Philosophy of science 2 intro ii and qualitative research
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 2 INTRODUCTION II cssmayo.com: What Is On My Mind? (2011)INTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 2 INTRODUCTION IIINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Me, You and Keywords: Perception, reality, relativity, theory all the Things Scope: research; Introduction qualitative. Basic theory of research. Note on Literature International class: Danish class: This lesson is generally(!) based based on Lisa This lesson is generally(!) based based on Bartolotti (2010): An Introduction to the Carsten Rønn (2006): Almen Videnskabsteori Philosophy of Science. Polity, UK. for professionsuddannelserne. Alinea, DK. Author’s profile: www.lisabortolotti.com Se også: www.samfundsviden.dk under Philosophy ressource: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ teorier og metoder > videnskabsteori
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 2 INTRODUCTION IIINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Me, You and all the Things Classic experimental Psychology Sensory Foundation of psychology as Perception science (1880, Germany)and the Self in the Perception Classic, intuitive knowledge: Perception is constructed by the parts of every particular sensory perceptor. Examples The new theories add Emotions: Perception of touch representations of concepts Perception of pain through the sensory stimuli. Hot and cold There are relative values and particular differences.
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 2 INTRODUCTION IIINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Me, You and all the Things Gestalt Psychology Perception (1910, Germany) Sensory Perception Theories of isomorphism: and the Self in relations between the the Perception mapping of our brain’s perception andand the reality of the physical world. Originally the theories assumed passive reactions to sensory stimuli and gestalts. But it made way for ideas, that human activity shapes and constructs the world, we’re not only consuming.
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 2 INTRODUCTION IIINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Me, You and all the Things Sensory Sigmund Freud (1856‒1939), was ahead of his Perception time and the classic experimental psychology.and the Self in the Perception Freud Thematisizes how subconscious* motivation can change the way we percieve of things. We are shaped by our past, our natural (often repressed) instincts and our self‐image, so we that the world we percieve is systematically framed in accordance with the way we want to “see ourselves.” Prosumers and self representation (*Freud himself didn’t approve of that concept)
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 2 INTRODUCTION IIINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Me, You and all the Things New Look Psychology Foundation of perception as Sensory depending on motivation and Perception personality (1940, USA)and the Self in the Perception Evaluation of perception via categories and narratives Jerome Bruner (born 1915) Language and social status play a part. Our observations are placed within a category/concept: I see X as (non‐objective, biased by expectations)
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 2 INTRODUCTION IIINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Me, You and all the Things Jerome Bruner’s theory of perception is to be understood as a dynamic interaction between the seen and the person who is seeing: Sensory Perception Category/concept is percieved as a firstand the Self in impression (judgement, categorized)the Perception Verificality: To see as. A construct of a system of expectations. Verification starts SEEING between what is seen and what can be applied to new perceptions of the category (recognition in forms). Read‐iness: Knowledge of the world in forms of language and concept.
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 2 INTRODUCTION IIINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Me, You and all the Things Social Every person is unique. Every event is unique. We construct our worldConstructivism Knowledge and perception is shaped by the particular relation the particular individual is a part of. The seen is not objective concepts and things. In qualitative research we work with the concept of meaning and people’s perceptions and preferences, of how people make meaning with things (personal epistemology) When we say that something is socially constructed, we are focusing on its dependence on contingent variables of our social selves rather than any inherent quality that it possesses in itself (from wikipedia)
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 2 INTRODUCTION IIINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCHMe, You and all the Things SocialConstructivism Social Science L–R: Post modernism (Zygmunt Baumann, born 1925, Poland) Post‐traditional society (Anthony Giddens, born 1938, UK) Discourse theory (Michel Foucault, born 1926‒1984, France) Micro‐ and macro sociological forces
PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 2 INTRODUCTION IIINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Me, You and all the Things A pragmatic meta‐approach: What are the relational conditions between persons, things, culture, To Observe in The observer must precisely define actions etc. Relations are important, a Complex the areas that are governing the not the isolated elements. It is not World observations: about the dominant A, but about the a) Field‐ and subject area relations between A, B and C, which b) Focus points makes A dominant (for example). The observer must precisely A network is often organized a describe the fields of observations contradicting structure within a (quantitative and qualitative) structure with conflicting concepts and actions. You must organize, What is the educational context in conceptually describe and analyze which you are working? these conflicts. Keep the questions and the scope relatively open. Focus on communication between Demarcations can only be made by relations. falsification.
STUDY SHEETRESEARCH THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESSPROCESSES 2INTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH
STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 2 THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS The Research This is the second part of two lessons. During these lessons we will study Process and work practically with two main types of research processes: Introduction the quantitative research process and the qualitative research process Note on Literature: This lesson is based on Klaus Bruhn Jensen’s (editor) A Handboook of Media and Communication Research: “The Qualitative Research Process” by Klaus Bruhn Jensen (chapter 14, p. 235–253). Routledge 2005. On Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=Bt6kuYR‐mBsC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
STUDY SHEET RESEARCH PROCESS 2 THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS Research 1. The hypothesis … is a proposition to be tested. Hypotheses makes prognostications about the links between variables. They propose, that under a set of conditions, if an independent variable Basic Theory is manipulated in a certain way, or is assumed to have a certain strength, it may be expected to exert a measurable impact on a designated dependent variable. Then it can be tested, if this hypothesis can be proved or disproved. (Jensen 2005: 212). 2. The Variable … is gender, age, nationality etc. … is the empirical representation of a …Before the research 3. Independent Variables Concept and a… Construct (combination of concepts) … can be manipulated by the A concept represents A combination of concepts used to researcher. an abstract idea that define the characteristics of the … means the way the research embodies the nature of individual users as grouped in process is constructed to observable phenomena, concepts (in the example). measure a response. or an interpretation of Heavy users may be described by such why such phenomea concepts as sociability, tolerance for 4. Dependent Variables occur. strong stimulation, risk‐taking etc. After the research This is also what we call the … is the measure of the Example: Individuals constituent attributes, i.e. values or outcome of the research are defined in terms of categories into which variables can be based on its construct and its their use of a media. divided. dependent variables, i.e. it is You define the notions the information created by the of a “light user” and a variables and the hypothesis. “heavy user” based on media types, levels of defined usage etc.
STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 2 THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS Quantitative In this lesson we will focus on basic, primary research Research Introduction Remember: qualitative and quantitative approaches to the Basic can both be primary and secondary: Concepts PR I M A RY DATA S ECO N DA RY DATA Qualitative • Observations • Documents Data • Interviews (open questions) • Notes (from secondary source) • Movie recording (actively) • Letters • Think aloud test, etc. • Sound and movie recordings (others material) • Artifacts Quantitative • Closed questions • Articles and pictures, etc. Data • Surveys • Clearly defined objectives in observations, etc. • Statistics • Registrations, etc. Artifacts, letters etc. can become quantifiable data for some purposes, and statistics can become proof of qualitative arguments
STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 2 THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS Qualitative The Basic Concepts in Qualitative Research Research The qualitative approach to conducting research has for many years been the Introduction ‘soft’ area of science. to the Basic Concepts The qualitative aspects deals also with observable facts, but not always the same ‘hard’, measurable emperical facts that is the focus for quantitative research. Qualitative reseach investigates the concept of meaning, its embedding in and orientation of social actions. It is the connection between meaning and action—for example as performed inside media contexts—that tells us how we are, how we think and act in a realistic context. Qualitative research also perform sampling. Samplings of cultural settings, communities, periods and acivities, to mention a few.
STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 2 THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS Qualitative The Basic Concepts in Qualitative Research (continued) Research What distinguishes qualitative research from quantitative reearch is also Introduction that quantative research projects has many fixed variables and concepts, to the Basic often segregated between action as when it happened and how it can be Concepts measured as effects in scores—after the action. Qualitative research has as its ambition to interpret in action. Let’s have a look at how to design qualitative analysis methods (next slides).
STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 2 THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS Qualitative Designing Qualitative Research: Interviewing Research To design an emperical study is to identify and delimit a portion of reality Methods (Jensen 2005: 237). Ask into why instead of what. Relations. of Qualitative Research Respondent interviews: The informant is percieved as a representative of a social and cultural category (concepts and constructs). This can be a key to the decoding of the user‐pattern in relation to elaborating on the quantitative variables of user behaviour (think aloud test for example). Group interviews: In order to explore what goes on in a more or less naturalistic social setting, a group can form the basis for discussions, that explore aspects of a product credibity, of lifestyles, advertisements etc. Focus groups: Gathering a specific type of users, this kind of interviewing is often based on the strategy of getting to know attitudes toward a product or political and ethical issues. Again, it’s why instead of what.
STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 2 THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS Qualitative Designing Qualitative Research: Observing and Coding Research Methods Thick description: The thick description means that when you observe a of Qualitative situation, you use means of gathering data that accounts for everyhing. Research You could use movie‐recording devices and then later describe artefacts as well as actions. This can lead to a very detailed describtion of environment and the interpretation of the actions. You can analyse actions and speech‐ acts (rhetorics). Coding: The coding means fixating and capturing certain qualities of the units, i.e. person/persons, texts, events (or other unit), you are observing. For example can the thematic coding (concept variable) function as an important objective to make way for interpretations and for applying abstract theory of culture and perception.
STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 2 THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS Qualitative USABILITY TESTS—design a qualitative survey of a user experience Research (and Quantitative) TESTING in Usability 1. Make a thinking‐aloud‐test of a website or a mobile application: Tests 2. Make a thematic coding in relation to the attitudes toward the visual design, the ability to read the text and the pictures, etc. 3. What is your hypothesis as a designer? 4. Record, write down, observe everything! 5. Interview two or three people (in class) Present according to the report‐template on the next slide →
STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 2 THE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS Qualitative USABILITY TESTS—design a qualitative survey of a user experience Research (and Quantitative) R E P O R T I N G (validating your results) in Usability Source: Munk & Mørk: Brugervenlighed på internettet. Samfundslitteratur 2002. 1. Summary of the main results with conclusion. Tests 2. Introduction (hypothesis, problems and research questions, thematic coding?). 3. Describtion of method/methods? A mix of quantative and qualitative approaches with a focus? 4. Observations and results. (Pie chart templates may be used in other contexts, but in this case it’s fine just to present your basic findings) 5. Conclusion (short, recap on 1) 6. Recommendations for improvements.