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  1. 1. Presented by: Ahmed Atef Elnaggar Supervisor: Prof. Shawkat K.Guirguis
  2. 2.  Introduction  What is & why 4G  Generation timeline  History of different generations  0G – 1G  2G (Advantages, disadvantages) – 2.5  3G (Reasons for New Research) Contents
  3. 3.  4G  Features of 4G technology  Evolution of 4G  Applications of 4G technology  Telecom companies developing 4G  Infrastructure for 4G  Communications architecture  Types of Multiplexing(FDMA,TDMA,CDMA,OFDM)  Different technologies of 4G  UWB – Smart antennas – IPv6 – QOS – SDR- VOIP  Effects on radio communicators  Conclusion  References Contents cont.
  4. 4.  Abbreviation of fourth generation wireless technology.  The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems.  One of the terms to describe 4G is MAGIC Mobile Multimedia Anytime Anywhere Global Mobility Support Integrated wireless Solution Customized Personal Service Introduction to 4G
  5. 5. What is & why 4G? • It will provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice , data and multimedia can be given to user on an “anytime , any-where” basis. • The successor of 3G, will soon become the standard for cellular wireless. • It will provide seamless mobility and internet access at a rate of 100 Mbps. • It is launched in the year 2010. • 4G is currently available in some countries but it is still being perfected. • The aim is to achieve “ultra broadband speed” – to be counted in gigabytes per second.
  6. 6. Generation timeline
  7. 7. Generation timeline
  8. 8. history Generation refers change in nature of Service compatible transmission technology and new frequency bands. 0G (Zero Generation Mobile System)  At the end of the 1940’s, the first radio telephone service was introduced, and was designed to users in cars to the public land-line based telephone network.  In the 1960’s, a system launched by Bell Systems, called, Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), brought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. The very first analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s.
  9. 9. 1G Technology  1G refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology was developed in 1970’s.  1G had two major improvements:  the invention of the microprocessor.  the digital transform of the control link between the phone and the cell site.  Analog signal.  Drawbacks  Poor Voice Quality.  Poor Battery Life.  Large Phone Size.  No Security.  Frequent Call Drops.  Limited capacity and poor handoff reliability.
  10. 10. 2G Technology  Around 1980’s.  2G phones using global system for mobile communications (GSM) were first used in the early 1990’s in Europe.  GSM provides voice and limited data services and uses digital modulation for improved audio quality& capacity where more people could use there phones at the same time.  2G systems use digital communication techniques with TDM, FDM, CDMA.  Digital AMPS, CDMA2000 were some of the other 2GSystems.  Digital data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodings.  Multiplexing -multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal.  For 1 and 2G standards, bandwidth maximum is 9.6 Kbit/sec, (I.E) approximately 6 times slower than an ISDN.
  11. 11. Advantages 2G  Allows for lower powered radio signals that require less battery  The digital voice encoding allows digital error checking  increase sound quality  lowers the noise level  Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data transfer (SMS –“short message service”, E-mail). Disadvantages 2G  Cell towers had a limited coverage area  Jagged Decay curve  Abrupt dropped calls  Analog –gradual sound reduction  “Spotty” coverage
  12. 12.  An interim stage that is taken between 2G and 3G that is 2.5G.  It is basically an enhancement of major technologies to provide increased capacity and to increase higher bit rates.  A very important aspect of 2.5G is the data channel are optimized for packet data which include access to internet through mobile devices.  Drawbacks  The GSM is circuit switched.  connection oriented technology. where the end systems are dedicated for the entire call session.  This causes inefficiency in the usage of bandwidth and resources.  The GSM-enabled systems do not support high data rates.  They are unable to handle complex data such as video. 2.5G Technology
  13. 13. 3G Technology  Adds multimedia facilities to 2G phones by allowing audio, video, and graphics applications.  Large capacity and broadband capabilities  Allows the transmission of 384kbps for mobile systems and up to 2Mbps  Increased spectrum efficiency –5Mhz  A greater number of users that can be simultaneously supported by a radio frequency bandwidth  High data rates at lower incremental cost than 2G–Global roaming  CDMA –Code Division Multiple Access  Form of multiplexing  Does not divide up the channel by time or frequency  Encodes data with a special code associated with each channel
  14. 14. Reasons for New Research  Even though 3G has successfully been introduced to mobile users, there are some issues that are debated by 3G providers and users.  High input fees for the 3G service licenses  Great differences in the licensing terms  3G phones are expensive  High band width requirement.
  15. 15. Fourth Generation  Most features are:  Faster and more reliable  100 Mb/s  Lower cost than previous generations  Multi-standard wireless system  Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless  Ad Hoc Networking  IPv6 Core  OFDM used instead of CDMA  Potentially IEEE standard 802.11n  Most information is proprietary
  16. 16. Evolution of 4G • In 2008. the ITU-R organization specified the ،MT Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G standards, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at loo Mb it/s for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1Gbit/s for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users) • The 1st commercial deployment was by Telia Sonera & NetCom. • Telia Sonera branded the network “4G”. • The modem devices on offer were manufactured by Samsung (dongle GT-B3710). • The network infrastructure were created by Huawei (in Oslo) and Ericsson (in Stockholm)
  17. 17. Applications of 4G technology Higher bandwidth enables a range of new applications!! • For the consumer Video streaming, TV broadcast, Video calls, video clips, news, music, sports, chat, location services.., • Enhanced gaming • Experience enhance wireless capabilities that deliver mobile gaming interaction with less than five seconds. • Play online multi player games while traveling at high speeds or sitting outside. • For the business High speed tele-working / VPN access, Video conferencing, Real-time financial information. • In traffic control, location application and telemedicine. • In crisis management application.
  18. 18. Applications of 4G technology
  19. 19.  NTT DOCOMO (Japan)  DIGIWEB (Ireland)  SPRINT (Chicago)  VERIZON Wireless  VODAFONE Group  American wireless provider clear wire  …etc Telecom companies developing 4G
  20. 20. 4G is not one defined technology or standard, but rather a collection of technologies at creating fully packet-switched networks optimized for data. Technology used in 4G (OFDM- UWB- Smart antennas- IPv6) • There are three primary technologies that support 4G: • WiMax, LTE, and UWB. • The main doubt is whether to implement WiMax or LTE • The advantages of LTE are: 1.Faster speed with 100 Mbps for download and 50 Mbps for upload. 2.It makes CDMA and GSM database moot. 3.It offers both FDD and TDD duplexing. Infrastructure for 4G
  21. 21. Communications architecture  Broadcast layer:  fix access points, (i.e.) cell tower connected by fiber, microwave, or satellite (ISP)  Ad-hoc/hot-spot layer:  wireless LANs (i.e. internet at Starbuck’s)  Personal Layer Gateway:  devices that connect to upper layers; cell phone, fax, voice, data modem, MP3 players, PDAs  Info-Sensor layer:  environmental sensors  Fiber-optic wire layer:  high speed subterranean labyrinth of fiber optic cables and repeaters
  22. 22. Communications architecture
  23. 23. Types of Multiplexing (FDMA)  FDMA – Frequency Division Multiple Access  It is a method where the spectrum is cut up into different frequencies and then this chunk given to the users.  At one time only one user is assigned to a frequency. Because of this the frequency is closed. until the call is ended. or it is passed on to another frequency.  Each phone call is allocated one frequency for the entire duration of the call
  24. 24. Types of Multiplexing (TDMA)  TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access  Each phone call is allocated a spot in the frequency for a small amount of time, and "takes turns" being transmitted  There fore many uses can sit on one frequency, and have different time slots. because the time slots are switched so rapidly TDMA is used for 2G networks.
  25. 25. Types of Multiplexing(CDMA)  CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access  Each phone call is uniquely encoded and transmitted across the entire spectrum, so its no surprise it was developed and used by the military in a manner known as spread spectrum transmission  Unlike FDMA. CDMA allows the user to sit on all of the available frequencies at the same time. and hop between them.  Each call is identified by its unique code. hence the term Code Division.
  26. 26. Types of Multiplexing(CDMA)
  27. 27.  Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing  OFDM works by splitting the radio signal into multiple smaller sub-signals that are then transmitted simultaneously at different frequencies to the receiver.  Allows to transfer more than other forms of multiplexing (Time, Frequency, Code, etc.)  Simplifies the design of the transmitter and the receiver.  Currently used in WiMax (802.16) and Wi-Fi(802.1 la/g).  Allows for almost the entire frequency band.  No gaps to prevent interference needed. Types of Multiplexing(OFDM)
  28. 28. OFDM is being increasingly used in high -speed information transmission systems: - European HDTV - Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) - Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) - IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN OFDM for 4G Wireless • High peak-to-average power levels • Enables efficient TX and RX diversity • Adaptive antenna arrays without joint equalization • Support for adaptive modulation by subcarrier • Frequency diversity • Robust against narrow-band interference • Efficient for simulcasting • Variable/dynamic bandwidth • Used for highest speed applications • Supports dynamic packet access
  29. 29. • WiMax formed to provide conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802.16 standard. It aims to provide wireless data over long distance from point-to-point link to cellular mobile type access. • Wipro a part of IEEE 802.16e in process to provide collaborative and generic mobile WiMax. • 3GPP LTE a project aims to improve the mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. • 3GPP 2 UMB a project to improve the CDMA2000 mobile phone standard for next generation applications. Different technologies of 4G
  30. 30. • An advanced technology that can be used in 4G technology. • It is typically detected as noise. • It can use any part of the frequency spectrum, which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices . • It uses a frequency of 3.1 to 10.6 Hz. • It uses less power, since it transmits pulse instead of continuous signal. • Special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal. UWB (ultra wide band)
  31. 31. • smart antenna can be employed to find tune and turn up signal information. • smart antenna can send signal back in the same direction that they come from. • There are two types of smart antennas • switched beam antenna: It has fixed beams of transition. and switch from predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves through out the sector. • Adaptive array antenna: It represents the most advanced smart antenna approach to data using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user, minimize interference and maximize intended signal reception. Smart antennas
  32. 32. • IPv6 means Internet Protocol Version 6. • The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol which data is sent from one computer to another on the internet. • Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one IP that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet. • It includes l28 bits, which is 4 times more than 32bits IP address in IPv4. • Unlike 3G, based on two parallel infrastructure circuit switched and packet switched network nodes, 4G will be based on packet switching only. • This will require low latency data transmission. • IPv6 support large number of wireless enabled devices. By increasing the number of IP addresses, • IPv6 removes the need for NAT (Network Address Translation). IPv6
  33. 33. • In wireless networks, Quality of Service (QOS) refers to the measure of the performance for a system reflecting its transmission quality and service availability. • 4G is expected to have at least a reliability of 99.99%. • In 4G QOS may be divided in following ways: • Transaction-level QOS describes both the time it takes to complete a transaction and the packet loss rate. • Circuit-level QOS includes call blocking for new as well as existing calls. • User-level QOS depends on user mobility and app. type. QOS(quality of service)
  34. 34. • A software defined radio is one that can be configured to any radio or frequency standard through the use of software. • The phone should automatically switch from operating on a CDMA frequency to a TDMA frequency whenever it is required. • Roaming can be an issue with different standards, but with a software defined ratio, users can just download the interface upon entering new territory, or the software could just download automatically. Soft ware defined ratio(SDR)
  35. 35. • Voice Over Internet Protocol • Allows only packets (IP) to be transferred, eliminating the complexity of 2 protocols over the same circuit. • All voice data will be wrapped up in a packet • Lower latency data transmission (Faster Transmission) • Samples voice between 8000 to 64000 times per second and creates stream of bits which is then compressed and put into a packet. • Increases battery life due to greater data transmission. VOIP
  36. 36. During propagation, the radio signal experiences different effects (phenomenon)which affect the signal quality, signal degradation can be classified by type: • Path Loss Due to distance covered by the radio signal, "Free space path loss “ . • Signal attenuation Resulting from shadowing effects introduced by the obstacles between transmitter and receiver • Fading of the signal Caused by numerous effects all of which are related to the Radio propagation phenomenon Effects on Radio Comm.
  37. 37. • Reflection – Propagating wave impinges on an object which is large compared to wavelength – E.g., the surface of the Earth, buildings, walls, etc. • Diffraction – Radio path between transmitter and receiver obstructed by surface with sharp irregular edge – Waves bend around the obstacle, even when LOS does not exist • Scattering – Objects smaller than the wavelength of the propagating wave Effects on Radio Comm.
  38. 38. Effects on Radio Comm.
  39. 39. • Migration to 4G networks ensures convergence of networks, technologies, applications and services.  4G can serve as a flexible platform, Flexible channel bandwidth betn. 5 and 20MHz, optionally up to 40MHz.  Wireless carriers have an opportunity to shorten Investment return, improve operating efficiency and increase revenues.  4G is promising Generation of wireless communication that will change people’s lives.  4G is a packet switched wireless system with wide area coverage and high throughput. 4G wireless uses OFDM and millimeter wireless Conclusion
  40. 40. • Docomo: Towards 4G Technology. http://www.nttdocomo.com/technologies.future/toward/index.html • Frequently Asked Questions on 4G By Zahid Ghadialy. http://www.3g4g.co.uk/4G/fag.html • Telenor: Mobility Aspects in 4G Networks white Paper. http://www.telenor.com/pub/not02/N432002.pdf • ITU global standard for international mobile telecommunications ´IMT-Advanced´, Circular letter, ITU-R March 2008. • AT&T commits to LTE-Advanced deployment in 2013, Hesse and Mead unfazed". Engadget. 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2012-07-31. • Teliasonera First To Offer 4G Mobile Services". The Wall Street Journal. 2009-12-14. References