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The first lecture in the module Particle Technology, delivered to second year students who have already studied basic fluid mechanics. Some applications of Particle Technology are described, in …

The first lecture in the module Particle Technology, delivered to second year students who have already studied basic fluid mechanics. Some applications of Particle Technology are described, in industry and nature, and particle size analysis and means of representing the data. The format for the laboratory classes for the module and their reports are covered.

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  • 1. Particle Technology
    Professor Richard Holdich
    Watch this lecture at
    Also visit; for further resources.
  • 2. Format
    • 1 Lecture per week,
    • 3. 1 Problem Class – tutorials & self study
    • 4. 1 hour on: Moodle/Learn – tutorials & self study
    • 5. Laboratories (oral, report & experimental)
    • 6. Two hour exam (75% module mark)
  • Exam
    • Two hour exam
    • 7. 3 questions from 5
    • 8. Question 1 obligatory PSD
    • 9. Previous answers old papers on Learn
    • 10. Tutorial problems (& book
  • Lecture topics
    • Particles & Characterisation
    • 11. Dilute particulate systems
    • 12. Hindered systems
    • 13. Fluid flow in porous media/Fluidisation
    • 14. Filtration
    • 15. Membranes & colloids
    • 16. Emulsions, surfaces & dispersions
    • 17. Centrifugal separation
    • 18. Two phase flow, rheology & powders
    • 19. Gas cleaning
    • 20. Comminution & mixing
  • Problem Classes
    • 21.
    • 22. References:
    • 23. 614.83 , 620.43, 621.54, 660.283 & 660.2842
    • 24. Coulson & Richardson Vol 2;
    • 25. Fundamentals of Particle Tech – free pdf book
    • 26. Rhodes, Introduction to Particle Technology
  • Particles & Characterisation
    • Introduction to Particle Technology
    • 27. Equivalent spherical diameters
    • 28. Shape factors
    • 29. Specific surface area
    • 30. Size ranges and grades
    • 31. Normalised distributions
    • 32. Particle size analysis
  • What is Particle Technology?
    Study, characterisation, prediction of properties during the processing of particle dispersions ranging down to sub-microscopic material. It is the extension of mechanics (fluids and solids) into particle containing systems. The term 'particles' includes liquid emulsions, drops, foams, oils, dusts, bubbles, fogs, etc…
    N.B. The definition of a micron, and
    human hair is 70 microns,
    blood cells are 8 microns,
    bacteria are bigger than 0.2 microns
    - all are particles
  • 33. What’s the problem?
  • Equivalent spherical diameters
    • To equate some property of the irregular shaped particle to a sphere with the same property, e.g. same volume as particle:
    Has the same volume as a sphere - hence:
    Note use of x for diameter.
  • 40. Equivalent spherical diameters
    • It is possible to measure volume of a particle by displacement, or electrical resistance of suspension, and equate to that of sphere of same volume.
    • 41. Some other equivalences include projected area, surface area and mass
  • Shape factors
    • Volume of a sphere:
    • 42. Hence volume shape factor is:
    • 43. The volume shape factor for a cube is?
  • Specific surface
    • Specific surface area per unit volume - usually abbreviated to specific surface is the surface area over volume:
    • 44. Hence Sv=6/x as is commonly used.
    • 45. Use density to convert to SMASS
  • Size ranges and grades
  • 46. Size ranges and grades
  • 47. Size ranges and grades
  • 48. Normalised distributions
  • 49. Normalised distributions
  • 50. Normalised distributions
  • 51. Normalised distributions
  • 52. Normalised distributions
  • 53. Normalised distributions
  • 54. Normalised distributions
  • 55. Normalised distributions
  • 56. Normalised distributions
    • Median size 9.2 m
    • 57. Specific surface: 0.944x105 m-1
    • 58. Sauter mean diameter: 6.4 m
  • Normalised distributions
  • 59. Particle size analysis
    All techniques measure property and relate it to the equivalent spherical diameter.
    Select your technique to be the most appropriate for the end use of the data.
    The Coulter Counter
    The image above is provided by Beatop (OMEC) Instruments Limited. As found at Beatop (OMEC) Instruments Limited
  • 60. Particle size analysis
  • 61. Particle size analysis
  • 62. Summary
    • Equivalent spherical diameters
    • 63. Shape factors
    • 64. Specific surface area
    • 65. Size ranges and grades
    • 66. Normalised distributions
    • 67. Particle size analysis
  • Particle Tech Labs
    • Think design not laboratory
    • 68. Problem given by boss
    • 69. Might use Perry, C&R 6, etc.
    • 70. But lab exp to check model, equations…
    • 71. Model could be good, just your material…
    • 72. Report to boss ‘model no good’ is NOT GOOD ENOUGH, so what – we still need it
  • Particle Tech Labs
    • So, design is it over or under?
    • 73. Does dodgy model matter?
    • 74. How to improve MODEL, not experiment
    • 75. 2nd week, you tell us what you want to do
    • 76. Repeating experiments only checks on reproducibility of experiment, nothing else
    • 77. Data analysis – assume data until known
  • Particle Tech Labs
    • References, use Harvard system and minus 6 marks for a Bibliography rather than a Reference section – minus 4 for no references at all. For example,
    • 78. Bloggs, F., 2008, An anti-gravity machine, Journal of Good Ideas, 123, pp 22-33.
    • 79. Orals: use PICTURES, do NOT derive equations. Do show flow diagram, etc.
  • This resource was created by Loughborough University and released as an open educational resource through the Open Engineering Resources project of the HE Academy Engineering Subject Centre. The Open Engineering Resources project was funded by HEFCE and part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER programme.
    © 2009 Loughborough University
    This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License.
    The name of Loughborough University, and the Loughborough University logo are the name and registered marks of the Loughborough University. To the fullest extent permitted by law the Loughborough University reserves all its rights in its name and marks, which may not be used except with its written permission.
    The JISC logo is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence.  All reproductions must comply with the terms of that licence.
    The HEA logo is owned by the Higher Education Academy Limited may be freely distributed and copied for educational purposes only, provided that appropriate acknowledgement is given to the Higher Education Academy as the copyright holder and original publisher.