proposition to be tested. Hypotheses concepts to categorize. We investigate these concepts because they can be and the concept makes prognostications about the links between percieved in different ways and play different roles to different variables. It can be tested, if this hypothesis can types of people. Ask: what is in focus?: The technology, the val- be proved or disproved. (Jensen 2005: 212). ue which is a result of the technology, or is it a mix? How is the concept understood and expressed in contextual language (con- The variable … is gender, age, etc. if they are simple variables. structuralism)? How do you observe and design a research via, More complex variables are … say, thematic coding in interviews, in tests, online etc.? Concepts ConstructsKey concepts concepts and constructs, A concept represents an abstract … are combined of concepts and qualitative research idea that embodies the nature used to define the characteristics quantitative research of observable phenomena, or an of the individual users as grouped thick description interpretation of why such phe- in concepts (see the example). attributes nomea occur. Example: Indi- Heavy users may be described thematic coding viduals are defined in terms of by such concepts as sociability, research ethics their use of a media. You define tolerance for strong stimulation, tip: Read the examples and the study sheets the notions of a “light user” and risk-taking etc. These are values in the first two PoS-slides a “heavy user” based on media or categories into which variables types, levels of defined usage etc. can be divided. Independent … can be relatively manipulated by the research- References See Klaus Bruhn Jensen (2005): ← tip: It’s on Google Books variables er, it means the way the research process is con- A Handboook of Media structed to measure a response. and Communication Research. Dependent … is the measure of the outcome of the research Chapter 13 and 14. Routledge 2005. variables based on its construct and its dependent varia- bles, i.e. it is the information created by the vari- Resources http://www.iep.utm.edu/ (English) ables and the hypothesis www.samfundsviden.dk (Danish)
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