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# Compost Modern, 2009

## by energyliteracy on Sep 11, 2009

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Slides for talk given at Compost Modern, 2009

Slides for talk given at Compost Modern, 2009

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## Compost Modern, 2009Presentation Transcript

• DESIGN WONT SAVE THE WORLD GO VOLU NTEER AT A SOU PKITCHEN YOU PRETENTIOUS FUCK
• Climate change.Its an aestheticproblem.
• Its a designproblem.
• Put the individual in climate context.
• HOW MUCH POWER DO I USE?
• Energy is measured in Joules (J) Lifting an apple from the ground to the table. ~ 1 Joule
• Power is measured in Watts (W).1 Watt = 1 Joule / second 40 apples per second from the ground to the table = 40 Watts.
• Running this Apple laptop takes 40 Watts.
• The Power of me:Calculating my energy consumptionPower, in Watts, is like an average.The average amount of energy, in Joules, you use each second.If you do something yearly (like ﬂy 105,000 miles), it contributes:168,207 kilometers 1 year 1.40 megajoules Joules 1 year � 31,536,000 seconds � 1 kilometer � 7,462 second = 7,462 WattsIf you do something monthly (like your electricity bill), it contributes:122 kilowatt ·hours 1 month 3.6 megajoules Joules 1 month � 2,952,000 seconds � 1 kilowatt · hour � 170 second = 170 WattsIf you do something daily (like drink 1 Energy drink), it contributes:1 energy drink 1 day 7.84 megajoules Joules 1 day � 86,400 seconds � 1 bottle � 90 second = 90 WattsSo now you can add all these things.Yearly things + Monthly things + Daily things = your lifestyle in watts.
• "Watts per always" 100W Think of your life in light bulbs.... A 12,000 Watt lifestyle is 120 x 100 watt light bulbs burning permanently.
• SFO TO LHR 41 W W LHR- 3 W 4 SF 30 TS SF O ER ATL HE 3 O-A H TH DS LIG SFO 29 ARS L-A W -ATL 60 W O -SF A TL O O ET 1 W W 60 M R RE -CP RK LL A 4 S- 410 W O1 K- ST ASA CE 4 W 160 WO DO AT O 0W H5 G TI Y L- G N AT TAX S S -H G 4W W 10 JU ER W FO O W 3 N N ER W 3 W MY -O 57 E H S A 1 S IR W OT S LE FA 0 SF K W 5 W O- 56 H 2 IC AF E H H - IC BO BO 0 SA .VE NS S- S W G V A RV W SF 21 O ER -SE 0 OA OA K O 21 0 W G ET TAL 10 E K-O DC -DC 0W 8W V S NS RD -M -O AK 18 0 DS 0 W PO FE ON 18 W OO 34 DE QU -QU 0W EG N E-D TW E2 10 HIT ATIO 0 W W UC -SF 6 O2 W ED ANCEBUR-O SFO 10 W FIN -JFK W AK 20 W OAK-BUR 200 680 20 W JFK-SFO ARE W LTHC 200 W HEA SFO-BO W BOS-ORD S 210 W TION 110 70 W RECREA ORD-SFO 14 0W HOUSE 260 W SFO-JFK 200 W JFK-SFO 200 W 230 W MISCSTU SJC-SJO FF1000 W 0W JC 23 SJO-S W 280 BOO -VIJ KS SJC W WA 130 W 280 BIK STED JC ISP VI J-S NE ES WS 6 WW OS TEXTIL AL ES EL 18 A 9 EC 0 W TER 1 W T 90 W TR 60 RAN W ON W SPO 1 40 CO IC S2 RTT OM Y D1 M PU 50 E 4 0W O -S TE W SF RS BO W 70 0 AT 0 CA 31 W W S RS R 0 50 0W WO -D 31 56 W W O WO ERTI 28 FO SF RK 0W AG IN 0 80 HILU 150 W -S TE W 0W RK K HE W 0W O2 .F OA SHOWERS GAS 70 W 0W COOKING GAS 30 W DR RN 31 EL AT 100 X 16 ET O- F MA 24 HT EC 20 TAXIORRENTAL 47 K-S W SF 70 SIG LIZ TER 0W TR YV OA W IC ER A IN UGG A TACO PRIN 41 OTA 50 ND 0W EB GE S W TOY HO DUN My 2007 life: TOYOT AG AG PEST 0 W 0 W DOD . FO CTR ES AG .E CO . BE SS LE ICID FF SU18000 Watts. ER CE ILF OTHER EE LIGHTS GA STERE FR LAPTOP COMPU &W W RE FRIDGE DA UE 0 W HEATIN IC R UIT 50 W S 3 2 FA AL IRY LS ME INE 20 4 TS ,V S& ELEC 8 O ELEC AT 80 ELEC 7 EG AN GGS 10 6 TER EL ELEC 1 G GAS 4 GR TS 9 ELEC 3 &E W DO &N W AIN U IL 0W W S 1W EC 10 16 0W 10 00 W W 0W 0W 0W W W
• Me
• 7 000 000 000 People
• Energy Use by Region energy by region [NorAmer-Eur-MiddEast + NorAfr-CenAme & Car+SouAme+Asia(ex MidEst) ] Power Watts/person 12000 north america 11400 Watts 10000Average Per Person Power in Watts 8000 Europe 5400 Watts 6000 Middle-east & North Africa 2300 Watts 4000 Central America & the Carribean 1800 Watts South America Asia (excluding middle east) 2000 1580 Watts 1450 Watts 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Population in Millions.
• Energy production HumanityUnits shown in Terawatts (TW) 18 TW Gas: 3.2 Coal: 3.6 Nuclear: 0.37 Hydro: 0.36 Wind: 0.06 Solar: 0.016Geothermal: 0.03 Tidal: 0.0005 Plants: 5.2 Oil:5
• Out of equilibrium Atmosphere Atmosphere 600 GtC to Ocean +2 2 GtC/year Soils Carbon to 3000 GtC Atmosphere 8 GtC/year Oceans 40000 GtC Accessible Fossil Fuels 1600 GtC Vegetation 700 GtC
• Atmospheric CO2 concentration. 380 370 360CO concentration (ppm) CO2 Level (ppm) 350 340 Mauna Loa Direct Measurement Hawaii 330 320 Ice Core 20 year Average Law Dome Antarctica 310 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 year Year
• Temperature Changes around the worldin the last quarter of the 20th centuryTrends in °C per decade -1 - 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.4 - 0.2 0 + 0.2 + 0.4 + 0.6 + 0.8 +1 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 +0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8 +1
• The aesthetic choice... The design challenge... ? ? ? ? ?
• Choose your target 1000 ppm 750 ppm 6.0 650 5.5 ppm 5.0 Temperature Rise, degrees Celsius 4.5 550 Entire cities and countries lost to sea levelTemperature Rise, degrees Celsius. ppm 4.0 500 ppm 3.5 20-50% Species Lost 3.0 450 1-4 Billion people face water shortages ppm 2.5 400 15-40% Species Lost ppm 2.0 2.0 1.5 10% Species Lost 1.0 0.5 Scenarios A1B 0.0 A1T A1FI -0.5 A2 B1 -1.0 B2 IS92a 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
• What if we choose? 650 550 450ppm CO2 +2oC (year2000) 368 Preindustrial 280
• Global consumptionSources of renewable energy. 16 TW 85 000 TW Surface Solar 3.5 TW Tidal 41 000 TW 38 000 TW 31 000 TW Evaporation Land & Water heating Atmospheric Absorption 300 TW Hydro Clouds3600 TW Wind 25 TW Hydro Land 32 TW Geo thermal 7.2 TW Hydro Rivers 62 TW Ocean surface waves 90 TW Photosynthesis 25 TW Ocean 65 TW Land 3 TW Coastal waves 100 TW Ocean thermal gradient
• 2033 Energy Mix 16 TWUnits shown in Terawatts (TW) (carbon-free) Nuclear: 3 ear Other 2 Geothermal New Nu cl Biofuels: 0.5 0.5 TW Ne w W 3T s uel 2 lF ssi Fossil Fuels: 2TW Fo Existing Nuclear: 1 other m w Ge Ne 2TWExisting Hydro / cl ear Renewables: 0.5 Exi sting Nu 1TW s a ble enew /R Photo Voltaic ydr H o ng 0. Ex isti 5TW Solar 2 Ne wW ind ola r 2TW S ltaic o-Vo ma l hot r Solar Thermal: 2 Wind:2 P The w Ne olar 2TW wS Ne 2TW
• 2 TW New Photo Voltaic Photo Voltaic 100m² 100m² 100m² ² ² 100m m² 100m m ² ² m² 0m 100 100 m² m² 0 10 ² 00 10 0m 0 ² m 10 1 ² 0 m 10 ² 10 m 0 ² ² 0 10 m 10 m 0 . 0 10 sec ² ² 10 0m m 1 00 m² 10 m² 1 00 00 1 1 ² ² 0m 0m 10 10 m² m² 100 100 ²² 100m 100m 100m²100m²100m² 100m² 100 m² of solar cells 100m²100m²² 100m 100m ² every second for the next 100 100 m m ² 25 years. 15% efficiency, ² 10 10 0 0 m² m² 10 10 0 0 m² good sitting. m² 10 10 0 0 10 m m 10 ² ² 0 0 m m 10 ² 10 ² 0 1 0 m 10 00 m 1 ² 10 00 0 ² m 10 10 m ² 100 0 100 m² ² 100m 0m 100m m² 100m² 100m² 100m² 0m² m² ² ² m ² ²
• 2 TW New Solar Thermal Solar Thermal 50m² 50 m ² 50 m ² ² ² 50 m ² 50 m ² 50 m 50 m m² m² ² 50 m² m 50 ² 50 m ² 50 m 50 ² 50 m ² m 0 ² ² 0 . 5 m sec m 5 0 0 5 ² ² 5 0m 1 m 50 5 m² m² 50 50 m² m² 50 50 ² ² 50 m50 m ² ² 50 m 50 m 50 m ²50 m ²50m²50 m ² 50m² 50 m ²  25 years 50 m² of solar thermal² 50 m 50 m ² mirrors every second for 50 m 50 m ² ² 50 the next 25 years. 30% 50 m² m² 50 50 m² m² 50 efficiency, well sited. 50 m m 5 ² ² 5 0 0 m m ² 5 ² 5 0 0 m 50 50 m ² 50 ² m 50 m 50 ² 50 m² ² 50 m m² 50 m 50 m 50 m m² 50 m ² 50 m ² 50m² m² ² ² ² ²
• 2 TW New Wind Wind ter er met me Dia Dia m m 100 100 er et er et am Di am Di m 0 m 10 0 10 . 6 min100m Diameter 100m Diameter 10 10 0 12 3MW wind turbines in m m 0 Di great locations every hour. Di am am et et er er Or one 100m diameter 100 100 m m Dia Dia turbine every 5 minutes… me met ter er
• 3 TW New Nuclear NuclearMarchSUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT 12 3 4 5 6 7 89 10 12 13 14 15 16 1x 3GW Nuclear plant every17 18 19 20 21 22 23 week for the next 25 years.24 25 26 27 28 29 3031
• 2 TW Geothermal GeothermalMarchSUN MON TUE WED THU FRI SAT 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 3x 100MW steam turbines9 10 12 13 14 15 16 every day for17 18 19 20 21 22 23 next 25 years.24 25 26 27 28 29 3031
• 0.5 TW carbon (net zero) biofuels?. Biofuel 1250m² 1250m² 1250m² m² m² ² ² 0m 0m ² 1250 1250 m² 0m m² 125 m² 125 50 25 ² 50 0m 50 ² 12 m 1 12 ² 50 12 5 m ² m 12 0 ² 12 0 25 ² m 25 m 0 1 0 25 ² . 1 25 sec ² 0m m 1 1 50 512 m² 12 m² 1 50 50 12 12 m² ² 50 0m 12 1 25 m² ² 250 0m 125 1 m² m² 1250 1250 1250m²1250m²1250m² 1250m² 1250 m² or 1 olympic 1250m²1250m²m² 1250 1250 m² swimming pool of algae 125 125 0m 0m ² every second for the next ² 12 12 50 50 m² m² 12 12 50 50 12 m² 25 years. 12 m² 50 50 1 1 25 m 25 m ² ² 0 0 1 m m 1 25 ² ² 25 12 12 0 0 12 m 50 12 m 50 ² 12 12 ² 5 m 125 50 125 m 0m 1250 ² 50 1250 1250m² 1250m² 1250m² 50 ² m² ² m² 0m m² 0m m² m² ² ²
• km 10000 2000 4000 6000 8000 00 RUS2000 CHN CAN USA4000 BRA AUS IND ARG6000 KAZ DZA SDN COD SAU MEX IDN LBY IRN MNG PER NER TCD8000 AGO MLI ZAF BOL COL MRT ETH EGY NGA TZA VEN NAM MOZ PAK TUR CHL ZMB MMR AFG SOM CAF MDG UKR KEN BWA FRA YEM THA ESP TKM10000 CMR PNG MAR IRQ UZB SWE Land area by country represented as scaled stripes GRL PRY ZWE JPN DEU COG MYS VNM CIV OMN POL NOR FIN PHL ITA ECU BFA NZL ESH GAB GIN GBR LAO ROM GHA BLR UGA GUY SEN KGZ SYR KHM URY SUR TUN NPL TJK BGD GRC NIC PRK HND BGR BEN CUB GTM YUG ERI ISLkm KOR LBR MWI HUN PRT JOR ARE AUT AZE CZE PAN SLE GEO IRL LKA LTU LVA HRV TGO BIH CRI DOM SVK BTN DNK EST CHE TWN NLD MDA BEL LSO ARM GNB GNQ SLB HTI ALB MKD BDI RWA DJI ISR BLZ SLV FJI SVN KWT TLS SWZ JAM QAT VUT GMB BHS LBN PSE PRI CYP SGP FSM BHR TON KIR DMA STP HGK MUS COM LUX WSM CPV TTO BRN 2TW Wind 5TW Solar 1TW Hydro 2TW Biofuels “Renewistan” - 10TW
• US energy consumption (TeraWatts)3.5 Sep.11.2001.3 Recession.2.5 Oil Crises.21.5 Depression.10.50 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 "The Game Plan" slideset release 1.01, March 21 2008 67
• 2008The year of peak waste
• If the average Americanwere to leave home eachmorning with a backpackfull of the fuel they need-ed for their day:Oil = 31 kg, 67 lb.Coal = 29 kg, 63 lb.Gas = 6 kg, 12 lb.11 400 Watts.
• SFO TO LHR 41 W W LHR- 3 W 4 SF 30 TS SF O ER ATL HE 3 O-A H TH DS LIG SFO 29 ARS L-A W -ATL 60 W O -SF A TL O O ET 1 W W 60 M R RE -CP RK LL A 4 S- 410 W O1 K- ST ASA CE 4 W 160 WO DO AT O 0W H5 G TI Y L- G N AT TAX S S -H G 4W W 10 JU ER W FO O W 3 N N ER W 3 W MY -O 57 E H S A 1 S IR W OT S LE FA 0 SF K W 5 W O- 56 H 2 IC AF E H H - IC BO BO 0 SA .VE NS S- S W G V A RV W SF 21 O ER -SE 0 OA OA K O 21 0 W G ET TAL 10 E K-O DC -DC 0W 8W V S NS RD -M -O AK 18 0 DS 0 W PO FE ON 18 W OO 34 DE QU -QU 0W EG N E-D TW E2 10 HIT ATIO 0 W W UC -SF 6 O2 W ED ANCEBUR-O SFO 10 W FIN -JFK W AK 20 W OAK-BUR 200 680 20 W JFK-SFO ARE W LTHC 200 W HEA SFO-BO W BOS-ORD S 210 W TION 110 70 W RECREA ORD-SFO 14 0W HOUSE 260 W SFO-JFK 200 W JFK-SFO 200 W 230 W MISCSTU SJC-SJO FF1000 W 0W JC 23 SJO-S W 280 BOO -VIJ KS SJC W WA 130 W 280 BIK STED JC ISP VI J-S NE ES WS 6 WW OS TEXTIL AL ES EL 18 A 9 EC 0 W TER 1 W T 90 W TR 60 RAN W ON W SPO 1 40 CO IC S2 RTT OM Y D1 M PU 50 E 4 0W O -S TE W SF RS BO W 70 0 AT 0 CA 31 W W S RS R 0 50 0W WO -D 31 56 W W O WO ERTI 28 FO SF RK 0W AG IN 0 80 HILU 150 W -S TE W 0W RK K HE W 0W O2 .F OA SHOWERS GAS 70 W 0W COOKING GAS 30 W DR RN 31 EL AT 100 X 16 ET O- F MA 24 HT EC 20 TAXIORRENTAL 47 K-S W SF 70 SIG LIZ TER 0W TR YV OA W IC ER A IN UGG A TACO PRIN 41 OTA 50 ND 0W EB GE S W TOY HO DUN My 2007 life: TOYOT AG AG PEST 0 W 0 W DOD . FO CTR ES AG .E CO . BE SS LE ICID FF SU18000 Watts. ER CE ILF OTHER EE LIGHTS GA STERE FR LAPTOP COMPU &W W RE FRIDGE DA UE 0 W HEATIN IC R UIT 50 W S 3 2 FA AL IRY LS ME INE 20 4 TS ,V S& ELEC 8 O ELEC AT 80 ELEC 7 EG AN GGS 10 6 TER EL ELEC 1 G GAS 4 GR TS 9 ELEC 3 &E W DO &N W AIN U IL 0W W S 1W EC 10 16 0W 10 00 W W 0W 0W 0W W W
• Insight up gy ick g bu ne ap Honda du ot en toy g wa ks er H l d dd trip er vo or la e rs ov re e y k nc ep ast tre we ec la r hisl ke io st s po honpatuolletlbow ot w p AS ns m istm tma te uin na r ex m alch hrisrry g alu tur ialc ca eba ic e c tif as n ar uitc fere lla st ne s n re e co mb lChpho boo chrina u oo sk m ru llp ers intr snwuga ce bb pa ndgklmkrkr n taateo e laean ictenn vinlebne inlscmo n c n eta nstaakp Fr b ing oo mduhuspp r itc s sp wosec apee pp baok g r upe ceixc so yc K ll kit u in s fr r b eesappk nn e etep intchffh Wmoleaaic h id wcttn odbcueitc ma ed tele tao repin sb kec slaeinn tesareg tus hfo lagcteolo tt aoelaceif e ol sg te d peeurif laoo pdkleten k t le sbs ll aabmns sprlaskan Greope gulop creotanif o o b rk eproeiv o P sto ed TR T de ba somp es pr es coo c plantp pla ots rge ofab ing ntpotla s irdin ble tin gk din a ta ch ing itc he n sit g fallow oorru h nc So pi nfl f be l e ole he ram wo oksfutonf ame Boodenlfutonfr ss ttre nma wo eta m futo ChairWood) ( er it beltleath crocsshoes Table oolSu MenW opants menso t cks carg llaredar rtst- shirat t ensco erwe nshocks woolh ebrimha d me shir tm enunhoes so wid Shoes m rs oots leathe Hat et uggb s len pant Woocoatjack lls per oachveralls overa axedpa Watch-C il clingwrapsaran w erroll co fo toiletpap aluminum d er washingpow detergent teacandle Book conditionerthpastesheetsofpaper tooframed se rt Papercup a hampoo (mhbrush l) CDjewelca e ardgam Toot lfball bo ll tennisba go lftee go d tennisrac ket surfb cycle oar r motogerbag n esse le lephantet BikemGolfClubinflaotabrcyeclehelm s rs m to e Pap ws Ne e s in an az e ag in ar Re M o uter gaz m ly a th m m n ee p on ta rly m Dr Oveerahine cr ns Co frig ac p r r tio te n to p ec m Ca e kto oj ar pr on es g t qu Ph D p s PHYSICAL STUFF ye cle La ile ob hin M y as Bic House W ~2500 Watts
• Consumption FactsContainer Mass 1.58oz (44.9g)Components per container 3Embodied Energy Per ContainerTotal 4,609,420 JoulesPETE 38.81g 3,962,400 JoulesHDPE 4.83g 497,500 JoulesCellulosic 1.34g 149,520 JoulesRecycle rate 23%Landfill rate 43%Energy recovery rate 16%Lost to environmental waste 18%Personal Energy Footprint % Daily Value*Total 4.54%Transport (avg.estimated) 0.69%Manufacture 0.46%Embodied Energy 2.67%Refrigeration (avg.estimated) 0.71%* Personal Energy Footprint is based on a recommended 2000Watt lifestyle.The average US consumer has a 11400 Watt lifestyle.! Consuming this product daily is equivalent to increasing yourenergy footprint by 90 Watts.Also contains per bottlePlasticizers 43mg†Estrogen 0.12mg†Carcinogenic Dye 0.19mg†† Safe daily values not yet established.
• we need tore-designeverything...
• TRAVEL IN A VACUUM. MAKE IT SMALL. MAKE IT FISH SHAPED. MAKE IT SLOW.
• MAKE IT INSULATE. MAKE IT COLD. MAKE IT SMALL. MAKE THICK WALLS.
• Theres a known and reasonably predictable amount of carbon left to burn: coal oil gas future future CO2 ppm = CO2 ppm + 0.2 x TWy + 0.15 x TWy + 0.11 x TWy 1 TWy = 1 Terawatt Year = 3.16 x 1019 Joules.
• 1 Joule of fossil energy used produces 4.9x10 -21 ppm increase.How many ppm to replace every gasoline car in the world (1bN) with a1000kg electric vehicle? = 0.49 ppmHow many ppm for 250 million new green homes? = 8.9 ppmHow many ppm for installing :5TW solar = 6.1 ppm3TW wind = 0.55 ppm2TW geothermal = 0.49 ppmSo there is + 19 ppm right there. Scary.Might be good to ask questions of form:How many ppm for 6 bN new laptops? = 0.05 ppm6 bN cellphones? = 0.03 ppm6 bN 100 Watt lightbulbs burning for 1 year? = 0.2ppm
• Sustainable needs to bebased on real solutions.
• You better start gettingcomfortable withnumbers and analysis.