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Particle Technology<br />Professor Richard Holdich<br />R.G.Holdich@Lboro.ac.uk<br />Watch this lecture at http://www.vime...
Format<br /><ul><li>1 Lecture per week,
1 Problem Class – tutorials & self study
1 hour on: Moodle/Learn – tutorials & self study
Laboratories (oral, report & experimental)
Two hour exam (75% module mark)</li></li></ul><li>Exam<br /><ul><li>Two hour exam
3 questions from 5
Question 1 obligatory PSD
Previous answers old papers on Learn
Tutorial problems (& book on:www.particles.org.uk)</li></li></ul><li>Lecture topics<br /><ul><li>Particles & Characterisation
Dilute particulate systems
Hindered systems
Fluid flow in porous media/Fluidisation
Filtration
Membranes & colloids
Emulsions, surfaces & dispersions
Centrifugal separation
Two phase flow, rheology & powders
Gas cleaning
Comminution & mixing</li></li></ul><li>Problem Classes<br />See:<br /><ul><li>http://learn.lboro.ac.uk/
www.particles.org.uk
References:
614.83	, 620.43, 621.54, 660.283 & 660.2842
Coulson & Richardson Vol 2;
Fundamentals of Particle Tech – free pdf book
Rhodes, Introduction to Particle Technology</li></li></ul><li>Particles & Characterisation<br /><ul><li>Introduction to Pa...
Equivalent spherical diameters
Shape factors
Specific surface area
Size ranges and grades
Normalised distributions
Particle size analysis</li></li></ul><li>What is Particle Technology?<br />Study, characterisation, prediction of properti...
What’s the problem?<br /><ul><li>Viscosity
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Particle Technology and Characterisation

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The first lecture in the module Particle Technology, delivered to second year students who have already studied basic fluid mechanics. Some applications of Particle Technology are described, in industry and nature, and particle size analysis and means of representing the data. The format for the laboratory classes for the module and their reports are covered.

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Transcript of "Particle Technology and Characterisation"

  1. 1. Particle Technology<br />Professor Richard Holdich<br />R.G.Holdich@Lboro.ac.uk<br />Watch this lecture at http://www.vimeo.com/9936959. <br />Also visit; http://www.midlandit.co.uk/particletechnology.htm for further resources.<br />
  2. 2. Format<br /><ul><li>1 Lecture per week,
  3. 3. 1 Problem Class – tutorials & self study
  4. 4. 1 hour on: Moodle/Learn – tutorials & self study
  5. 5. Laboratories (oral, report & experimental)
  6. 6. Two hour exam (75% module mark)</li></li></ul><li>Exam<br /><ul><li>Two hour exam
  7. 7. 3 questions from 5
  8. 8. Question 1 obligatory PSD
  9. 9. Previous answers old papers on Learn
  10. 10. Tutorial problems (& book on:www.particles.org.uk)</li></li></ul><li>Lecture topics<br /><ul><li>Particles & Characterisation
  11. 11. Dilute particulate systems
  12. 12. Hindered systems
  13. 13. Fluid flow in porous media/Fluidisation
  14. 14. Filtration
  15. 15. Membranes & colloids
  16. 16. Emulsions, surfaces & dispersions
  17. 17. Centrifugal separation
  18. 18. Two phase flow, rheology & powders
  19. 19. Gas cleaning
  20. 20. Comminution & mixing</li></li></ul><li>Problem Classes<br />See:<br /><ul><li>http://learn.lboro.ac.uk/
  21. 21. www.particles.org.uk
  22. 22. References:
  23. 23. 614.83 , 620.43, 621.54, 660.283 & 660.2842
  24. 24. Coulson & Richardson Vol 2;
  25. 25. Fundamentals of Particle Tech – free pdf book
  26. 26. Rhodes, Introduction to Particle Technology</li></li></ul><li>Particles & Characterisation<br /><ul><li>Introduction to Particle Technology
  27. 27. Equivalent spherical diameters
  28. 28. Shape factors
  29. 29. Specific surface area
  30. 30. Size ranges and grades
  31. 31. Normalised distributions
  32. 32. Particle size analysis</li></li></ul><li>What is Particle Technology?<br />Study, characterisation, prediction of properties during the processing of particle dispersions ranging down to sub-microscopic material. It is the extension of mechanics (fluids and solids) into particle containing systems. The term 'particles' includes liquid emulsions, drops, foams, oils, dusts, bubbles, fogs, etc…<br />N.B. The definition of a micron, and<br />human hair is 70 microns,<br />blood cells are 8 microns,<br />bacteria are bigger than 0.2 microns<br />- all are particles<br />
  33. 33. What’s the problem?<br /><ul><li>Viscosity
  34. 34. Density
  35. 35. Molecular size
  36. 36. Heat capacity
  37. 37. Flow regime
  38. 38. Easy to define for a fluid
  39. 39. How do these change with particles?</li></li></ul><li>Equivalent spherical diameters<br /><ul><li>To equate some property of the irregular shaped particle to a sphere with the same property, e.g. same volume as particle:</li></ul>Has the same volume as a sphere - hence:<br />Note use of x for diameter.<br />
  40. 40. Equivalent spherical diameters<br /><ul><li>It is possible to measure volume of a particle by displacement, or electrical resistance of suspension, and equate to that of sphere of same volume.
  41. 41. Some other equivalences include projected area, surface area and mass</li></li></ul><li>Shape factors<br /><ul><li>Volume of a sphere:
  42. 42. Hence volume shape factor is:
  43. 43. The volume shape factor for a cube is?</li></li></ul><li>Specific surface<br /><ul><li>Specific surface area per unit volume - usually abbreviated to specific surface is the surface area over volume:
  44. 44. Hence Sv=6/x as is commonly used.
  45. 45. Use density to convert to SMASS</li></li></ul><li>Size ranges and grades<br />
  46. 46. Size ranges and grades<br />
  47. 47. Size ranges and grades<br />
  48. 48. Normalised distributions<br />
  49. 49. Normalised distributions<br />
  50. 50. Normalised distributions<br />
  51. 51. Normalised distributions<br />
  52. 52. Normalised distributions<br />
  53. 53. Normalised distributions<br />
  54. 54. Normalised distributions<br />
  55. 55. Normalised distributions<br />
  56. 56. Normalised distributions<br /><ul><li>Median size 9.2 m
  57. 57. Specific surface: 0.944x105 m-1
  58. 58. Sauter mean diameter: 6.4 m</li></li></ul><li>Normalised distributions<br />
  59. 59. Particle size analysis<br />All techniques measure property and relate it to the equivalent spherical diameter.<br />Select your technique to be the most appropriate for the end use of the data.<br />The Coulter Counter<br />The image above is provided by Beatop (OMEC) Instruments Limited. As found at Beatop (OMEC) Instruments Limited http://www.beatop.com/Particle_Counter/principle_illustration.html<br />
  60. 60. Particle size analysis<br />Malvern<br />Sedimentation/Sedigraph<br />
  61. 61. Particle size analysis<br />
  62. 62. Summary<br /><ul><li>Equivalent spherical diameters
  63. 63. Shape factors
  64. 64. Specific surface area
  65. 65. Size ranges and grades
  66. 66. Normalised distributions
  67. 67. Particle size analysis</li></li></ul><li>Particle Tech Labs<br /><ul><li>Think design not laboratory
  68. 68. Problem given by boss
  69. 69. Might use Perry, C&R 6, etc.
  70. 70. But lab exp to check model, equations…
  71. 71. Model could be good, just your material…
  72. 72. Report to boss ‘model no good’ is NOT GOOD ENOUGH, so what – we still need it</li></li></ul><li>Particle Tech Labs<br /><ul><li>So, design is it over or under?
  73. 73. Does dodgy model matter?
  74. 74. How to improve MODEL, not experiment
  75. 75. 2nd week, you tell us what you want to do
  76. 76. Repeating experiments only checks on reproducibility of experiment, nothing else
  77. 77. Data analysis – assume data until known</li></li></ul><li>Particle Tech Labs<br /><ul><li>References, use Harvard system and minus 6 marks for a Bibliography rather than a Reference section – minus 4 for no references at all. For example,
  78. 78. Bloggs, F., 2008, An anti-gravity machine, Journal of Good Ideas, 123, pp 22-33.
  79. 79. Orals: use PICTURES, do NOT derive equations. Do show flow diagram, etc.</li></li></ul><li>This resource was created by Loughborough University and released as an open educational resource through the Open Engineering Resources project of the HE Academy Engineering Subject Centre. The Open Engineering Resources project was funded by HEFCE and part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER programme.<br />© 2009 Loughborough University<br />This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License. <br />The name of Loughborough University, and the Loughborough University logo are the name and registered marks of the Loughborough University. To the fullest extent permitted by law the Loughborough University reserves all its rights in its name and marks, which may not be used except with its written permission.<br />The JISC logo is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence.  All reproductions must comply with the terms of that licence.<br />The HEA logo is owned by the Higher Education Academy Limited may be freely distributed and copied for educational purposes only, provided that appropriate acknowledgement is given to the Higher Education Academy as the copyright holder and original publisher.<br />
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