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    Archi slides jan 2013 web version Archi slides jan 2013 web version Presentation Transcript

    • Investigating community led energy demand reduction initiatives through the lens of “energy biographies” Prof. Karen Henwood Dr Catherine Butler Dr Karen Parkhill Dr Fiona Shirani Prof. Nick PidgeonArchitecture 9 January 2013
    • Energy Biographies Research Objectives1. Develop understanding of energy use by investigating and comparing peoples different ‘energy biographies’ across a range of social settings2. Examine how existing demand reduction interventions interact with peoples personal biographies and histories.3. Develop improved understanding of how different community types can support reductions in energy consumption …We are also exploring the usefulness of innovative (narrative, longitudinal and visual) methods for researching energy demand
    • Theoretical Background • Social phenomena are socially co-constructed, fluid, Practice Theory negotiated and contextual – this process is relational(e.g. Bourdieu, Shove) • Social change and continuity as social reproduction • Practices develop in conjunction with ‘others’Biography and the • ‘‘Biographies are rooted in an analysis of social history Life course and the wellsprings of individual personality, [they] reach backward and forward in time, documenting processes(e.g. Chamberlayne) and experiences of social change” • Practice is contingent upon and produced within Temporality and historical processes that also provide the conditions of Space possibility for future continuities and changes. • Transitional processes play out in particular places and(e.g. Adam, Massey) through different forms of community
    • Theoretical development: Identity and Energy Consumption‘Consumption comprises a set of practices which permit people to express self-identity, mark attachment to social groups, accumulate resources, exhibit social distinction, ensure participation in social activities, and more besides. However, these processes bear primarily on the way that individuals select among the vast array of alternative items made available in the form of commodities and their symbolic communicative potential…. ‘…Only at best obliquely and indirectly does the purchase or use of water, coal, gas or electricity confer self-identity, mark attachment to social groups or exhibit social distinction.’ (Shove and Warde, 2001)
    • Identity Production in Theory and Method Time, texture and biography Shaping of psychosocial in identity construction / spaces (Masco) Identities in the making (Henwood) Fateful Risk & identity futures moments/ (Henwood and Pidgeon) turning points (Thompson and Culture, consumption & Holland) identity - the extended critiques (Wetherell) Identity processes in Intergenerational Individualisation &social change identities, cultural self-growth - the art of and heritage & social living (Holstein &consumption reproduction Gubrium) (Warde)
    • Life-histories, social histories: An integrative identitystudies framework within social psychology (Wetherell, 1996)Processes under investigation• The making of individual identity (life history) & the broad formation of social identities (social history)• “to consider precisely how all that made society connects with all that made me” (p300)Key questions• How are people positioned as they develop?• How do we come to be where we currently inhabit?Accounts given/examined• = of the particulars of a life - to explain people’s life choices to go one way or the other
    • Wetherell’s three different arenas of study & analytic resourcesThe making of a life : the weight of socialhistory•Personality & social practices Family life and subject positionsFamily life and subject positions
    • Case SitesPeterston and ElyCaerau, Cardiff Royal Free Hospital, LondonTir Y Gafel Eco-village,Pembrokeshire
    • Methods • Follow up • These involve Phase 2a: interviews 5 AND interviews and Narrative 10 months with a informal meetings Interviews selected sample with case site from each case representatives December 2011- site. Participants and a wider range April 2012 are being asked to of stakeholders to • 18-30 initial engage in a range provide detailed narrative of other multi contextual interviews in modal methods information. each case site (e.g. photographs) area (n=68) Phase 1: Scoping Phase 2b: ExtendedStakeholder Interviews Biographies & July 2011-December Multimodal Method 2011 May 2012-February 2013
    • Phase 1: Developing Relationships• Case Site Representatives – initial meetings • Also full participants in longitudinal research• Advisory Panel• Community Volunteering• Sustaining Relationships(e.g. Christmas cards) This is a community newsletter developed by Karen Parkhill for Futurespace
    • Phase 2: Narrative Interview Themes1. Community and Context • Talk through how they came to live in their current home/area, how they characterise their community(s) • Connections – e.g. who they live with/is in their family • Discussion points specific to the particular case area2. Daily routine • Talk through in detail to get an understanding of energy use and practices • Discuss how this varies for atypical times/events e.g. Christmas, weekends3. Life transitions • What have been the key events/turning points that have resulted in a lifestyle change? • How might lifestyles and transitions differ for future generations?
    • Phase 3: Qualitative Longitudinal1. Initial interview – establishing energy biographies through a focus on three themes: • Community and context • Daily routine • Life transitions2. Second interview – a detailed focus on everyday energy use • Discussion of important life changes since interview 1 • Exploring everyday energy use through participant generated photographs • Following up emerging themes from interview 1: waste, frugality and guilt3. Third interview – exploring futures • Discussion of important life changes since interview 2 • Exploring everyday routines through text-prompted photographs • Expanded talk about the future (both personal and social), facilitated through video clips
    • Phase 3: Multi-modal Methods1. Activity 1 – participant-generated photos • Participants were asked to take photographs of things they felt related to energy use in relation to four themes • Two week period for each theme. Participants were sent texts to remind them of the theme • Pictures then formed the basis for discussion in interview 2‘I found it quite useful having the groups you know the focuses I think cos otherwise Iwould have yeah I think I’d have kind of tailed off’ Emmanuelle
    • Phase 3: Multi-modal Methods2. Activity 2 – text-prompted photos • Text messages sent to participants at 10 intervals between August-November 2012 asking them to take a picture of what they were doing at the time • From these pictures we created photo narratives, to be discussed with participants in interview 3
    • Phase 3: Multi-modal Methods3. Activity 3 – video clips • During interview 3 participants are shown clips from a 1950s and 2010s version of what a home of the future might look like • The clips facilitate talk about the future, which can otherwise be difficult to discuss
    • Analytic Approaches• Coding and thematic analysis• Case biographies• Qualitative Longitudinal• Multi-modal
    • Coding
    • Insights from Coding (Dis)Connected Futures?Caroline: My little one [great grandchild]… she’s quite good even with recycling she knows exactly which bin you know from an early age watch me doing the black bin and the green bin and she’ll say to me “which bin nanny green or black”? Which is great, if the kids start doing it you know so its just educating them … I think it’s just instead of nagging them just sort of gently remind them about their future more than the money.Interviewer: Is that what you say to your children and grandchildren about what they should do?Caroline: Yeah I usually say it’s not about the money, which it is as well but like I said it’s more important that you’ve got a future for your kids.Interviewer: What’s their response to that?Caroline: Quite good actually yeah because … he absolutely adores his daughter so anything that would jeopardise her future I think he listens to.
    • Insights from Coding Community – Presences and AbsencesLammas FuturespaceLammas aims to establish a thriving Futurespace Ely and Caerau is a group setexample of low-impact development, up by a core group of enthusiasticproviding an educational resource pointing volunteers who are passionate aboutthe way for truly sustainable rural bringing communities together anddevelopments of the future. The project promoting sustainable living; we arehas been designed to run on permaculture supported by the local Communities Firstprinciples. The land will be developed to team who are helping us to carry ourimprove the synergy of the different vision forward. Futurespace aims tohabitats across the site, simultaneously generate a sustainable future in Wales byenhancing bio-diversity and leading to an working with communities in Ely andincreased but sustainable yield from the Caerau. There are two key goals - to reduceland. Where there is currently degraded the use of natural resources and to addressagricultural pasture, Lammas plans to the issue of fuel poverty in the local area.create a landscape of vitality andabundance.
    • Insights from Coding Community – External Group Identity Work“Alright Futurespace would obviously get the tariffs but then if you’rein business you want to make money don’t you”“Mind a lot of people were a bit taken aback with it because there’san old saying: you don’t get anything for nothing and because it wasfree…it was hard to convince them that…it was ok; people get a bitsuspicious about things for nothing and that was quite sort of eyeopening”
    • Insights from Coding:External group identity work at Lammas
    • Case Biographies
    • Insights from Case Biographies - MaryUnderstanding Travel Practices “We had previously lived in the Midlands…and had decided that we were both ready to job move and Roger was head-hunted… Well we needed to be close enough to Roger’s place of work and I got a job…” “…I would have liked to have lived in the City… I had never lived in a city, so I was quite keen to try… but Roger very much didnt want to live in the City and he was right… we made some good friends here and Im quite involved in some of the activities, it was a good decision.” Mary – Peterston, Cardiff
    • Insights from Case Biographies - Mary Following the Narrative “That is my one, yeah, if you asked me what was the one thing where my preference to be environmentally friendly goes out of the window then it is travel for a number of reasons. My Mum-in-Law is ninety and lives in Essex. My Mum is eighty three and lives in Durham and both of them need regular visits so I do do a lot of miles and my horse is not close, so I also do a fair amount of miles more frequently to him” “Roger died in 2005 and I stopped work two years ago now… because weve got lots of friends here and because it was the house that we sort of created together I suppose, I would find it difficult to move…. But eventually… the house is big and the garden is big… My brother and his wife live in the US, so its great when they come over…” Mary – Peterston, Cardiff
    • Insights from Case BiographiesThe Long View on Change to Travel Practices
    • Qualitative Longitudinal and Multi-Modal
    • Insights from Qualitative Longitudinal“And recently the job situation, that’s changed that dramatically, of me being hereall the time, you know, obviously looking for work … I’m finding that I’m in thehouse a lot more because I can do it all at a touch of a button … And I am quitewary about having things on whilst I’m here, I’m using too much energy whilstI’m here, because it’s only going to have a knock on effect because I wouldn’t bedoing that if I was at work. I wouldn’t be watching the telly if I was at work, Iwouldn’t have the heating on if I was there. And at a time where I need things tobe going down, it’s going to, you know, it’s going to rocket.” (Lauren, interview 1)“Yeah I mean obviously the main thing is not being here all day so there’s 8/10hours out of the day that I’m not even in the house so I don’t tend to use theenergy, and then obviously when I come home its cooking, watching the telly orgoing on the laptop and then pretty much going to bed so I don’t really use it a lot… so yeah it’s obviously a huge difference not being in the house for eight hoursand not having to use that time to look for jobs and things like that as well youknow, going on the internet and things so yeah.” (Lauren, interview 2)
    • Insights from Qualitative LongitudinalUnderstanding Temporalities and Action ‘I will usually travel in once or twice a week by bus, once or twice a week by bike and the rest of the day is by car, depending on what my work commitments are. If I don’t need the car I try to avoid using it.’ (Jeremy, Interview 1) ‘No I don’t think it has except perhaps made me feel guilty about car use, that’s been a function of the [volunteer activity] stuff as well because normally I probably travelled in half the week by bike or public transport and used the car when I needed to go somewhere now I have more meetings that are at half past 5, 6 o’clock in [another town] so there are more days when I need to rush out of work and jump in the car and go there.’ (Jeremy, interview 2)
    • Insights from Qualitative Longitudinal Multi-ModalLammas, 2ndInterview – photo-elicitation
    • Conclusions• Energy Biographies as a lens that can help us to: – Better understand the “lived” nature of energy system transitions – Generate insights into how energy demand is formulated and how ‘interventions’ – both new and already existing – effect practice – Better understand “community” and its significance for energy demand reduction – Create a bridge between policies of demand reduction and the realities of everyday life
    • For more information please visit our website at: www.energybiographies.org