Philosophy of science 1 intro i and quantitative research

2,936 views
2,694 views

Published on

Philosophy of Science

Published in: Education, Spiritual, Technology
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,936
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
189
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Philosophy of science 1 intro i and quantitative research

  1. 1. PHILOSOPHY INTRODUCTIONOF SCIENCE  1 Joseph Wright of Derby: An Experiment With a Bird  in an Air Pump (1768)INTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH
  2. 2. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH The Search  Keywords: What is science, paradigm shifts, natural and social science,  for the Truth humanities, validation, falsification, induction, deduction Introduction Scope: research;  qualitative and quantitative. Basic theory of research Note on Literature International class: Danish class: This lesson is generally(!) based based on Lisa  This lesson is generally(!) based based on  Bartolotti (2010): An Introduction to the  Carsten Rønn (2006): Almen Videnskabsteori  Philosophy of Science. Polity, UK.  for professionsuddannelserne. Alinea, DK.  Author’s profile: www.lisabortolotti.com Se også: www.samfundsviden.dk under  Philosophy ressource: http://www.iep.utm.edu/ teorier og metoder > videnskabsteori
  3. 3. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH The Search  for the TruthWhat is Science and What is Non‐science? Metaphysics L–R: Asking the Right Aristotle (384–322 BC) Questions Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274)
  4. 4. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH The Search  for the TruthParadigme Shift Natural and  L–R: Social Science Galileo Galilei (1564‒1642) Observing Auguste Comte (1798‒1857) the nature  Sigmund Freud (1856‒1939) of things
  5. 5. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH The Search  for the Truth Paradigme ShiftScience and ethics Taylorism and specialized laborManipulating time,  Atomic powerpeople and nature Networks and new social media communities
  6. 6. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH A Proper Judgement Ancient / medieval times Renaissance and our time Natural  Science The discovery of the real  The systematic obseervation of  and Social  nature of things through  reality in order to find regularity  Sciences philosophy and observation and cause‐effect of nature. Method Classification of the order of  Defining the quantitative traits  nature by looking at the  of nature by meassuring,  qualitative aspects of things counting etc. Truth Evidence Correspondence
  7. 7. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH A Proper Judgement Natural  Positivism Auguste Comte, verification, logic, rationalism and Social  Sciences (Critique of pure reason: Kant) Critical  Karl Popper, falsification rationalism Structuralism Saussure, language and signs (semiology)  synchronicity before diachronicity, syntagm and paradigm Flere historiske oversigter: Se Rønn s. 163 og 164 
  8. 8. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH A Proper Judgement Rationalism and creativity
  9. 9. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Validation INDUCTION DEDUCTION Induction “All men are mortal” “All men are mortal”and Deduction “I am mortal” “I am a man” “I am mortal” From single case (in multiple  From theory to singular case observations) to rule/law
  10. 10. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Validation THE HP‐METHOD Hypothetic‐ Hypotheses are possible causes, explanation of observations. deductive Reasoning The hypothesis tested first should be the most reasonable one. Multiple hypotheses should be proposed whenever possible. Hypotheses should be phrased such that predictions can be made. Hypotheses can be ruled out with absolute certainty but cannot be proven  with absolute certainty.
  11. 11. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Validation THE HP‐METHOD Hypothetic‐ A premise refers to some thing  deductive that is assumed to be true and  Reasoning then used to draw conclusion A hypothesis may become a law  when sufficient evidence is  available to support its validity.
  12. 12. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Validation THE HP‐METHOD: Natural Sciences/positivism/verification Hypothetic‐ Case: Semmelweis: deductive http://www.indiana.edu/~koertge/X200Semm.html Reasoning DK:  http://m.lilleor.dk/upl/9608/VidenskabslogikogSemmelveismoli1998pdf.pdf Premis 1 (hypothesis): If A is a result of B, then the A stops when B is solved  by C (handwashing in the case of Semmelweis’ experiment).  Premis 2 (aiding hypothesis): We make sure C is conducted. Premis 3 (observation): When C is conducted, B is dropping. Conclusion: The difference between A and B is caused by … and can be  solved by C.  Critical view Not completely verified and true, but likely. It is easier to use this experiment as a falsifiable answer (Karl Popper).
  13. 13. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH Falsification KARL POPPER Falsifiable Hypotheses Popper describes science as risky. We can only  temporarily prove something by letting some  premises become falsified: I saw a white swan: All swans are white Ok. Now I see a black swan: Swans can be black and  white. Hey! Now they are grey! (Etc.) A single experience can contradict the prediction  based on a general hypothesis. This proves the  hypothesis as false. Popper claims, that only scientific  theories are falsifiable this way. It is not possible in,  say, psychoanalysis (says Popper)
  14. 14. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH ExploringSocial Sciences Social facts are more complex. Often it’s a question of understanding the  phenomena rather than solving why it is occurring. It is almost impossible  to predict all social and cultural actions. Let alone the problem of  objectivity stands in the way for a “truth”. Life is more than the sum of all  its actions (holism). To understand these things we need to research  qualitative data. We must use our imagination and our empathy. Critical view See Bartolotti (2010): p. 18–20.
  15. 15. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCHScience Cultures Natural Science Social Science Humanities Natural  Hypothetic‐deductive method Hermeneutics and Social  Quantitative methods Qualitative methods Sciences Explanations Explaining causes Intentional of causes by actions explanations Makes laws Laws based on Formulates discourses of universal validity statistical possibility with individual validity Truth as correspondence Truth as meaning and coherence Critical view It’s almost never confined to one or the other. There can be a mix.
  16. 16. PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCHScience Cultures Social Science Humanities Area Nature Mankind, life Natural  of phenomena Reality “out there” Culture, philosophy, art and Social  Sciences Focus The eternal, the non  The historical view, the  changing, universal individual changes, unique  The objective, abstract  and subjective concrete area area (laws of nature) Method Emperical observation Interpretation (hermenautics),  Classification Describing Exploring Quantitative (what) Qualitative (why) Goal Explanation Understanding Criteria of truth Truth as correspondence Truth as meaning/coherence.
  17. 17. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODPROCESSES  1 & BASIC THEORY RESEARCHINTRODUKTION TIL VIDENSKABSTEORI > BEGREBER > KVALITATIV OG KVANTITATIV RESEARCH
  18. 18. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY The Research There are many ways to conduct a research. You often have to adjust your Process objectives to the field you’re working in and to the environments and  Introduction people you are working with. The field you’re working in could be “website  usability” and the specific environments and persons (informants) you are working with could be an office environment and its staff.  This is the first part of two lessons. During these lessons you will work theoretically and practically with two main types of research processes:  the quantitative research process and the qualitative research process Note on Literature:  This part of the lesson—on research—is based on Klaus Bruhn Jensen’s (ed.) book  A Handboook of Media and Communication Research: “The Quantitative Research Process”  by Barrie Gunter (chapter 13, p. 209–234). Routledge 2005. On Google Books: http://books.google.com/books?id=Bt6kuYR‐mBsC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
  19. 19. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Primary Research Basic research can be divided into desk research and field research. Field Research Field research refers to the collection of new data through primary research.  Primary data That means direct contact with people through interviews, focus groups and  serveys. Bigger and complex surveys are often done by bying this expertise from  companies specialized in conducting effective, reliable surveys.
  20. 20. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Secondary Research Desk Research Desk research relies on existing data and information, published on the net,  Secondary data in printed magazines or any other valid source (!) Reading economy articles, trend news, articles based on web surveys and  reports from cultural and national organisations gives you a good picture of  your target group.
  21. 21. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative In  this lesson we will focus on basic, primary research Research Introduction Remember: qualitative and quantitative approaches to the Basic can both be primary and secondary: Concepts PR I M A RY DATA S ECO N DA RY DATA Qualitative • Observations • Documents Data • Interviews (open questions) • Notes (from secondary source) • Movie recording (actively) • Letters • Think aloud test, etc. • Sound and movie recordings (others material) • Artifacts Quantitative • Closed questions • Articles and pictures, etc. Data • Surveys • Clearly defined objectives in observations, etc. • Statistics • Registrations, etc. Artifacts, letters etc. can become quantifiable data for some purposes,  and statistics can become proof of qualitative arguments
  22. 22. STUDY SHEET RESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Research 1. The hypothesis … is a proposition to be tested. Hypotheses makes prognostications about the links  between variables. They propose, that under a set of conditions, if an independent variable  Basic Theory is manipulated in a certain way, or is assumed to have a certain strength, it may be expected to exert a measurable impact on a designated dependent variable. Then it can be tested, if this hypothesis can be proved or disproved. (Jensen 2005: 212). 2. The Variable … is gender, age, nationality etc. … is the empirical representation of a …Before the research 3. Independent Variables Concept and a… Construct (combination of concepts) … can be manipulated by the  A concept represents A combination of concepts used to  researcher.  an abstract idea that define the characteristics of the  … means the way the research  embodies the nature of  individual users as grouped in  process is constructed to  observable phenomena,  concepts (in the example). measure a response. or an interpretation of  Heavy users may be described by such why such phenomea concepts as sociability, tolerance for  4. Dependent Variables occur. strong stimulation, risk‐taking etc. After the research This is also what we call the  … is the measure of the  Example: Individuals constituent attributes, i.e. values or outcome of the research  are defined in terms of  categories into which variables can be based on its construct and its their use of a media.  divided. dependent variables, i.e. it is  You define the notions the information created by the  of a “light user” and a  variables and the hypothesis. “heavy user” based on media types, levels of  defined usage etc.
  23. 23. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative The Quantitative approach to research is based on the scientific tradition  Research of studying aspects of human reality with empirical proof.  Introduction to the Basic Research in anthropology, economics, geography, linguistics, history, polital Concepts science etc. can often be done by initially measuring hard facts. Quantitative research often aims at closed questions—questions your respondents can answer yes or no to; questions that are very narrow defined.
  24. 24. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Examples Research Introduction Numbers: You can measure how many women there are in a room to the Basic and you can measure how many men there are.  Concepts Specific actions: You can measure people’s actions (but not why they do it!)  Opinions: You can measure people’s opinions by asking closed questions:  “Do you think our prime minister will win the next election?”  This question would be followed up by additional (anonymous) information  from the informant: gender, age, city etc. You can use these data as valuable information in your research objective.
  25. 25. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Variables: Concepts and Constructs Research Introduction The basic part of the quantitative research process is the notion of the to the Basic variable.  Variables are in this context the emperical representation of a  Concepts concept or a construct (→). Let’s first define concepts: Concepts A concept represents an abstract idea that embodies the nature of  observable phenomenon, or an interpretation of why such phenomea occur. For example, individuals may be differentiated in terms of their use of  media: What you define as a “active user” could be distinguished from what you define as a “passive user” (in questions based on how often a specific media or an application is used). Media usage can be linked to explain different behavioual patterns:  Media usage becomes an explanatory concept (Jensen 2005: 210).
  26. 26. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Single‐Concept Example (media usage as behavioural patterns) Research Introduction The observable phenomenon:  to the Basic More and more people over the age of 65 use FaceBook (FB). Concepts source/desk research:  http://www.insidefacebook.com/2009/12/11/facebook‐a‐top‐destination‐for‐users‐over‐65/ The concept I want to use: What is it to be “user”—it’s a bit too vague a concept! Just because you have a  FB account you’re not always active. I find it interesting to investigate the  single concept of the “active user” in the age group 65+.  First, I define the concept of a “heavy user” by describing precisely what this implies in relation to skills in the use of FB. Second, I suggest the number of  visits on FB per day in order for one to be a “active user” of FB.  objective: How many “active users” in the age group 65+ are there on FB in  Denmark alone. I base this on my concept, my hypothesis (later in this slide)  and on a sampling of informants (say, 1000 FB‐users in the age group 65+)
  27. 27. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Constructs (combination/series of concepts) Research Introduction A construct comprises a combination of concepts. to the Basic Concepts This term can be used as a way of defining characteristics or actions  of individuals that are associated with their personality type.  For example, one personality type is defined as sensation‐seeking.  High‐sensation seekers generally need higher levels of environmental stimulation  than low‐sensation seekers.  High‐sensation seekers may be described by a series of such concepts as: sociability, tolerance for strong stimulation, risk‐taking etc.  Constructs have a dimensional quality, so that individuals may be classified (in this example) as high or low on the personality dimension  of sensation‐seeking (Jensen 2005: 210).
  28. 28. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Now, let us return to the notion of the variable: Research Introduction Variables to the Basic A variable is an emperical representation of a concept or a construct.  Concepts Variables provide operational measures that can be quantified and manipulated by researchers. The concepts of gender, age, economics, and personal behaviour are variables  that you can measure. These variables must be described in further detail as  concepts and/or constructs, as it’s demonstrated in the previous slides. In other words: The variables get more substantial when they are applied to a concept or a construct. Gender is interesting because of the construct of  the differences between certain actions of men and women.
  29. 29. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Variables and attributes Research Introduction Variables may be further defined and differentiated in terms of  their to the Basic constituent attributes.  Concepts Attributes are values or categories into which variables can be divided:  In the case of the gender, there are two categories, male and female.   In the case of age, individuals can be differentiated by age group or actual age.
  30. 30. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Independent and dependent variables Research Introduction Variables can be further defined in terms of their relationship with each other.   to the Basic Concepts Before the research: The independent variable (concept/construct/attributes)  can be manipulated by the researcher—it is meant to produce some measurable response or outcome. You design your variables (concept/construct/attributes) to fit your objective, for  example light user, active user etc. After the research: The dependent variable is the measure of the response or outcome. It is the obtained data which is treated as information.  BREAK
  31. 31. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Using a Hypothesis Research Introduction Quantitive research is primarily concerned with demonstrating cause‐effect to the Basic relationships, and any research project starts by making a hypothesis.  Concepts A hypothesis is a question―a proposition to be tested.  Hypotheses makes prognostications about the links between variables.  “(A hypothesis) propose, that under a set of conditions, if an independent  variable (…) is assumed to have a certain strength, it may be expected to exert a measurable impact on a designated dependent variable.” (Jensen 2005: 212).  What does this mean?: The independent variable is the concept /construct before the research―the part that has an objective and thus it can be manipulated. There is of course a certain expectation to the outcome of this.  Because of this, the linkage to the data you obtain (dependent variable)  should make your objective stronger. Does it confirm your hypothesis?
  32. 32. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Reliability and validity Research Introduction Another important aim of a research is to determine its reliability. to the Basic Concepts To meet the demands for reliability and validity, you can …  repeate evidence/tests to show similar results over time  or in another context.  differentiate between the respondent (age, gender, education, etc.)  explain accurately how and why you conduct your research.   use good internal validity: the design of the research process must be free from theoretical and methodological errors. Use validated theory. The reliability concerns the dependability and consistency of the relationship in one or between more variables. The validity indicates whether a measure properly captures the meaning of the concept or construct it represents.  (Jensen 2005: 212).
  33. 33. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative The Quantitative survey―field Research Research The Survey Surveys collect data and facts using independent variables. After the survey,  make judgements based on the dependent variables. A descriptive survey simply attempts to document current conditions.  Public opinion polls, for example, can rovide information about people’s present attitudes on a specified topic. The concept of “fear of terrorism” can be constructed through a variety of constructs from “no fear” to “very afraid,”  and the survey can gain answers from different age groups. The outcome is  descriptive and can of course be used ad an initial research narrowing down a  target group to be researched further on. Analytical surveys also collect descriptive data, but attempt to go on to  examine relationships among variables in order to test research hypotheses.  A survey may assess the impact of an advertising campaign on public  awareness of a brand and changes in the market’s share of a product. Such explantory surveys can also research social effects in‐ and because of media. 
  34. 34. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Quantitative survey methods―field Research Research The Survey Telephone interviews: Methods You can accomplish the data very quickly and directly. It is cheap to conduct The respondents can be reached globally. Face‐to‐face interviews: Short interviews as well as longer interviews can be conducted,  i.e. in a shopping mall or in a home. Visual artefacts can be used. Video‐ and audio techniques can be used. Better personal credibility can be achieved by personal interview. Web‐/mail‐/online‐ or paper questionnaire: Simple forms can be filled out by respondents. By using web or mail the  statistical answers will be easy to monitor quickly afterwards.
  35. 35. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Sampling Research The Survey A key aspect of quantitative research is sampling. Sampling Samples may be constructed on either a probablity or non‐probablity basis: A probability sample is selected according to mathematical guidelines,  i.e. each unit is known. Hereby the researcher can also calculate the amount of  sampling error. Non‐probability sampling is often used in media research. People are selected for study on the grounds that they are available, convenient to access and prepared to participate.  Let’s look at aspects of these methods of sampling (next slides …)
  36. 36. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Sampling Research The Survey Non‐probability sampling can be related to … A purposive sample. Often used in advertising research, this sampling  method selects respondents according to  specific criterion, such as their purchase of a specific product, when, where etc. A quota sample. You match the percentage of male and female population in  relation to preferences. You can’t ask all the men and women in a country, so  you conduct your survey based on a representative quota, for example 300  men and 400 women (if there are more women matching this number in  percentage).
  37. 37. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Sampling Research The Survey Probability sampling can be related to … Random sampling. The basic for of random sampling: Every individual or unit  in a population has an equal chance to be selected for a questionnaire. Systematic random sampling. A criteria is fixed. For example, every tenth person is selected from the population. Stratified random sampling. More matching criterias are built into the  selection of the respondents. For example gender, age, ethnecity etc. Hence,  if 51 per cent of a population is female, random selection of females to the  sample will cease once the target as been reached, namely 510 females of a  target sample of 1000.
  38. 38. STUDY SHEETRESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Describing Data  Research The Survey Links: See more on percentage calculation here … http://www.math.com/everyone/calculators/calc_source/percent.htm http://www.easycalculation.com/statistics/statistics.php http://www.euromonitor.com/  Don’t panic!   If you use an online survey tool all the calculations are done for you. But you’ll have to do the thinking!
  39. 39. RESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY Quantitative Research Example We see the movie http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFbmHDs7TmI … … and have a talk about this type of survey and its components. Variables? Concepts? Independent variables/dependent variables? 
  40. 40. RESEARCH PROCESS 1 THE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS & BASIC THEORY ResearchPreparing for a  1. Make a good, validated hypothesis about a media trend—for example a  valid research specific type of use of a media technology. You are welcome to start with  desk research, for example:  http://rossdawsonblog.com/weblog/archives/2010/08/key_trends_in_m. html 2. Aim this survey at a relevant target group.  3. Let your hypothesis be related to answers you can measure in an  affirmative or non‐affirmatiwe way (quantitative, closed questions). Before doing this, be sure that you have defined precisely what concepts and/or constructs to use. You can describe the user categories. 4. What kind of sampling method do you need to use? 5. Define variables to be used. 6. Consider validity—can you falsify any premises? How?

×