E concept metaphors-representations_signs_semiotics
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    E concept metaphors-representations_signs_semiotics E concept metaphors-representations_signs_semiotics Presentation Transcript

    • Metaphors & Representation Interaction Design O B J E C T S — S I G N S — S Y M B O L I C C O M M U N I C AT I O N
    • Metaphors & Representation Introduction to the tools1. The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics2. The metaphor: The basic metaphor as representation3. The interactive design: Metaphors in interactive design
    • Metaphors & Representation 1 The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semioticsCommunication is often the work of signs which represent somethingFlags represent something (but what?) … Representation anchored with a text
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semioticsSemiotics is the study and the making use of signs as communicationSigns are words, written and spoken.Signs can be seen, smelled and tastedSigns are visual artefacts and visual representations.Signs are cultural codes.Semiotics is the communication strategy by which you decidewhat effect you want to achieve by the use of a particular sign.
    • Metaphors & Representation The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics In a certain context you often intuitively expect something particular based on the signs you encode. This proces is called scripting. Here’s an example: D E N O TAT I O N C O N N O TAT I O N (Signifier) (signified/mental concept)(Source: Lakoff & Johnson 1980 / Saussure 1916) (I will give you) (You expect) breakfast a particular in bed kind of breakfast Automatic (you like) scripting
    • Metaphors & Representation The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics Now, let’s look at the conceptual scope of denotation and connotation … Signification Sign Reference to “reality” as meaning Composed of Signifier Signified Existense of the sign Activates … the mental concept, which relates to … the referent tree(Source: Fiske 1990)
    • Metafor & repræsentation EN DANSK GUIDE TIL BEGREBERNE Signification Tegnet Refererer til “det virkelige” er struktureret af som meningsfuldt Signifiant Signifié betegneren Det betegnede af eksisterende tegn Aktiverer … et mentalt koncept, der relaterer til … referenten træ(Source: Fiske 1990)
    • Metaphors & Representation The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics The sign is arbitrary D E N O TAT I O N C O N N O TAT I O N (Literal concept) (Mental concept) APPLE ? Conceptual, Signifier perceptual Signified and cultural Word, contexts Percieved(Source: Fiske 1990) sound or image
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semioticsA sign never has any “real” meaning, it’s what you percieve as meaningful.The sign corresponds with your codes of realityand the sign refers to your world.The sign is always arbitrary and it is encoded in a certain context. The sign activates … the mental concept, which relates to … the referent?Tank ?
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semioticsThis is important in relation to the way youintend to make people react to the signsin your strategic communication … Sign Composed of Signification Signifier Signified “Reality” / Meaning Existense Mental concept of the sign Sign Interpretant Effect of the sign Use of sign Percieving the sign (response/action) (encoding/strategy) (decoding/scripting)
    • Metaphors & Representation The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics And sometimes the strategy is to deliberately surprise you and contradict your expectations. To experience and learn new things via signs: a new scripting proces NEW SCRIPTING REACTION (you get served) “What! an alternative Monkey food!?” kind of (or)(Source: Lakoff & Johnson 1980) breakfast (you “It looks good!” might like) Contradicting scripting
    • Metaphors & Representation The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics Semiotic Categories of the Sign SEMIOTIC SIGNS ICON The iconic sign bears a resemblance to its object.(Source: Fiske 1990 / Anne Mette Busch 2011) INDEX The indexical sign has a direct connection to its object. SYMBOL The symbolic sign has a rule- or convention connection to its object. These categories often mix!
    • Metaphors & Representation The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics SEMIOTIC SIGNS ICON The iconic sign bears a resemblance to its object. Examples: Pictograms(Source: Fiske 1990 / Anne Mette Busch 2011) Outlines and shapes Specific denotations
    • Metaphors & Representation The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics SEMIOTIC SIGNS INDEX The indexical sign has a direct connection to its object. Examples: Smoke (of a fire)(Source: Fiske 1990 / Anne Mette Busch 2011) Postures (of emotions) Relational denotations
    • Metaphors & Representation The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics SEMIOTIC SIGNS SYMBOL The symbolic sign has a rule- or convention connection to its object. Examples: Logos and visual signs(Source: Fiske 1990 / Anne Mette Busch 2011) Words (“war” means chaos) Objects in a certain context Denotations and connotations via rules or conventions means that we have learned how to decode the symbol.
    • Metaphors & Representation The sign and the representation: Signs as representative via basic semiotics Exercise SEMIOTIC SIGNS ICON INDEX SYMBOL(Source: Fiske 1990 / Anne Mette Busch 2011)
    • Metaphors & Representation Example SIGNS & BRANDING TOP-DOWN T O P : The sign as a promiseKress & Leeuwen 1996 via Barnard 2005) D O W N : Benefactor/product
    • Metaphors & Representation Example SIGNS & BRANDING L E F T- R I G H TKress & Leeuwen 1996 via Barnard 2005) LEFT: RIGHT: A symbol/sign the anchorage (picture + text) Product Benefactor
    • Metaphors & Representation 2 The metaphor: The basic metaphor as representation
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe metaphor: The basic metaphor as representationThe metaphor means …an analogy and a connection between two different objects or ideas.It depends on the scripting and the signs in the particular context.An action can mean something. ACTION PERCIEVED (Signifier) (Signified) REACTION “This must mean that you The alternative really like me!” kind of Or breakfast “ what have I (You happen done to you?!” to like now) Metaphorical scripting
    • Metaphors & Representation The metaphor: The basic metaphor as representation The metaphor means … an analogy and a connection between two different objects or ideas. We can understand one aspect by the aid of another. For example:“the city is acting like it’s on fire” can mean that “the city is celebrating” or “the city is in panic . ” Other examples: The general concept of “discussion” can mean conflict. It opens for a wide range of metaphors:(Source: Lakoff & Johnson 1980) “I will win this argument” or “You disagree? Ok, fire away!” Or the concept of “good is up” and “bad is down”: “I’m on top of the world today” vs. “I’m feeling down!”
    • Metaphors & Representation 3 The interactive design: Metaphors in interactive design
    • Metaphors & Representation The interactive design: Metaphors in interactive design “There are three dominant paradigms in the conceptual and visual design of user interfaces: implementation-centric, metaphoric, and idiomatic. The implementation centric interfaces are based on understanding how things actually work under the hood —a difficult proposition. Metaphoric interfaces are based on intuiting how things work —a risky method. Idiomatic interfaces, however, are based on learning how to accomplish things—a natural, human process.”(Source: Cooper 2007: 270)
    • Metaphors & Representation The interactive design: Metaphors in interactive design “There are three dominant paradigms in the conceptual and visual design of user interfaces: implementation-centric, metaphoric, and idiomatic. The implementation centric interfaces are based on understanding how things actually work under the hood —a difficult proposition.”(Source: Cooper 2007: 270)
    • Metaphors & Representation The interactive design: Metaphors in interactive design “There are three dominant paradigms in the conceptual and visual design of user interfaces: implementation-centric, metaphoric, and idiomatic. Metaphoric interfaces are based on intuiting how things work —a risky method. “ Yes, but not impossible: “ When we talk about metaphors in the context of user interface and interaction design, we really mean visual metaphors: a picture used to represent the purpose or attributes of a thing. Users recognize the imagery of the metaphor and, by extension,(Source: Cooper 2007: 270 ff) can presumably understand the purpose of the thing.” Remember an affordance strategy in visual metaphors.
    • Metaphors & Representation The interactive design: Metaphors in interactive design Visual metaphors Nature Layout elements on a website(Source: Cooper 2007: 270 ff) Cooper is not fond of the metaphor: “Artifacts like resizable windows and endlessly nested file folders are not really metaphoric — they have no parallel in the real world. They derive their strength only from their easy idiomatic learnability.” (Cooper 2007: 275)
    • Metaphors & Representation The interactive design: Metaphors in interactive design Cooper argues for the idiomatic approach to UX/graphic interface design: “We understand the idiom simply because we have learned it and because it is distinctive, not because we understand it or because it makes subliminal connections in our minds.” (Cooper 2007: 274) Well … that is exactly what a good metaphor is (according to Lakoff & Johnson), but for the sake of the argument, you can choose yourself whether you want to operate with the concept of an idiom or a metaphor.(Source: Cooper 2007: 270 ff)
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe interactive design: Metaphors in interactive designDOS (1981)
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe interactive design: Metaphors in interactive designAmiga 1000 (1985)
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe interactive design: Metaphors in interactive designApple Macintosh (1985)
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe interactive design: Metaphors in interactive designSun Workstation(1989)
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe interactive design: Metaphors in interactive designWindows (1992)
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe interactive design: Metaphors in interactive designWindows (1995)
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe interactive design: Metaphors in interactive designWindows Bob (1995)
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe interactive design: Metaphors in interactive designWord (1989: 1.0) Pages Ipad (2012) Thoughts (2012)
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe interactive design: Metaphors in interactive design Ipad (Apple 2012)Apple Mac (2006: OS X 10.4.7)
    • Metaphors & RepresentationThe interactive design: Metaphors in interactive design ?
    • ResourcesCurriculumCooper, Allan (ed.) (2007):About Face 3. The Essential of Interaction Design.Wiley PublishingChapters: 13.Other referencesCours de linguistique générale. Suassure 1916. Buhl, Claus (2005):http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Course_in_General_Linguistics. Det lærende brand. Børsens Forlag.Lakoff og Johnson (1980, 2002):Metaphors we live by. Malcolm Barnard (2005):Chicago Press, USA. Graphic Design as Communication Routledge.Fiske, John (1990):Introduction to Communication Studies. Anne Mette Busch, David Engelby (m.fl.) (2011):Routledge. Kommunikation i multimediedesign.References to signs p. 47. See Google books Hans Reitzels Forlag.