experience design experience economy affordance theory
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A communication lecture based on affordance theory and experience economy. It's also applicable for design theory and business classes.

A communication lecture based on affordance theory and experience economy. It's also applicable for design theory and business classes.

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experience design experience economy affordance theory Presentation Transcript

  • 1. EXPERIENCE DESIGN An extended view on affordance theory Media platform affordances and the planning of a media production (Ecological, visual perception—J. J. Gibson 1986) The value of the experiences The DNA of the event (Have 2004 via Lyck 2008) The Experience Compass (Lund 2005) Creating a flow in the experience (Csikszentmihalyi 1975) Workshop
  • 2. EXPERIENCE DESIGNAffordance TheoryAn extended view on the ecology ofvisual perception 1/4 Medium, substance, layout(J. J. Gibson 1986)• Gibson on the concept of a medium: Air is a medium for animal locomotion, so is water. There are no sharp transitions in a medium, no surfaces in itself. You are located in- , using- and living in the medium.• Water is not the medium of human beings: we think of water as a substance and not as a medium. We do not navigate naturally in water, but in the medium of air.
  • 3. EXPERIENCE DESIGNAffordance TheoryAn extended view on the ecology ofvisual perception 2/4 Medium, substance, layout(J. J. Gibson 1986)• When this smooth process of navigating in a natural medium takes place, the affordances in the medium are invariant.• Where there is an invariant environment, you accept and use the affordances naturally and without questioning the very nature of things.• In any medium there are surfaces with a certain layout or grid in which you navigate.• Any surface and object has a characteristic shape, illuminated in light or shade. alltogether such objects may form an invariant, coherent layout
  • 4. EXPERIENCE DESIGNAffordance TheoryAn extended view on the ecology ofvisual perception 3/4 Medium, substance, layout(J. J. Gibson 1986)• Take a look at the illustration.• There are two environments: air and water are both a medium for different lifeforms to navigate in.• You look at the picture and see the water as a substance. The fish fears the substance of only air.• There is a surface before your eyes. The layout/grid of this surface may be invariant for you to navigate in.• In general it is a meaningful environment for you, you can take a walk and use the forest path as a useful object of affordance.
  • 5. EXPERIENCE DESIGNAffordance TheoryAn extended view on the ecology ofvisual perception 4/4 Medium, substance, layout(J. J. Gibson 1986)• Take a look at the illustration and the model. Medium Substances Surfaces /layout
  • 6. EXPERIENCE DESIGNAffordance TheoryAn extended view on the ecology ofvisual perception 1/3 invariant or variant objects(J. J. Gibson 1986)• According to Gibson concepts like planes and spaces are geometrical terms. They are only describing numbers.• The environment affords something more practical for the animal and for us.• A stone is a useful hiding spot for the mouse, who tries not to be spotted by the cat. To me, the stone is either of no importance (as I pass by) or I may be careful not to stumble over the stone. This is the difference betwen invariant and variant perceptual information.• If I recognize the stone’s natural layout as a potential danger to me, I percieve of the stone as an variant object and not invariant—I take notice of its meaning to me.
  • 7. EXPERIENCE DESIGNAffordance TheoryAn extended view on the ecology ofvisual perception 2/3 invariant or variant objects(J. J. Gibson 1986)• Take a look at the illustration.• You are driving on a road. The road affords a pathway to your desired destination. There are no new perspectives as far as the eye can see, only the invariant optical structure created by human technology.• The layout tends to persist (with its objects).
  • 8. EXPERIENCE DESIGNAffordance TheoryAn extended view on the ecology ofvisual perception 3/3 invariant or variant objects(J. J. Gibson 1986)• Suddenly a road sign appears, and you take notice of its presence and its information.• The road sign is an variant object. It is a display made to make you aware of a change in the layout.• But … then again … you might be used to this particular sign, and then it’s invariant.
  • 9. EXPERIENCE DESIGNAffordance TheoryAn extended view on the ecology ofvisual perception 1/1 Affordances are for someone(J. J. Gibson 1986)• The affordances of the layout in the environment are that, which offers something to you.• Some objects and surfaces affords support to you: the chair is sit-able (surface and object), the laptop is port-able (object), the magazine is read-able and entertaining (object) etc.• Affordances also involves a possibility and the near future: The affordance of a toy is to play (for the child). The affordance of your education programme is to become a skilled graduate.• You interact with affordances and create affordances.
  • 10. EXPERIENCE DESIGNAffordance TheoryAn extended view on the ecology ofvisual perception 1/1 Affordances of communication—exercise(J. J. Gibson 1986)• Gibson says that information pickup needs an awareness of variant information in an environment. In other words: When you’re designing for information, you must be able to use the media objects and surfaces as relevant affordances.• A graphic user interface (GUI) for web or for the mobile media requires that you can make the surface/layout meaningful to the user: • Find a website or an app, investigate these areas … • Can you understand the landing surfaces as meningful environments (pages)? • How is the information structure of affordances (links)? • What is it that the objects affords the user (interactivity)? • What is invariant and what is variant information? • Apart from the GUI, how can links and networks be affordances —what can they afford to whom?
  • 11. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceAffordance theory and the DNA of the event1/4 Designing the event(Have 2004 via Lyck 2008)• The event also creates affordances for an experience.• Have (2004) lists the DNA of an event: • Unique: New, trendy, annual event, one time only etc. • Unpredictable: Surprising, exiting etc. • Predictable: Some elements of predictability affords security, like traditions. • Storytelling: Structure, roles, conflict etc. • Historic: A certain context, a cultural framework? • Media friendly: Can it be used for PR and other marketing strategies? • Creates an identity: What can the event offer as affordances of identity? • Involves an audience: Engaging with a respect for the flexibility the audience demands • Star quality: Are there celebrities present or does the event itself have a star quality?
  • 12. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceAffordance theory and the DNA of the event2/4 Designing the event(Have 2004 via Lyck 2008) Unique• Have (2004) places these elements in a scale: 5 Historic • 1: The element is not present 4 Creates an 3 • 3: The element is present identity to some extent 2 • 5: The element is highly present 1 Unpredictable Media friendly 0 Predictable Storytelling Involves the audience Star quality
  • 13. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceAffordance theory and the DNA of the event3/4 Designing the event—how-to-example(Have 2004 via Lyck 2008) Unique• Have (2004) places these elements in a scale: 5 Historic • 1: The element is not present 4 Creates an 3 • 3: The element is present identity to some extent 2 • 5: The element is highly present 1 Unpredictable Media friendly 0 Predictable Storytelling Involves the audience Star quality
  • 14. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceAffordance theory and the DNA of the event4/4 Designing the event—exercise(Have 2004 via Lyck 2008) Unique 5• Mapping the scale together Historic with examples: 4 Christmas Creates an 3 identity Oscar show 2 Event for animal rights 1 Unpredictable Fashion show Launching a new app Media friendly 0• Other examples? Predictable Storytelling Involves the audience Star quality
  • 15. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceThe experience compass 1/(Lund 2005)• In a narrow sense there are two kinds of experiences:• The experience as the core business idea: for example a movie company, a game producer, the theme park, the zoo etc.• The experience as a by-product of a product or a service: for example the customer’s experience of the supermarket’s ethics.• There can be hybrids between these two types: to dine in a restaurant can be an experience in itself if it’s a part of special event. It becomes a dining experience.• Segmentation is important
  • 16. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceThe experience compass 2/(Lund 2005)• These elements can be depicted as the one axis of the experience compass (examples): The concept of Theater TV Mobile phones The concept of experience experience as the as the by-product, as core business Movies Restaurant Retail generator of extra value
  • 17. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceThe experience compass 3/ The types of experiences(Lund 2005)• The other axis of the compass depicts whether the experience has a high or a low value: High value of experience Live broadcast of a concert The concept of Theater TV Mobile phones The concept of experience experience as the as the by-product, as core business Movies Restaurant Retail generator of extra value Reruns of M*A*S*H Low value of experience
  • 18. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceThe experience compass 4/ The types of experiences(Lund 2005)• Examples: times change VALUE AXIS High value of experience 1990s: Texting (SMS) The concept of Mobile phones The concept of experience experience as the as the by-product, as PRODUCER core business generator of extra value AXIS Today: Texting (SMS) Low value of experience
  • 19. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceThe experience compass 4/ The types of experiences(Lund 2005)• Examples: Value change VALUE AXIS High value of experience A = First time you see a play A The concept of The concept of experience experience as the as the by-product, as PRODUCER core business generator of extra value AXIS The third time you see the play Low value of experience
  • 20. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceThe experience compass 4/ The types of experiences(Lund 2005)• Examples: Product change VALUE AXIS (the telephone) High value of experience Now you download apps, tjeck mails, play games etc. on Once you could only make a the mobile phone call from a stationary phone A The concept of The concept of experience experience as the as the by-product, as PRODUCER core business generator of extra value AXIS Low value of experience
  • 21. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceThe experience compass 4/ The types of experiences(Lund 2005)• Examples: The new mix VALUE AXIS High value of experience Laundromat book cafe The concept of The concept of experience experience as the as the by-product, as PRODUCER core business generator of extra value AXIS Cafe Vintage books Laundromat Low value of experience
  • 22. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceThe experience compass 4/ The types of experiences(Lund 2005)• Examples: One journey, VALUE AXIS many experiences High value of experience Goal: Disneyland The pool by the Hotel The concept of The concept of experience experience as the as the by-product, as PRODUCER core business generator of extra value AXIS Waiting in the airport Low value of experience
  • 23. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experienceThe experience compass 4/ IT and experiences(Lund 2005)• 1. Example: A museum uses interactive IT solutions in a exhibition High value of experience (touch screens, bluetooth, Twitter etc.) 1 2• 2. Example: Robots, computergames, The primary product The primary product new technology etc. of the company: of the company: EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE & IT IT is used to• 3. Example: Ipad, enhance/support The product itself is an experience Great share of new interactive apps etc. IT technology IT technology Little share of an experience• 4. Example: A retail store launches 4 3 a website or a microsite, a charity The primary product The primary product event is launched by using of the company: of the company: laserlights and big screens etc. Neither experience IT nor IT Experiences are IT experiences are used to sell the used for promotion product Low value of experience
  • 24. EXPERIENCE DESIGNThe value of the experience High value of experience*The flow 1/1 Mood compass High(Csikszentmihalyi 1975) Anxiety Arousal FLOW• Csikszentmihalyi’s model depicts the different mental stages in the areas between skills and challenges.• Match the experience design with your CHALLENGES target group’s skills and expectations of particular challenges. Worry Control• Create affordances to maximize flow and the value of the experience.* Not an original part of this model Low Apathy Boredom Relaxation Low SKILLS High
  • 25. EXPERIENCE DESIGNBibliographyMihaly Csikszentmihalyi:Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: ExperiencingFlow in Work and Play.Published by Jossey-Bass 1975.Jacob Lund:Følelsesfabrikken. Oplevelsesøkonomi på dansk.Published by Børsens Forlag 2005.Christian Have 2004:Via Lise Lyck:Service- og oplevelsesøkonomi i teori og praksis.Published by Academica 2008.J. J. Gibson:The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception.Published by Lawrance Erlbaum Associates 1986,(originally published in 1979)