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Manual original Aerogerador Skystream 3.7

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Manual original do aerogerador residencial Skystream 3.7 fabricado por Southwest Windpower e distribuido no Brasil pela Energia Pura http://www.energiapura.com

Manual original do aerogerador residencial Skystream 3.7 fabricado por Southwest Windpower e distribuido no Brasil pela Energia Pura http://www.energiapura.com

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  • 1. TMOWNER’S MANUAL Installation Operation Maintenance Southwest Windpower, Inc. 1801 West Route 66 Flagstaff, Arizona 86001 Phone: 928.779.9463 Fax: 928.779.1485 www.skystreamenergy.com  August 2007 Southwest Windpower, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • 2. Southwest WindpowerCongratulations on your purchase and welcome to our family!Dear Skystream 3.7™ Owner,Thank you for your purchase of Skystream. You have just selected the most technologically advanced, cost-effective renewable energy appliance availablefor a home or small business. We congratulate you on your choice and are confident you will experience years of dependable service.Before going any further, please complete and return the enclosed Warranty Registration Card. The conditions of your warranty are dependentupon the proper installation of Skystream. Furthermore, this will assure you of being kept up-to-date with the latest developments from SouthwestWindpower. These include new options, performance tips, updated software to maximize output and user notices. It is important to know that we do notsell or distribute your information to any third party. We understand your privacy is important.If you have any questions or comments, we would like to hear from you. Please call during working hours (Monday-Friday – 8:00am to 5:00pm MountainStandard Time). Our number is 928-779-9463, toll-free 866-807-9463.Again, welcome to our family and thank you for investing in the future of wind energy with Skystream.Sincerely,Southwest Windpower Skystream Installation Manual 3-CMLT-1054 Enter the serial and model number below Revision: H Serial Number __________________________________ Model Number __________________________________ Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 3
  • 3. IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONSREAD THESE INSTRUCTIONS IN THEIR ENTIRETY BEFORE INSTALLING OR OPERATING. Professional installation highly recommended 1) SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS. This manual contains important instructions for Skystream that must be followed during installation and maintenance. In this manual 2) Read, understand and respect all warnings. 3) Do not install Skystream around standing water. IMPORTANT: 4) Do not install Skystream on a windy day. Please take note 5) Install Skystream in accordance with National Electric Code (NEC) and local building codes. 6) Always obtain a building permit before construction. TIP: Helpful information 7) When moving Skystream or any heavy objects to the site, use a cart to prevent back injury. to ease the installation 8) If unusual noise or abnormal operation is observed from Skystream, turn off the machine and contact authorized service personnel. Professional installation highly recommended 9) Shut Skystream “OFF” if ice accumulates on blades to avoid possible injury resulting from ice flying off blades. Warning: Risk of injury or 10) This wind generator complies with international safety standards and therefore the death - proceed with extreme design or its installation must never be compromised. caution a. Do not open the inverter cover, doing so without factory authorization will void the warranty. b. Apply the proper torque to all fasteners. c. Torque field wire connections to Skystream to 20-25 inch-lbs. (2.3-2.5 N-m). Refer to Electrical Connections section of this manual (Section 2-1-2). d. Install only on a Professional Engineer (PE) certified tower. e. Do not paint the blades.11) Use only proper grounding techniques as established by the NEC.12) Properly complete the warranty registration card; failure to complete and return the card may affect your warranty.13) Skystream must be installed in accordance with this manual and local and national building codes. Failure to comply with the manual and local codes will affect and possibly void your warranty.14) Skystream uses high voltage and is potentially dangerous. Be sure to use all safety precautions at all times.4 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 4. Contents APPENDICESImportant Safety Instructions ______________________________ 4 Appendix A: Electrical DiagramsSkystream 3.7 Specifications ______________________________ 6-7 1 Grid Connection Option A _________________________ 3 2 Grid Connection Option B ________________________ 41) BEFORE INSTALLATION ______________________________ 8 3 Grid Connection Option C ________________________ 5 4 Grid Connection Option D _________________________ 6 1-1 Package Contents _______________________________ 8 5 Grid Connection Option E _________________________ 7 1-2 Recommended Tools _____________________________ 9 6 Battery Charging Option A ________________________ 8 1-3 Skystream Options _______________________________ 10 7 Battery Charging Option B ________________________ 9 1-4 Skystream Project Preparation _____________________ 11 8 Battery Charging Option C ________________________ 10 1-4-1 Finding the Best Location for Your Skystream ___ 11 9 Battery Charging Option D ________________________ 11 1-4-2 Tower Types _______________________________ 12 10 Battery Charging, Grid Connected Option A __________ 12 1-4-3 Working With Your Utility ____________________ 12 11 Battery Charging, Grid Connected Option B __________ 13 1-4-4 Working With Your Local Zoning Authority ______ 12 12 Battery Charging, Grid Connected Option C __________ 14 13 Skystream Block Diagram _________________________ 152) INSTALLATION ______________________________________ 13 2-1 Electrical _______________________________________ 13 Appendix B: Tower Grounding 2-1-1 Wiring _____________________________________ 13 1 Introduction ______________________________________ 4 2-1-2 Electrical Connections _______________________ 15 2 Grounding Techniques _____________________________ 4 2-1-3 Wire Sizing _________________________________ 17 2-1-4 Grounding _________________________________ 17 Appendix C: Compliance/Certification Documents 2-1-5 Fusing/Circuit Breaker ______________________ 17 1 UL (US & Canada) ________________________________ 1 2-1-6 Battery Charging ___________________________ 18 2 CE (Europe) _____________________________________ 2 2-1-6-1 Battery Charging Option A _________________ 19 2-1-6-2 Battery Charging Option B_________________ 20 2-1-6-3 Battery Charging Option C ________________ 21 2-1-7 Batter Voltage Sensor Installation _____________ 22 2-2 Installing Skystream on a Tower ____________________ 23 2-2-1 Mounting Skystream to the Tower ______________ 24 2-3 Testing on the Ground ___________________________ 24 2-3-1 Electrical Test ______________________________ 24 2-4 Blade, Nosecone and Antenna Assembly _____________ 26-273) OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE _____________________ 28 3-1 Key Operating Characteristics ______________________ 28 3-2 Electronic Stall Regulations ________________________ 29 3-3 Redundant Relay Switch Control ____________________ 29 3-4 Shutting Down the Skystream for Maintenance________ 30-31 3-5 Frequently Asked Questions _______________________ 32 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 5
  • 5. Skystream 3.7TM Technical Specifications Model Skystream 3.7 PERFORMANCE GRAPH Rated Capacity 1.8 kW rated 2.4 kW peak 2.5 Weight 170 lbs. / 77 kg 2.4 Rotor Diameter 12 feet / 3.72 meters 2.1 1.8 Power (kw) Swept Area 115.7 ft 2 / 10.87 m2 1.5 Type Downwind rotor with stall regulation control 1.2 0.9 Direction of Rotation Clockwise looking upwind 0.6 Blades 3 Fiberglass reinforced composite 0.3 0 Rated Speed 50 - 330 rpm mph 0 11 22.3 33.5 44.75 60 67.1 m/s 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Shutdown Speed 370 rpm Wind Speed Tip Speed 66 - 213 f/s / 9.7 - 63 m/s Alternator Slotless permanent magnet brushless Yaw Control Passive ENERGY CHART Grid Feeding Southwest Windpower Utility Interactive 120/240 VAC 50-60 Hz 900 and 120/208 VAC, 60 Hz, 3 Ph. 800 kW hours per month Braking System Electronic stall regulation w/redundant relay switch control 700 600 Cut-in Wind Speed 8 mph / 3.5 m/s 500 Rated Wind Speed 20 mph / 9 m/s 400 300 User Control Wireless 2 way interface remote system 200 Survival Wind Speed 140 mph / 63 m/s 100 Total Harmonic Distortion 2.7% at 2400W, meets UL1741 and IEEE1547.1requirements. 0 mph 5.6 7.9 10 12.3 14.5 16.8 19 21.2 23.5 24.6 Frequency Accuracy +/- 0.02 Hz m/s 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11 Average Annual Wind Speed Voltage Accuracy +/- 2.0 V (line to neutral) Surge Rating IEEE 1547 Surge Rating B6 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 6. Skystream 3.7TM Technical Specifications (continued) Voltage and Frequency Trip Points Condition Value Units Trip Time (sec) Voltage stop minimum 105.6 volts 1.5 Voltage stop maximum 132 volts 0.75 Voltage fast stop minimum 60 volts 0.117 Voltage fast stop maximum 144 volts 0.117 Voltage start minimum 106.6 volts — Voltage start maximum 127 volts — Frequency stop minimum 59.3 Hz 0.1 Frequency stop maximum 60.5 Hz 0.1 Frequency start minimum 59.4 Hz — Frequency start maximum 60.4 Hz — Minimum Start Time after grid fault 300 seconds — Tower Data (Loads calculated at 145 mph - 65 m/s) Note: Loads do not include safety factor. Southwest Windpower recommends minimum safety factor of 1.5 Shaft Thrust 2802 N 630 lbs Downward 932 N 210 lbs Bending Moment 1532 N.M. 1130 ft-lb Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 7
  • 7. One - Before InstallationInstructions in this guide apply to the following Skystream Land and Box Two: Skystream 3.7 wind generator assemblyMarine models: ● Box dimensions: 40”L x 22”W x 27”H (102 cm L x 56 cm W x 69 cm H)● 120/240VAC, 60Hz ● Weight: 175 lbs (80 kg)● 120/208VAC, 60Hz● 230VAC, 50Hz Your Skystream comes in several versions in accordance with local utility● 120VAC, 60Hz requirements. Be sure to inspect the package and confirm you have the right voltage and frequency. If you have ANY questions, call your dealer orPlease specify “land” or “marine” and voltage and frequency when ordering the factory before continuing.parts or requesting service as components differ.1-1 Package ContentsBefore you begin, inspect the contents to make sure there is no damageor missing parts.● Identify the parts of your Skystream system using the information on the next two pages.● Inspect for damage and/or missing parts.Your Skystream wind generator is shipped in two boxes:Box One: rotor blades (three each)● Box dimensions: 76” L x 15” W x 12” H (193 cm x 38 cm x 31 cm)● Weight: 40 lbs (18 kg)Upon opening, carefully inspect each of the blades to make sure thereare no fractures or cracks in the surfaces. Although the Skystream rotorblades are comprised of a durable compression molded fiberglass, damagecan occur to the blades during shipping. Once inspected, be sure to setthem away from the construction site and protect them from any damageuntil they are ready for assembly.8 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 8. Your Skystream shipment includes:Your Skystream shipment includes the following components. A spare of each fastener (bolt, washer or nut) is included. Thequantities indicated below are quantities required to assemble Skystream:RF Antenna Yaw vibration isolators with mounting hardware ● Vibration Isolators (quantity 8)Loctite 242 ® ● M12-1.75 x 90 hex head bolt, grade 10.9 (quantity 8) ● M12-1.75 nuts, grade 10.9 (quantity 8)Turbine assembly with blade hub, retaining nut, blade plate ● M12 flat washers, A2 stainless steel (quantity 8)and nosecone ● M12 lock washers, A2 stainless steel (quantity 8) ● M12 snubbing washers (quantity 8)Blades and blade mounting hardware ● M10-1.5 x 120 socket head bolts, grade 10.9 (quantity 12)* Yaw shield (two halves) with mounting hardware ● M10-1.5 nuts, grade 10.9 (quantity 12) ● M5-0.8x12 button head screws (quantity 4) ● M10 flat washers, A2 stainless steel (quantity 12) ● M10 lock washer, A2 stainless steel (quantity 12) Strain relief cover assembly with mounting hardware ● Blade plate ● Strain relief cover with ground wire ● Blade hub ● M5-0.8 x 12 socket head bolt (quantity 4) ● M42, hub nut ● M5 lock washer A2 stainless steel (quantity 4)Nose cone with mounting hardware ● M6-1.0 x 12 socket head bolts, grade 8.8 (quantity 3) TIP: See exploded view on pages 26-27*Three blade bolts are shipped on blade hub, not in bolt kit bag.1-2 Recommended ToolsYou will need the following tools to complete assembly of Skystream and install on the tower: ● 17 and 19 mm combination wrenches ● Torque wrench, 0-100 lb-ft (135 N-m) ● 19 mm socket for torque wrench ● Torque wrench, 0-50 lb-inch ( 5.6 N-m) ● Wire stripper, cutter ● 8 mm “allen” socket for torque wrench ● Phillips head screwdriver ● 3, 4, 5 & 8 mm allen wrenches ● Flat blade screwdriver socket for torque wrench ● Multi-meterNote: This list does not include tools you will need for the construction of the tower or wire trench. Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 9
  • 9. 1-3 Skystream OptionsThere are a number of options that can enhance the experience of using a Skystream wind appliance. Although your Skystream willoperate without them, we suggest reviewing this chapter. Contact Southwest Windpower or your dealer if you have questions. Wireless Remote Display The optional remote display allows you to observe Skystream’s performance in real time. You can also collect data such as KWh per day, per month and per year. The display wirelessly connects via a 900 MHz frequency and works up to 1000 feet (305 m). Actual range may depend on local conditions. TM r e m o t e i n t e r f a c e Remote Monitoring escape status There are a number of benefits to remote monitoring. A subscription to Fat Spaniel Technology allows a third www.skystreamenergy.com enter party company to monitor the performance of your Skystream and communicate with a local dealer in the event there is a problem. Additionally, for states with “green tags” you could receive added revenue for each KWh your Skystream produces. Contact your dealer or Southwest Windpower directly for more information. USB Converter & DataLogger Software The USB converter allows you to connect the remote display to your computer and monitor Skystream real time. Specialized software allows you to create your own power curves, monitor performance remotely and even download and transmit the latest software directly to your Skystream to maximize performance. To connect Skystream to your computer, you must also use the wireless remote. Battery Voltage Sensor The battery voltage sensor enables use of Skystream with battery based or battery backed systems. Sensor monitors battery voltage and sends charging information to Skystream by rapid frequency. Tower Adaptor The tower adaptor allows you to attach your Skystream to a tower constructed of 5 inch schedule 40 pipe. Nominal internal diameter of 5 inch (12.7 cm).Images shown are not to scale.10 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 10. 1-4 Skystream Project PreparationThere are several considerations before you begin the installation process VERY IMPORTANT: Proper siting is essential to a well performing windof your Skystream. These considerations are more important if you intend generator.to connect your machine to the electrical utility. Although Skystream is UL1741and IEEE 1547 certified, your local utility and zoning authority mayrequire additional information prior to installation. This chapter will providean overview of what to expect when working with your zoning authority The taller the tower, the more energy your Skystream will produce. Butand utility. Southwest Windpower has a number of resources that may keep in mind, this will also increase the cost of the installation. It isassist you in the permitting and interconnection processes. extremely important to balance performance (tower height) to installed cost in order for you to achieve the lowest cost of energy and quickestTo learn more go to: www.skystreamenergy.com payback. Also, keep in mind zoning regulations that may restrict the height of your tower. See section 1-4-4 regarding zoning.1-4-1 Finding the Best Location for Your Skystream Our General Rule: For optimal performance, Skystream should be 20 feetWe have worked at simplifying the installation process of Skystream, but (7 m) above any surrounding object within a 250 foot (76 m) radius.each installation is likely to be different. Skystream may require a differenttower depending on trees, obstructions and soil types. TIP: Your dealer can help you determine the best location for Skystream on your property. 20 feetFig. 1 Optimal Skystream location. 250 feet Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 11
  • 11. 1-4-2 Tower TypesDepending on your site needs,Skystream can be mounted on severaldifferent tower types as long as theymeet the tower load specificationsdetermined by Southwest Windpowerand are certified by a ProfessionalEngineer (PE). While a guyless mono-pole tower is the most desired towertype, it may be more expensive thansome other options such as a guyedtower or latticed tower. You can findout more about available tower optionsprovided by Southwest Windpower at:www.skystreamenergy.com. guyed tower monopole tower lattice tower Fig. 2 Tower types1-4-3 Working With Your UtilityCall your local electric utility, tell them your intentions and ask for their “Interconnection Agreement”. They shouldhave one. Depending on your utility, the interconnection agreement may be one page or many. Keep in mind that TIP: See our website: www.skystreamenergy.comsmall utility-connected solar and wind systems are relatively new industries and utility connection requests may be for a sample interconnectionunfamiliar to them. If you are the first, realize the process may take longer. Southwest Windpower has people and agreement that may be usedtools that may assist in the process. by a utility that has yet to establish a program.Your utility may request documentation demonstrating that Skystream is UL 1741 and IEEE 1547 certified. You candownload the UL Certificate of Compliance at our website: www.skystreamenergy.com1-4-4 Working With Your Local Zoning AuthorityLike your utility, the local planning and zoning authority may or may not have experience with an individual installing a small wind generator at their homeor small business. The most important issue is the height of the tower. Prior to purchasing your Skystream tower, check for local zoning limitations.Determine what your community allows for towers and determine if the height is appropriate. Specific data and statistics that may be required by yourzoning authority can be found at www.skystreamenergy.com.12 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 12. Two - Installation 2-1-1 WiringSouthwest Windpower designed the installation process of Skystream to be Skystream has a built-in utility-connected inverter compliant with UL 1741as easy as possible by minimizing the number of connections between the and IEEE 1547. This means Skystream connects directly to your existingmachine and circuit breaker. Depending on your local utility requirement, electrical system. Appendix A includes reference drawings for utility-sup-you may or may not need to install a separate disconnect and/or second plied power interconnection of your Skystream generator. These drawingsmeter. are for reference and may be modified for submittal and approval by your local authorities.You will notice the rotor shaft on Skystream is extremely difficult to turn.This is normal. As a safety precaution, the default position of Skystream is Refer to Fig. 3 on following page for an overview of a typical residentialin brake mode when the inverter is disconnected from the utility-supplied Skystream wiring installationpower. The reason is if there is a fault in the utility line, Skystream mustshut down to prevent back feeding of electricity into the line while it isbeing repaired. Warning: For your safety, make sure power is turned off before working on any and all electrical2-1 Electrical connections.One of the most common causes of wind generator failures is a poor elec-trical connection. Be sure to follow the instructions and tighten all fastenersappropriately.IMPORTANT: It is extremely important that the installation of yourSkystream is done in accordance with local and national building codes asspecified by the NEC, UBC (Uniform Building Code) or IBC (InternationalBuilding Code). These codes will vary from city to city and country to country.The AC input and AC output circuits are isolated from the enclosure.System grounding, if required by section 250 of NEC, ANSI/NFPA 70, isthe responsibility of the installer. Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 13
  • 13. AC Service Panel Yaw ground wire Transition to larger gauge wire if required due to dis- tance between Skystream and panel. Main disconnect Yaw connectors. See Fig. 4 (page 16) Optional kilowat-hour 20A meter 20A G N L2 L1 G N L2 L1 N/G N N White L1 L1 Black L2 L2 Red G Gnd Bare or green Disconnect switch 2-pole 30A, 250VAC Tower ground system Aluminum wires may be used for home/utility connection if transition is made in junction box. 14 AWG wire must be copper only. Note: Refer to Appendix A for detailed wiring drawings Use only copper wire at the generator terminalsFig. 3 Wiring diagram, 240V, 60Hz, split phase.14 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 14. 2-1-2 Electrical ConnectionsCAUTION – Be sure power is turned off when making electrical connections. ● 120 V, 60 Hz, 1 Phase Systems: Connect the black and white wires to the corresponding color coded terminals on the Skystream ● Position Skystream on its side to access the wire terminals. yaw. Connect green or bare copper wire to green terminal. There is ● Remove approximately 2 inches (5 cm) of protective sheathing from no wire connection to bare yaw terminal as shown in Fig. 4c. cable and strip approximately 0.375 inches (1 cm) of insulation off wire leads. Before attaching the strain relief cover, test the electrical connections by ● Note the maximum wire size that can be connected directly to turning on power and measuring voltage at the yaw terminals. Additionally, Skystream is #8 AWG. Refer to Wire Sizing Section of this manual with AC power switched on, wait 5-7 minutes and attempt to rotate the for instructions on selecting correct size wire. blade shaft. The shaft should be noticeably easier to rotate. Turn* off ● Pass cable through strain relief cover so approximately 1 inch (2.5 power and Skystream should revert to “brake” mode. If Skystream fails this cm) of cable sheath protrudes through as shown in Fig. 4a. Tighten test, check all connections and repeat test. Test must be passed before strain relief clamp to secure cable. proceeding. ● 120/240 V, 60 Hz, Split Phase and 120/208 V, 60 Hz, 3 Phase systems: Connect the red, black and white wires to the correspond- ● Turn power off and secure strain relief cover using four M5-0.8 x 12 ing color coded terminals on Skystream yaw. Connect green or bare socket head screws and split lockwashers. Use Loctite 242 and ® copper wire to the green terminal. Tighten wire terminal screws to torque screws to 20-25 inch-lbs (2.5 N-m). 20-25 inch-lbs (2.3-2.5 N-m). See Fig. 4a. ● 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 Phase systems: Connect the brown, blue and green/yellow wires to the matching corresponding color coded terminals Caution: Make sure on Skystream yaw. There is no wire con- AC power is switched nection to bare yaw terminal as shown in “OFF” before proceed- Fig 4b. Tighten wire terminal screws ing with installation. to 20-25 inch-lbs (2.3-2.5 N-m). Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 15
  • 15. G: green or L2: Yellow/Green bare copper L1: black N: Blue N: white L2: red L1: Brown No ConnectionFig. 4a Wire run to the yaw connection (120/240 V, 60Hz, Split Ph Fig. 4b Wire run to the yaw connection (230V, 50Hz, single phase).and 120/208V, 60 Hz, 3 Ph).Wiring Symbol Definitions - 120/240 V, 60 Hz, Wiring Symbol Definitions - 230 V, 50 Hz,Split Phase and 120/208 V, 60 Hz, 3 Phase Single Phase SystemsL1 = Line 1, AC Line Voltage, Black Wire (240V, 60 Hz, systems) L1 = Line 1, AC Line Voltage, Brown Wire (230V, 50 Hz, systems)L2 = Line 2, AC Line Voltage, Red Wire (240V, 60 Hz, systems) N = AC Neutral, Blue Wire, (230V, 50 Hz, systems)N = AC Neutral, White Wire, (240V, 60 Hz, systems) G = Gnd. = AC Ground, Green/Yellow WireG = Gnd. = AC Ground, Green or Bare Wire Indicates AC Ground Indicates AC Ground G: green or bare copper No Connection Wiring Symbol Definitions - 120 V, 60 Hz, Single Phase Systems L1 = Line 1, AC Line Voltage, Black Wire L1: black N: white N = AC Neutral, White Wire G = AC Ground, Green or Bare Wire Indicates AC GroundFig. 4c Wire run to the yaw connection (120 V, 60 Hz, single phase).16 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 16. 2-1-3 Wire Sizing 2-1-5 Fusing/Circuit BreakerMeasure distance from AC Service panel to Skystream including tower height. Refer Skystream connects directly into your electrical panel. Wiringto the Wire Size Table and based on system voltage and measured distance deter- will vary with local zoning authority and utility. Refer to Appendixmine appropriate wire size. A for drawings for each voltage, frequency and phase configu- ration. Some installations will require a visible lockable discon-The maximum wire size that can be connected to Skystream yaw is 8 AWG nect switch located next to the electrical meter and/or at the(10mm2) therefore if a larger wire size is required because of the installed distance, base of the tower. The disconnect switch is utilized by your localSouthwest Windpower recommends installing a Power Disconnect Switch box close utility in the event of a power outage to ensure no voltage isto the base of the tower and transitioning to the appropriate size wire. Refer to Figs. placed on the utility line during repair. Again, it is extremely3, 4 and Appendix A for detailed information. important to install in accordance with local and national zoningBattery charging systems may utilize smaller gauge wire than indicated in the Wire regulations.SizeTable. Refer to diagrams in Appendix A for wire sizes. The smaller wires are Note: Only 20 Amp circuit breakers may be used to connectbased on allowing 4% voltage line loss for battery charging systems compared to Skystream to AC service panel. Refer to Fig. 3, wiring diagram.2% line losses indicated in the Wire Size Table. Maximum Distance2-1-4 Grounding Wire Size 120 V 120/208 V 230 V 120/240 VAll electrical systems must be grounded in accordance with local and national stan- 4 AWG (25 mm2) 646 ft (197 m) 885 ft (270 m) 934 ft (285 m) 1017 ft (310 m)dards. Grounding provides protection from electrical shock, voltage surges and staticcharge build up. 6 AWG (16 mm2) 407 ft (124 m) 557 ft (170 m) 588 ft (179 m) 640 ft (195 m) 8 AWG (10 mm2) 256 ft (78 m) 351 ft (93.3 m) 371 ft (113m) 403 ft (123 m)The figures in Appendix A provide information for grounding the tower and 10 AWG (6 mm2) 161 ft (49 m) 220 ft (67.0 m) 232 ft (70.7m) 253 ft (77 m)Skystream at the service panel by means of the ground lead coming from the yawterminals of the turbine. 12 AWG (4 mm2) 101 ft (31 m) 139 ft (42.4 m) 146 ft (44.5) 159 ft (48.5 m) 14 AWG (2.5 mm2) 64 ft (20 m) 87 ft (26.5 m) 92 ft (28 m) 100 ft (30.5 m)Appendix C provides information for grounding the tower according to the NationalElectrical Code (USA only). Information about grounding electrodes, grounding con-ductors, and connections is provided. Use copper conductors only - Minimum wire temperature rating is 75° C (167° F). Distances and wire sizes are based on 1800 W powerThe turbine must be grounded to the tower as depicted in Fig. 5. production and maximum 2% voltage line loss. Distances for 120 V system based on 3000 W power production and 8% voltage line loss.Note: The AC output neutral is NOT bonded to ground within Skystream. The ACneutral is bonded to ground at the AC service panel.The instructions in this section and Appendix A are provided as reference, local electricalcodes and standards have precedence over these instructions. Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 17
  • 17. 2-1-6 Battery Charging In addition to conventional grid connected systems, Skystream may be used with battery based systems or grid connected systems with battery back up. In the great majority of these applications the same Skystream is utilized as in grid con- nected system with the exception that a voltage sensor is required to transmit battery charge information to Skystream. This means that if in the future battery back up is no longer required or if connectivity to the grid is available the same Skystream may be utilized to supply power. The following sections present the three most common Skystream battery charg- ing or battery backup installation configurations. The best configuration for your particular application depends on a many factors including system type: battery based or battery backup, availability of existing equipment such as inverters, required voltage, wire run distance and of course cost.Fig. 5 Proper grounding of the yaw connection18 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 18. 2-1-6-1 Option A120/240 Volt Skystream, Two InvertersThis option is a good choice for grid connected homes requiring battery backup and240 volts. The same model Skystream is used for grid connected homes withoutbattery backup therefore the system is adaptable if there is no longer a requirementfor battery backup. The system is depicted below.System Components: Battery Sensor ● Skystream 3.7, Land unit part number 1-SSL-10-240, Marine unit part number 1-SSM-10-240 Battery ● Wireless Battery Voltage Sensor, part number 2-SSUP-102-02 ● Wireless Display (optional), part number 2-SSUP-100-02 Inverter 1 ● Inverter (2 required), Southwest Windpower recommends Outback FX Series or 240V Xantrex SW Series Inverters. Inverter 2 BreakerSystem Wiring BoxWiring requirements for Battery Charging systems differ from Battery Backed - GridConnected systems. Refer to Appendix A for specific wiring schematics. 240VConsult with your inverter supplier regarding inverter and battery installation. Due tothe large number of inverter and battery system configurations it is not possible forSouthwest Windpower to provide specific wiring instructions. Fig. 6 Battery charging Option A Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 19
  • 19. 2-1-6-2 Option B120/240 Volt Skystream with TransformerThis option is a good choice for systems with an existing inverter. It supports 240 voltloads and may be transitioned to a dedicated grid tied system if required in the future.The system differs from Option A in that a transformer takes the place of the secondinverter. There is an inefficiency of approximately 20 watts associated with the trans-former, however the inefficiency may be worth the reduced cost of the transformercompared to a second inverter. Battery SensorSkystem Components: Battery ● Skystream 3.7, Land unit part number 1-SSL-10-240, Marine unit part number 1-SSM-10-240 Inverter ● Wireless Battery Voltage Sensor, part number 2-SSUP-102-02 240V ● Wireless Display (optional), part number 2-SSUP-100-02 Transformer ● Inverter (1 required), Southwest Windpower recommends Breaker Outback FX Series or Xantrex SW Series Inverters. Box ● Transformer, Southwest Windpower recommends the Outback PSX240 or Xantrex T24 transformers.System Wiring 240VWiring requirements for Battery Charging systems differ from Battery Backed - GridConnected systems. Refer to Appendix A for specific wiring schematics. Fig. 7 Battery charging Option BConsult with your inverter supplier regarding inverter and battery installation. Due tothe large number of inverter and battery system configurations it is not possible forSouthwest Windpower to provide specific wiring instructions.20 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 20. 2-1-6-3 Option C120 Volt Skystream, Single InverterThis option is a good choice for homes that do not require 240 volt service. It isan economical system, however, it uses a different model Skystream than 240 voltsystems, and therefore if conversion to 240 volt service is required in the future thissystem may not be a good choice.And because this is strictly a 120 volt system if long wire runs are necessary Option BatteryB may be a more economical choice. Peak power in high winds is also reduced Sensorbecause this is a 120 volt system, therefore, this wind turbine may not be a good Batterychoice for high wind locations. The system is depicted below.System Components Inverter 120V ● Skystream 3.7, Land unit part number 1-SSL-10-120, Marine unit part number 1-SSM-10-120. Breaker ● Wireless Battery Voltage Sensor, part number 2-SSUP-102-02 Box ● Wireless Display (optional), part number 2-SSUP-100-02 ● Inverter (1 required), Southwest Windpower recommends Outback FX Series or Xantrex SW Series Inverters. 120VSystem WiringWiring requirements for Battery Charging systems differ from Battery Backed - Grid Fig. 8 Battery charging Option CConnected systems. Refer to Appendix A for specific wiring schematics.Consult with your inverter supplier regarding inverter and battery installation. Due tothe large number of inverter and battery system configurations it is not possible forSouthwest Windpower to provide specific wiring instructions. Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 21
  • 21. 2-1-7 Battery Voltage Sensor InstallationThe Battery Voltage Sensor is shown at the right. Customer is required to supplytwo battery connection terminals and color coded wire.Install sensor as follows: ● The battery voltage sensor connector will accept #20 to #14 AWG wire. Use largest gauge wire compatible with battery connection terminals. Follow good practice and color code wires – red for positive, black for negative is typical. ● Determine sensor mounting location, maximum recommended wire length is 150 ft and 30 ft for #14 and #20 AWG wire respectively. ● Strip approximately 1/4” of insulation from wires and insert in green connector supplied with Battery Voltage Sensor. Tighten screws to secure wires. Correct wire locations (battery + and -) are indicated on Battery Voltage Sensor cover. Refer to Fig. 9. ● Strip insulation from other end of wires ends and install battery connection terminals following manufacturer’s recommended procedure. Connect battery connection terminals to batteries. ● Insert green connector into Battery Voltage Sensor.The sensor is now powered and ready for configuration with your system. Do notleave sensor connected to batteries without configuring sensor and Skystream forbattery charging. Battery — Battery + Fig. 9 Battery Sensor IMPORTANT: Battery voltage sensor and Skystream must be configured for battery charging or serious damage to batteries may result.22 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 22. 2-2 Installing Skystream on a TowerThere are several types of towers that can be used with Skystream. It is essential thatSkystream is installed on a properly engineered tower. One of the leading causes of windgenerator failure is use on a poorly designed tower.Southwest Windpower has made available various tower designs that meet our criteria.We have established a program allowing tower manufacturers to include their designs onSouthwest Windpower’s website list of recommended towers.Regardless of the tower design and height you select, there are two critical areas thatmust be considered when selecting the tower. These are the stub tower height and bladeclearance (see Fig. 10). IMPORTANT: Southwest Windpower’s Warranty is only extended to installations that are made on a properly engineered tower. Southwest Windpower reserves the right to deny any Stub tower Not to exceed warranty claim in which an improperly designed tower is used. 7 feet (213 cm) 1 ½ feet (46 cm) (30 cm) 1 foot Fig. 10 Blade tip clearances Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 23
  • 23. 2-2-1 Mounting Skystream to the Tower ● You will need a crane, or equivalent device, capable of hoisting 170 lbs (77 kg), and be able to reach the tower-top.Refer to Figs. 9-15 for visual aid. ● The assembled Skystream can be hoisted to the top of the tower using a large width nylon strap. The nylon strap should be securedNote: The following directions assume Skystream will be bolted to the around the nacelle and cinched tight prior to hoisting.tower on the ground and the tower tilted into position as in the case of ● The Skystream can be hoisted with the rotor blades and hub alreadythe 33 Ft. tower. Alternately, Skystream may be hoisted to tower top using attached.a crane in the case of larger towers that cannot be tilted into position. ● The location of this strap is midway between the rotor blades and yaw,Instructions for hoisting Skystream are given below. at the approximate balance point on the Skystream assembly. Do not stand under the Skystream while it is being raised. Warning: Working on towers is dangerous and should be left to professionals with proper safety equipment and training. 2-3 Testing on the GroundTo ease mounting Skystream, support the upper end of the tower approxi- Though Skystream is thoroughly tested at the factory, it is very importantmately 2-3 feet (0.6-1.0 m) above the ground. to conduct one more test prior to erecting the tower. Skystream should be wired and mounted to the top of the tower. The blades should not be ● Install the vibration isolators on yaw flange as shown in Fig. 11 (also attached. To do this test, you must have all wires and breakers installed see Fig. 15, page 26). Install snubbing washers and bolts in vibration with at least one disconnect switch open (off). isolators. 2-3-1 Electrical TestsNote: The orientation of the vibration isolators is very important. Refer toFig. 15 (page 26). ● Attempt to rotate the rotor shaft. It should be difficult to turn. ● Now turn on all power going to Skystream. Turn on all breakers, ● Using an appropriate lifting device and sling, lift Skystream and align connect all switches and wait 5-7 minutes. vibration isolator bolts with holes in tower flange. ● Grab the rotor shaft again and try to spin it. If assembled correctly, it ● Install nuts, flat washers and lock washer on bolts to secure Skystream should spin easily. to tower. ● Before you go any further, turn the power off and disconnect any ● Ground the turbine to the tower as depicted in Fig. 5 and accompany- switches. Again, try spinning the shaft. It should be difficult to turn. ing photographs. ● Verify Skystream is grounded to tower by measuring resistance ● Torque vibration isolator bolts to 80 lb-ft (108 N-m) in two steps. First between Skystream nacelle and tower flange. Resistance = < 1 ohm. torque all bolts to 40 lb-ft (54 N-m) then to 80 lb-ft (108 N-m). ● Mount yaw shield halves using four M5 button head screws. See Fig. If Skystream does not spin freely after electrtical test, then check for loose 15 (page 26). Use Loctite 242 supplied with Skystream. ® or disconnected wires. Repeat the test until you are successful.Note: If you are using a tower that is not a tilt-up design, then theSkystream can be hoisted to the top of the tower.24 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 24. Fig. 11 Placing vibration isolators Fig. 12 Tightening boltsFig. 13 Grounding turbine to tower Fig. 14 Ready to attach yaw shield Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 25
  • 25. 2-4 Blades, Nosecone and Antenna Assembly IMPORTANT: Liberally lubricate blade and vibration mounting nuts and bolts with oil. Fasteners have extra plating to prevent corrosion and lubri-Refer to Fig. 16 (page 27) for visual aid. cation will ease assembly and disassembly.The Skystream blades may be bolted to the blade huband mounted on Skystream as a complete assembly by 1performing the following steps. ● Remove the blade mounting hub and plate from Skystream by “unscrewing” the hub while holding the rotor shaft stationary. 2 ● Place a blade between the blade hub and blade mounting plate. Refer to Fig. 16 (page 27) for proper orientation. Note: the blades may only be installed in one position due to the “triangular” boss cast into one side of the blade root (base). ● Loosely install the bolts, flat and lock washers for one blade 3 leaving enough play so remaining blades can be installed. ● After all blades and bolts are loosely installed between blade 4 hub and mounting plate, tighten bolts enough to clamp blades between hub and blade plate. ● Torque blade bolts to 50 lb-ft (68 N-m) in two steps. First torque all bolts to 25 lb-ft (34 N-m) then to 50 lb-ft (68 N-m). ● Blade assembly may now be mounted on Skystream. Slide blade assembly completely onto shaft. With assembly completely on shaft, large mounting nut can be started on shaft threads. ● Completely “spin” on blade assembly. Securely tighten blade assembly by holding blades and tightening “flat” on rotor shaft. Note: the blade assembly is self-tightening in operation; however 7 it should be securely tightened during assembly (200lb-ft). 5 ● Install nosecone with three M6-1.0x12 socket head bolts. Use Loctite 242 supplied with Skystream. ® ● Install RF Antenna on matching fitting on top of Skystream. Finger-tight is sufficient. 9 6Important: Do Not Forget to install RF Antenna 10Even if you have not purchased the optional remote display, the RFantenna may be used by service personnel to diagnose, troubleshootor upgrade your Skystream without removing it from the tower. 8 14 11 Fig. 15 Yaw and 12 antenna assembly 1326 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 26. 24 Yaw Components # DESCRIPTION QTY. 23 1 RF Antenna 1 2 M12 x 1.75 x 90mm Hex Bolt Grade 10.9 8 3 Snubbing Washer 8 4, 5 Vibration Isolation Ring (4) and Bushing (5) 8 6 Strain Relief Cover Assembly 1 7 Shield 2 8 M5 x .8 x 12mm Button Head grade 8.8 4 9 M5 Lock Washer A2 stainless steel 4 10 M5 x .8 x 12mm Bolt SHCS grade 8.8 4 11 Flat Washer (M12) A2 stainless steel 8 19 20 21 22 12 Lock Washer (M12) A2 stainless steel 8 13 M12 x 1.75 Nut grade 10.9 8 14 5” Tower Insert (optional) 1 Blade Components15 16 17 # DESCRIPTION QTY. 15 M10 x 1.5 Nut grade 10.9 12 16 Lock Washer (M10) A2 stainless steel 12 18 17 Blade Plate 1 18 Blade 3 19 Blade Hub 1 20 Flat Washer (M10) A2 stainless steel 12 21 M10 x 1.5 x 120mm Bolt SHCS grade 10.9 12 22 Nose Cone 1 23 Hub Retaining Nut grade 10.9 1 Fig. 17 Completed assembly 24 M6 x 1 x 12mm Bolt SHCS grade 8.8 3 IMPORTANT: Liberally lubricate blade and vibration mounting nuts and bolts with oil. Fasteners have extra plating to prevent corrosion and lubrication will ease assembly and disassembly. Fig. 16 Blade and nosecone assembly Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 27
  • 27. Three - Operation & Maintenance3-1 Skystream 3.7™ Key Operating Characteristics If a condition occurs that causes the rotational speed to exceed 360 rpm, Skystream will shut down for approximately 10 minutes after which it willProcedure for Starting and Stopping Skystream resume normal operation unless a fault is detected causing it to remainThe procedure to start and stop the Skystream is at the dedicated shut down. This is an unlikely scenario that should never occur in normalSkystream breaker on the main electrical panel. The Skystream is turned operation. It is important to set the elevation for the turbine to operate cor-on by switching the breaker “ON”, thereby connecting the Skystream to rectly. If it is not set, the turbine may experience premature shut downs.the electrical grid. After a five minute delay, the Skystream will releasethe internal brake, and begin producing electricity (when there are suf- If a wind gust exceeds 56 mph (25 m/s), then the Skystream will shut-ficient winds). The procedure for turning off the Skystream is to switch down for 1 hour. After 1 hour, the Skystream will turn back on, and resumethe electrical breaker to “OFF”, thereby disconnecting the Skystream from normal charging. If the wind is still above 56 mph (25 m/s), then thethe electrical grid. The Skystream can be turned off, at any time, for any Skystream will shutdown for another hour.reason. When the Skystream is “OFF”, there is no live electrical wiresbetween the main electrical panel and the Skystream. In addition to adjusting its operation in response to wind conditions Skystream also monitors the electrical utility grid and its own inter- Warning: Power to Skystream MUST BE nal health. Should the electric utility voltage or frequency differ from TURNED OFF prior to servicing Skystream’s voltage, for example due to a power failure, Skystream will disconnect from the grid and enter a “braked mode”. While in this modeThe Skystream 3.7 operates by converting the kinetic energy of the wind the blades are held stationary while the Skystream monitors the utilityinto rotational motion that turns an alternator and ultimately produces power. If Skystream determines that the power has returned to withinusable electric power. In actuality this is a great over simplification of specification, it will re-connect to the grid and resume normal operation.Skystream’s operation since it must very precisely match the frequency This is the same cycle that occurs when Skystream is initially powered.and voltage of the electricity supplied by the local utility company in orderto power your home and its appliances. Additionally, Skystream monitors Additionally, should Skystream determine an internal fault exists it will exe-and adjusts its performance to provide safe operation and extract the cute an emergency shutdown – an E-stop. An E-stop will only take placemaximum energy from even low speed winds. if a severe fault that requires servicing internal components has occurred. For that reason resetting an E-stop requires gaining access to the interiorSkystream will begin producing power in a wind of approximately 8 mph of Skystream. It cannot be reset from the ground.(3.5 m/sec). At that speed the blades will rotate at approximately 120 rpm.Once it has started producing power, it will continue to produce power at As a final note, Skystream is factory configured for operation up tolower speeds down to 80 rpm and less than 3 m/s. As the wind speed 3,300 feet (1000 m) above sea level. If your installation exceeds thisincreases the blade speed will also increase. At about 20 mph (9 m/sec) elevation please consult Southwest Windpower technical service forthe blades achieves a rotational speed of 330 rpm. This is Skystream’s assistance in resetting the configurations for your elevation.rated speed. Should the wind speed increase above 20 mph the bladespeed will remain essentially fixed at 330 rpm.28 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 28. 3-2 Electronic Stall Regulation 3-3 Redundant Relay Switch ControlThe Skystream 3.7 has the ability to adjust the rotational speed of its As a redundant measure of safety to guarantee stopping the turbine inblades or even stop the blades if required by ambient conditions. This case of a winding fault or a lost connection to the alternator; there arereferred to as Stall Control and it is accomplished by adjusting the cur- seven connections to the alternator windings, but only three are neces-rent draw from the alternator. The higher the current draw the greater the sary to control or stop the turbine. And as a final measure of safety, if theelectromagnetic torque applied to the rotor and if enough torque is applied inverter is unable to control the rotational speed and Skystream exceedsthe blades will slow or even stop. In simple terms the inverter is demand- approximately 400 rpm, the rectified voltage will exceed the Zener (Z)ing more power than the available wind can provide thus causing the blade voltage on the relay board, causing the latching relay (RL4) to open. Thisrotational speed to decrease. will cause the relays RL1, 2, and 3 to close and apply all the available electromechanical torque to the rotor, stopping Skystream completely. TheAs a safety feature the alternator is capable of producing approximately inverter power path will also be disconnected from the grid my means offive times the torque required to control the turbine. This extra available relay RL_G. This is the final level of control and is only applied when allpower means that even if segments of the alternator windings are dam- other methods of control have failed. As such, once set, (latched) RL4 mayaged there is still sufficient torque to stop the turbine. only be reset by gaining internal access to Skystream – it cannot be reset via the Remote Display.While Skystream is connected to the utility grid it constantly monitors thatall conditions, for example grid voltage and frequency, are within limits.If the inverter determines that all operating conditions are within limits, Warning: Power to Skystream MUST BEit opens three Normally Closed (NC) relays, RL1, 2 and 3, removing the TURNED OFF prior to servicingshort from the alternator windings and allowing the blades to spin freely.Only then will it operate the DPDT Grid Relay RL_G to allow the inverterto export power to the grid. Refer to the Skystream Block Diagram inAppendix A. Should the inverter sense an abnormal condition, for examplehigh current in the alternator windings by means of the current sensors onthe relay board it will close relays RL1, 2, and 3 thereby stopping the tur-bine. In turn, the DPDT Relay RL_G will be operated to the position wherethe inverter power exporting circuitry is disconnected from the grid. Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 29
  • 29. 3-4 Shutting Down the Skystream for Maintenance The second part of the yearly inspection is to make detailed observationsPower to Skystream MUST be turned off prior to servicing. Turn off power of the Skystream from the ground. Shut off the Skystream by discon-by opening the disconnect switch at the base of the tower, if available, or necting the Skystream from the grid, by turning the breaker to “OFF”,by opening the appropriate circuit breakers in the main service panel. at the main electrical panel (see “Procedure for Starting and Stopping Skystream”). Turning off the Skystream will cause the blades to stop orTurning off the power accomplishes two objectives: removal of the electri- spin very slowly in all wind speeds. With a pair of binoculars take very care-cal shock hazard and locking the Skystream rotor by causing the inverter ful observations of the Skystream. Look for any problems with the bladesto close relays RL1, RL2 and RL3 and thereby shorting the alternator such as cracks, or damage to the edges of the rotor blade. Look at thewindings as described in Section 3 -2 Electronic Stall Regulation. It also face and nacelle of the Skystream and note any potential damage. If youdisconnects the inverter power path from the grid by means of relay RL_G. notice any damage during your yearly inspection, then write down your observations in your Skystream Logbook, and call Southwest WindpowerThe Skystream rotor will remain locked in this manner up to any speed Technical Support.within the IEC Class II regime (less than 140 mph or 62.5 m/s). Refer toSection 3 -1 Skystream Key Operating Characteristics for a description of Turbine Accessthe wind speed conditions that may cause Skystream to shut down. In the event you have a need to gain access to the Skystream, for what-Maintenance and Inspection ever reason, then the following procedures should be followed. Turn off the Skystream by disconnecting the Skystream from the electrical gridThe Skystream is designed for 20 years of maintenance-free operation. (see “Procedure for Starting and Stopping Skystream”). This is done atAll bearings and components were designed for a 20 year life at a site the dedicated Skystream electrical breaker located at the main electricalwith an average annual wind speed of 19 mph (8.5 m/s). This type of site panel. This disconnect procedure will both stop the rotor, and disconnectcorresponds to a an IEC wind class II, under the IEC 61400-2 Small Wind the grid power to the Skystream, thereby making it safe to work on.Turbine Safety Standard. Warning: Prior to lowering or gaining access to Skystream with aYearly Inspection man-lift, follow the procedure for the proper shutdown of the wind turbine. DO NOT work on Skystream if it is connected to the grid.Although the Skystream is designed to be maintenance-free for 20 years,the Skystream owner should perform the following yearly inspections. The Be sure the Skystream is shutdown before proceeding any further. If youyearly inspection can be performed without lowering the tower, or other- have a tilt-up tower, then lower the tower following the procedure for yourwise gaining access to the turbine. The results from this yearly inspection particular tower. Rest the tower on a few supports before it gets to theshould be written in a Skystream logbook. ground. There is not a need to lock the rotor and yaw prior to working on the Skystream if it was lowered to the ground on a tilt-up tower.While the turbine is operating in moderate winds, listen for any abnormalnoises. After the first year of operation, you should be aware of the normal If you are gaining access to the tower through the use of a man-lift, oroperating sounds from the Skystream. Normal noises include aerodynamic equivalent, then it is important to lock the rotor and yaw prior to workingswishing, and the humming of the power electronics. If you notice any on the Skystream at the top of the tower. This can be done by tightly tyingabnormal sounds, then record your observations in your Skystream log- a rope around the rotor blades and tower.book, and then call Southwest Windpower Technical Support.30 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 30. One such method for doing this is to tie a clove-hitch, or equivalent, around If you are using a tilt-up tower, then raise the tower following the instruc-the tower, and then wrap the rope ends around the blades and tie together tions for your tower. If you are at the tower-top in a man-lift, then removewith a square knot. This will prevent the Skystream rotor blades from spin- the rope tying the rotor blades to the tower, prior to being lowered back toning, and the nacelle from yawing, while you are working on the unit on the the ground. Check that the tower is properly secured to the foundation.tower-top. Turn on the Skystream by switching the dedicated Skystream breakerThe following items should be checked while you have access to the to “ON”, at the main electrical panel (see “Procedure for Starting andSkystream: Stopping Skystream”). After a five minute delay, the Skystream inter- nal brake will release, and then the blades will be free to rotate. The • Remove the yaw shield, and wipe off any grease that may have Skystream will then be back online and ready to produce electricity from seeped from the yaw bearing. the wind.” • Verify the yaw bearing snap ring is still properly seated in the snap ring groove within the nacelle. (this is the spiral ring located just below the yaw bearing). • Check the tightness of the (8) yaw bolts with a torque wrench. All yaw bolts should be torqued to 80 ft-lbs (108 N-m). • Reinstall the yaw shield and secure the fasteners using Loctite 242 (i.e. removable blue threadlocker). • Check tightness of blade bolts with torque wrench. All blade bolts should be torqued to 50 ft-lbs (68 N-m). • Clean the rotor blades with a mild soap and water. Remove as much of the dead bug matter as possible from the blades. • Look for any problems with the blades such as cracks, or damage to the edges of the rotor blade. • Inspect the face, nacelle, and the rest of the Skystream and note any potential damage or problem. • If you notice any damage or problem during your inspection, then write down your observations in your Skystream Logbook, and call Southwest Windpower Technical Support. Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual 31
  • 31. 3-5 Frequently Asked Questions 7) When should I contact an authorized service technician? a. If there is any unusual vibration coming from Skystream.1) What happens if I lose power from my utility company? b. If you hear any noise that sounds like mechanical interference.If there is a power outage the Skystream will shut down within one second. c. If the Skystream is connected to the utility power (i.e. all breakers andIt will resume normal operation when power is restored. There are many disconnects are turned on), the wind is blowing, but the Skystream issafety requirements of a utility-tied inverter. The Skystream meets all of not turning very fast.these requirements per UL 1741. 8) Can I mount Skystream to my roof?2) Does the Skystream have lightning protection? Roof and building mount is not recommended. Because of the size andYes, the Skystream has lightning protection. The Skystream can handle weight of the wind generator, Skystream needs to be mounted on a PE6000 Volts as required by UL 1741. If you live in a lightning prone area certified tower to ensure the quietest and safest system. Roof mountingSWWP recommends an additional lightning arrestor at the base of the will invalidate the warranty.tower. 9) What should I do if ice forms on Skystream blades?3) What should I do if I’m expecting a severe storm? To avoid the possibility of injury from ice breaking loose from the bladesThe Skystream is designed for very high winds, but it is always a good idea and injuring anyone, Skystream should be turned OFF if ice accumulatesto shut Skystream down if there is going to be a severe storm to protect on the blades.against any flying debris.4) How do I shut down Skystream?To turn off Skystream all you need to do is turn off the breaker Skystreamis connected to. This will cause NO damage to the unit.5) Can I leave Skystream unattended?Yes, the Skystream is designed to operate without any user input. If thereis any fault it will shut down on its own.6) What do I do if Skystream is facing upwind even though there is a strongwind?If the Skystream is not tracking correctly, you should check to see if thetower is level.32 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual
  • 32. TM APPENDIX A ELECTRICAL DIAGRAMS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is REVISIONS submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- REV. DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED X initial release 11/02/06 - in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any XA relay board detail added 11/17/06 - other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower.A ALTERNATOR SAFETY CURRENT INVERTER YAW RELAY SENSE Y3 BOARD BOARD brushes carry power from the yaw board to Y2 the turbine terminals Ym2 RELAY CONTROLB Center RL_G RECTIFY BOOST INVERT DPDT F4 L1 L1(black) Ym1 Y1 + + L1 YAW BRUSH DC DC N N (white) 400V N ASSY. and Y2 _ _ F3 FILTER L2 TURBINE L2 (red) Y1 Y3 DC AC L2 TERMINALS G G (green) Ym3C COMMUNICATIONS TO GRID UP-TOWER RF BOARD Southwest Windpower, Inc. NACELLE 1801 West Route 66D Flagstaff, Arizona 86001 NACELLE GROUND ANTENNA Phone: 928.779.9463 BROUGHT TO YAW Simple Detail of Relay board Fax: 928.779.1485 BOARD VIA SCREWS Ym3 RF LINK www.skystreamenergy.com Ym2 ANTENNA RECTIFY Ym1 +  June 2007 Southwest Windpower, Inc. All Rights Reserved.E Y1 Y2 _ Z RF DISPLAY Y3 UNIT Center LATCHING RELAY, RL4
  • 33. Skystream 3.7 Owner’s ManualAppendix A: Electrical Diagrams 1) GRID CONNECTION OPTION A: 120/240 V, 60 Hz, Split Phase, Junction Box at Tower Base _________________________________________ 3 2) GRID CONNECTION OPTION B: 120/240 V, 60 Hz, Split Phase, Without Junction Box at Tower Base __________________________________ 4 3) GRID CONNECTION OPTION C: 120/208 V, 60 Hz, 3 Phase, Junction Box at Tower Base ____________________________________________ 5 4) GRID CONNECTION OPTION D: 120/208 V, 60 Hz, 3 Phase, Without Junction Box at Tower Base _____________________________________ 6 5) GRID CONNECTION OPTION E: 230 V, 50 Hz, 1 Phase, Junction Box at Tower Base ________________________________________________ 7 6) BATTERY CHARGING OPTION A: 120/240 V Battery Charging System Using Dual Inverters____________________________________________ 8 7) BATTERY CHARGING OPTION B: 120/240 V Battery Charging System Using Autotransformer and Inverter _______________________________ 9 8) BATTERY CHARGING OPTION C: 120 V Battery Charging System Using Single Inverter________________________________________________ 10 9) BATTERY CHARGING OPTION D: 230 V, 1 Phase, Junction Box at Tower ___________________________________________________________ 11 10) BATTERY CHARGING, GRID CONNECTED OPTION A: 120/240 V Battery Charging, Grid Connected Using Dual Inverters ____________________________________ 12 11) BATTERY CHARGING, GRID CONNECTED OPTION B: 120/240 V Battery Charging, Grid Connected Using Autotransformer and Inverter________________________ 13 12) BATTERY CHARGING, GRID CONNECTED OPTION C: 120 V Battery Charging, Grid Connected Using Single Inverter ________________________________________ 14 13) SKYSTREAM BLOCK DIAGRAM ________________________________________________________________ 152 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams
  • 34. Fig. 1. Grid Connection Option A: 120/240 V, 60 Hz, Split Phase, Junction Box at Tower Base 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is REVISIONS submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- REV. DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE NC ECO 1180 4/13/07 in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower. A ECO 1212 5/24/07 SPAN BETWN TOWER TOP USABLE AWG FOR 2%A VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN TO AC MAIN SERVICE POWER LOSS ( FOR A ACCORDANCE WITH NEC GUIDELINES PANEL FOR COPPER WIRE ONLY, ASSUMING GRID LINE AND NEUTRAL CONDUCTORS ONLY ) VOLTAGE IS 240V, TURBINE PUTS OUT 1.8kW 1017 FT. 4 AWG "SKYSTREAM" 640 FT. 6 AWG CABLE EXAMPLE INDICATES NACELLE WIND TURBINE #10 AWG CABLE BASED ON 45FT FROM THE TOWER TO 403 FT. 8 AWG SWITCH, 208FT FROM SWITCH TO MAIN PANEL, 253 FT. 10 AWGB B TOTAL =253FT. FOR 159 FT. 12 AWG LONGER SPANS SEE WIRE CHART. 100 FT. 14 AWG #10-3 UF-B DIRECT NACELLE BURIAL CABLE W/#10 CHASSIS GND FROM YAW 120/240V ELECTRICALLY CONNECTED CONNECTION TO AC MAIN TO YAW, WHICH SAFETY SWITCH. 240V SERVICE PANEL 40 A 40 A MUST BE AC SPLIT-PH 60Hz ELECTRICALLYC CONNECTED TO 20 A C THE TOWER 20 A DEDICATED WIND POWER SYSTEM TOWER UTILITY (APPROX. #10-3 W/#10 GND THWN-2 CABLE KILOWATT-HOUR 6 9 KILOWATT-HOUR 35 FT. 5 FROM SAFETY SWITCH TO MAIN METER HIGH) 8 METER SAFETY SWITCH SERVICE PANEL LENGTH < 208FT. (OPTIONAL) 2-POLE, 30A, 240VAC, G N L2 L1 SQUARE D #DU221RB N (white) N/G AT TOWER BASE N N N L1 (black) L1 G L1D L1 L2 L2 (red) D L2 L2 GND ( bare/green) G G G 12 INCH MAX. 7 10 INCH MIN. 3 2 4 WIND POWER GROUND SYSTEM DISCONNECT SYSTEM GROUND SWITCH 2-POLE LEVEL 30A, 240VAC SQ-D #DU221RB * NOTES:E 6" MIN. E 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC ARTICLE 705. 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN PER NEC 690-17 READING "WARNING-ELECTRIC 240 VAC TOWER SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE TO SERVICE GROUND AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION". TRANSFORMER, SYSTEM RUN FROM JNC. BOX AT 24 INCH MIN. 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". TOWER BASE TO HOME 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; UTILITY GRID REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". 5. OPTION IS TO USE A JUNCTION BOX AT TOWER BASE INSTEAD OF A SWITCH. 6. LABEL "REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". 7. BI-DIRECTIONAL METER TO BE INSTALLED BY UTILITY (WHEN REQUIRED). TOWER 8. USE COPPER WIRES ONLY AT TURBINE TERMINALS 9. ALUMINUM WIRES MAY BE USED FOR HOME / UTILITY CONNECTION IF TRANSITION FOUNDATION TOP WERE DONE IN A JNC. BOX. 14AWG WIRE MUST BE COPPER ONLY. SURFACE TO BE MIN. 6" ABOVEF GROUND LVL. CAD-generated drawing REFER TO SWWP do not manually update Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. FOUNDATION DWG. APPROVALS DATE DRAWN 120/240 V 60 Hz 1" DIA. SCHED. 40 N.Agrawal 18 Aug 06 W/JCT BOX RIGID PVC CONDUIT; CHECKED P. Thomas 18 Aug 06 SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; RESP ENG D. Calley 18 Aug 06 CAD file : 3-CMLT-1083 rev A 120-240V 60Hz ELECTRICAL CONN UL LISTED - Skystream MFG ENG dwg. n° 3-CMLT-1083 NEXT ASSY USED ON 1 2 4 5 QUAL ENG 3 APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING scale none rev. A size A3 sheet 1 of 2 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams 3
  • 35. Fig 2. Grid Connection Option B: 120/240 V, 60 Hz, Split Phase, Without Junction Box at Tower Base 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- SPAN BETWN TOWER TOP USABLE AWG FOR 2% TO AC MAIN SERVICE in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower. THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE PANEL FOR COPPER WIRE POWER LOSS (FOR LINE AND NEUTRAL ONLY, ASSUMING GRID CONDUCTORS ONLY )A VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN VOLTAGE IS 240V, TURBINE PUTS OUT 1.8kW A ACCORDANCE WITH NEC GUIDELINES 1017 FT. 4 AWG 640 FT. 6 AWG 403 FT. 8 AWG 253 FT. 10 AWG NACELLE "SKYSTREAM" 159 FT. 12 AWGB WIND TURBINE 100 FT. 14 AWG B 120/240V AC MAIN FROM UP-TOWER SERVICE YAW JUNCTION BOX PANEL 240V AC SPLIT PHASE NACELLE 60Hz CHASSIS ELECTRICALLY 40 A 40 A CONNECTED TOC YAW WHICH 20 A C MUST BE ELECTRICALLY 20 A CONNECTED TO TOWER DEDICATED WIND BIDIRECTIONAL #10-3 DIRECT BURIAL CABLE POWER SYSTEM W/#10 GND FROM YAW TO UTILITY KILOWATT-HOUR KILOWATT-HOUR MAIN SERVICE PANEL. METER 6 MAXIMUM DISTANCE 253FT FOR METER (OPTIONAL) #10 CABLE. SEE WIRE CHART TOWER FOR LONGER SPANS. G N L2 L1 N (white) N/G (APPROX. N 35 FT. HIGH) N L1 (black) L1D L1 L2 D L2 (red) L2 GND (bare/green) G G G 5 3 2 4 7 WIND POWER TOWER SYSTEM GROUND DISCONNECT SYSTEM SWITCH 2-POLE GROUND 30A, 250VAC GROUND LEVEL SQ-D #DU221RB SYSTEME E 6" MIN. 240 VAC * NOTES: TO SERVICE 24 INCH MIN. 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC ARTICLE 705. TRANSFORMER, RUN FROM TOWER BASE TO HOME 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN PER NEC 690-17 READING "WARNING-ELECTRIC UTILITY GRID SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION". TOWER 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". FOUNDATION TOP 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; REMOVING F SURFACE TO BE MIN. 6" ABOVE AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE".F GROUND LVL. 5. BI-DIRECTIONAL UTILITY METER TO BE INSTALLED BY UTILITY COMPANY (WHEN REFER TO SWWP FOUNDATION DWG. REQUIRED) Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. 1" DIA. SCHEDULE 40 6. USE COPPER WIRES ONLY AT TURBINE TERMINALS RIGID PVC CONDUIT; 7. ALUMINUM WIRES MAY BE USED FOR HOME / UTILITY CONNECTION IF TRANSITION 120/240V 60Hz SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; UL LISTED WERE DONE IN A JNC. BOX. 14AWG WIRE MUST BE COPPER ONLY. dwg. n° 3-CMLT-1083 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 scale 1 : 1 rev. A size A sheet 2 of 24 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams
  • 36. Fig. 3. Grid Connection Option C:120/208 V, 60 Hz, 3 Phase, Junction Box at Tower Base 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is REVISIONS submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- REV. DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE NC Original release ECO 1180 01/29/06 POT in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower. A ECO 1212 5/24/07A VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN SPAN BETWN TOWER TOP A ACCORDANCE WITH NEC GUIDELINES TO AC MAIN SERVICE PANEL FOR COPPER WIRE USABLE AWG FOR 2% ONLY, ASSUMING GRID LINE-LINE VOLTAGE VOLTAGE IS 208V(L-L), DROP BETWEEN TURBINE PUTS OUT 1.8kW SKYSTREAM AND GRID 885 FT. 4 AWG "SKYSTREAM" 557 FT. 6 AWG NACELLE WIND TURBINE 351 FT. 8 AWG 220 FT. 10 AWGB CABLE EXAMPLE INDICATES #10 AWG B 139 FT. 12 AWG CABLE BASED ON 45FT FROM TOWER TO SWITCH TO MAIN PANEL. TOTAL 87 FT. 14 AWG = 220FT. FOR LONGER SPANS SEE WIRE CHART 120/208VAC NACELLE #10-3 UF-B DIRECT 3-ph, MAIN CHASSIS BURIAL CABLE W/#10 SERVICE ELECTRICALLY GND FROM YAW PANEL 40 A 40 A 40 A CONNECTED CONNECTION TO SAFTY TO YAW, WHICH SWITCH 208V AC 20 A MUST BE THREE-PH (2LINE) ELECTRICALLY 60HzC CONNECTED TO 20 A C THE TOWER DEDICATED WIND #10-3 W/#10 GND THWN- POWER SYSTEM UTILITY 2 CABLE FROM SAFETY KILOWATT-HOUR 6 9 KILOWATT-HOUR 5 SWITCHTO MAIN SERVICE METER 8 METER SAFETY SWITCH PANEL. LENGTH < 175FT (OPTIONAL) TOWER 2-POLE, 30A, 240VAC, (APPROX. G N L2 L1 SQUARE D #DU221RB 35 FT. N (white) N/G HIGH) AT TOWER BASE N N N N L1 (black) L1 L1 G L1 L2 L2D L1 L2 (red) D L2 L3 L3 L2 GND (bare/green) G G G 12 INCH MAX. 7 10 INCH MIN. 3 2 4 WIND POWER GROUND SYSTEM DISCONNECT SYSTEM GROUND SWITCH 2-POLE LEVEL 30A, 240VAC SQ-D #DU221RB * NOTES:E 6" MIN. E 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC ARTICLE 705. 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN PER NEC 690-17 READING "WARNING-ELECTRIC 3-PH, 4-WIRE, TOWER SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE 208 VAC GROUND AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION". TO SERVICE SYSTEM RUN FROM JNC. BOX AT 24 INCH MIN. 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". TOWER BASE TO HOME 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; TRANSFORMER, REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". UTILITY GRID 5. OPTION IS TO USE A JUNCTION BOX AT TOWER BASE INSTEAD OF A SWITCH. 6. LABEL "REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". 7. BI-DIRECTIONAL METER TO BE INSTALLED BY UTILITY (WHEN REQUIRED). TOWER 8. USE COPPER WIRES ONLY AT TURBINE TERMINALS 9. ALUMINUM WIRES MAY BE USED FOR HOME / UTILITY CONNECTION IF TRANSITION FOUNDATION TOP WERE DONE IN A JNC. BOX. 14AWG WIRE MUST BE COPPER ONLY. SURFACE TO BE MIN. 6" ABOVEF GROUND LVL. CAD-generated drawing REFER TO SWWP do not manually update Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. FOUNDATION DWG. APPROVALS DATE DRAWN 120/208V 60Hz 1" DIA. SCHED. 40 N.Agrawal 26 Jan 07 W/JCT BOX RIGID PVC CONDUIT; CHECKED P. Thomas 26 Jan 07 SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; RESP ENG D. Calley 26 Jan 07 CAD file : 3-CMLT-1084 Rev A 120-208V 60Hz ELECTRICAL CON UL LISTED - Skystream MFG ENG dwg. n° 3-CMLT-1084 NEXT ASSY USED ON 1 2 4 5 QUAL ENG 3 APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING scale none rev. A size A3 sheet 1 of 2 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams 5
  • 37. Fig. 4. Grid Connection Option D:120/208 V, 60 Hz, 3 Phase, Without Junction Box at Tower Base 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower. THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE SPAN BETWN TOWER TOPA VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN TO AC MAIN SERVICE PANEL FOR COPPER WIRE USABLE AWG FOR 2% A ACCORDANCE WITH NEC GUIDELINES ONLY, ASSUMING GRID VOLTAGE IS 208V(L-L), LINE-LINE VOLTAGE DROP BETWEEN TURBINE PUTS OUT 1.8kW SKYSTREAM AND GRID 885 FT. 4 AWG 557 FT. 6 AWG 351 FT. 8 AWG NACELLE 220 FT. 10 AWG "SKYSTREAM" 139 FT. 12 AWGB WIND TURBINE 87 FT. 14 AWG B FROM UP-TOWER 120/208VAC YAW JUNCTION BOX 3-ph, MAIN 120/208V AC 3-PHASE SERVICE (2 LINE) 60Hz PANEL 40 A 40 A 40 A NACELLE CHASSIS ELECTRICALLY 20 A CONNECTED TOC YAW WHICH 20 A C MUST BE ELECTRICALLY CONNECTED TO TOWER DEDICATED WIND #10-3 UF-B DIRECT BURIAL POWER SYSTEM CABLE W/#10 GND FROM UTILITY KILOWATT-HOUR KILOWATT-HOUR YAW TO MAIN SERVICES METER 6 PANEL.MAXIMUM DISTANCE METER (OPTIONAL) 220FT FOR #10 CABLE. SEE TOWER G N L2 L1 (APPROX. WIRE CHART FOR LONGER N (white) N/G N N 35 FT. SPANS N HIGH) L1 L1 L1 (black)D L1 L2 L2 D L2 (red) L3 L3 L2 GND (bare/green) G G G 7 3 2 4 7 WIND POWER GROUND SYSTEM TOWER DISCONNECT SYSTEM GROUND SYSTEM SWITCH 2-POLE GROUND 30A, 250VAC LEVEL SQ-D #DU221RBE E 6" MIN. 3-PH, 4-WIRE, * NOTES: 208 VAC 24 INCH MIN. 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC ARTICLE 705. TO SERVICE RUN FROM TOWER BASE TO HOME 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN PER NEC 690-17 READING "WARNING-ELECTRIC TRANSFORMER, UTILITY GRID SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION". TOWER 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". FOUNDATION TOP 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; REMOVING F SURFACE TO BE MIN. 6" ABOVE AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE".F GROUND LVL. 5. BI-DIRECTIONAL UTILITY METER TO BE INSTALLED BY UTILITY COMPANY (WHEN REFER TO SWWP FOUNDATION DWG. REQUIRED) Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. 1" DIA. SCHEDULE 40 6. USE COPPER WIRES ONLY AT TURBINE TERMINALS RIGID PVC CONDUIT; 7. ALUMINUM WIRES MAY BE USED FOR HOME / UTILITY CONNECTION IF TRANSITION 120/208 60Hz SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; UL LISTED WERE DONE IN A JNC. BOX. 14AWG WIRE MUST BE COPPER ONLY. dwg. n° 3-CMLT-1084 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 scale 1 : 1 rev. A size A sheet 2 of 26 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams
  • 38. Fig. 5. Grid Connection Option E: 230 V, 1 Phase, Junction Box at Tower Base 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is REVISIONS submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- REV. DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower. THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE NC A ECO# 1180 ECO 1212 4/13/07 5/24/07 - - SPAN BETWN TOWER TOP USABLE AWG FOR 2% TO AC MAIN PANEL (FOR LINE-NEUTRALA VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH CU WIRE), ASSUMING 230VAC (L-N) AT THE AC VOLTAGE DROP BETWN TURBINE AND A LOCAL EUROPEAN ELECTRICAL WIRING GUIDELINES MAIN SERVICE PANEL, MAIN SERVICE PANEL TURBINE OUTPUT 1.8kW 934 FT. 4 AWG (25mm^2) "SKYSTREAM" 588 FT. 6 AWG (16mm^2) WIND TURBINE 371 FT. 8 AWG (10mm^2) NACELLE 232 FT. 10 AWG (6mm^2) 146 FT. 12 AWG (4mm^2)B 92 FT. 14 AWG (2.5mm^2) B CONNECT NEUTRAL AND GND CABLE EXAMPLE INDICATES #10 AWG CABLE BASED ON LUG ONLY IN AC MAIN PANEL 45 FT FROM TOWER TO AND NOT IN SUB-PANEL. SWITCH, 187FT FROM SWITCH #10-2 UFB DIRECT TO MAIN PANEL. TOTAL 232 BURIAL CABLE W/#10 FT. FOR LONGER SPANS 230V, 1-ph, 40 A NACELLE CHASSIS GND FROM YAW SEE WIRE CHART. AC MAIN ELECTRICALLY CONNECTION TO SERVICE CONNECTED SAFETY SWITCH (230V PANEL 20 A TO YAW, WHICH 1-PH, 50HZ) MUST BE ELECTRICALLY other loadsC CONNECTED TO C THE TOWER UTILITY #10-2 W/#10 GND THWN-2 KILOWATT-HOUR CABLE FROM SAFTY SWITCH METER TO MAIN SERVICE PANEL N 2 4 5 9 LENGTH < 187 FT. N 6 8 SAFETY SWITCH TOWER 2-POLE, 30A, 240VAC, G (APPROX. G N L1 SQUARE D #DU221RB L1 35 FT. AT TOWER BASE N HIGH) N (blue) N N N G G G L1 (brown) L1 L1D L1 7 D L2 GND (yellow +green) GND GND G G 12 INCH MAX. 10 INCH MIN. 230 VAC (L-N) 2 4 DEDICATED WIND TO SERVICE POWER SYSTEM 3 GROUND TRANSFORMER, WIND POWER SYSTEM SYSTEM KILOWATT-HOUR UTILITY GRID DISCONNECT METER GROUND SWITCH 2-POLE LEVEL 30A, 240VAC SQ-D #DU221RB * NOTES: 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH LOCAL EUROPEANE 6" MIN. ELECTRICAL WIRING REGULATIONS. E 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN READING "WARNING-ELECTRIC SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOWER TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE AND LOAD MAY BE GROUND ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION". SYSTEM RUN FROM JNC. BOX AT 24 INCH MIN. 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". TOWER BASE TO HOME 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". 5. OPTION IS TO USE A JUNCTION BOX AT TOWER BASE INSTEAD OF A SWITCH. 6. LABEL "REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". 7. BI-DIRECTIONAL METER TO BE INSTALLED BY UTILITY (WHEN REQUIRED). TOWER 8. USE COPPER WIRES ONLY AT TURBINE TERMINALS 9. ALUMINUM WIRES MAY BE USED FOR HOME / UTILITY CONNECTION IF TRANSITION FOUNDATION TOP WERE DONE IN A JNC. BOX. 14AWG WIRE MUST BE COPPER ONLY. SURFACE TO BE MIN. 6" ABOVE GROUND LVL. CAD-generated drawingF REFER TO SWWP do not manually update Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. FOUNDATION DWG. APPROVALS DATE 230 V 50Hz 1Ph 1" DIA. SCHED. 40 DRAWN N.Agrawal 8 Mar 07 W/ JCT BOX RIGID PVC CONDUIT; CHECKED - - SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; CAD file : 3-CMLT-1085 rev A 230V 50HZ 1PH RESP ENG - - UL LISTED - Skystream NEXT ASSY USED ON MFG ENG doc. n° 3-CMLT-1085 1 2 4 5 QUAL ENG 3 APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING scale none rev. A size A3 sheet 1 of 1 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams 7
  • 39. Fig. 6. Battery Backup Option A: 120/240 V Battery Charging System Using Dual Inverters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is REVISIONS submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- REV. DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED NC ECO1180 THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any 4/16/07 A ECO 1212 5/24/07 other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower. SPAN BETWN TOWER TOPA VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN TO AC MAIN PANEL (FOR USABLE AWG FOR 4% A LINE-LINE VOLTAGE ACCORDANCE WITH NEC GUIDELINES CU WIRE), ASSUMING 240VAC (L-L) AT AC MAIN DROP BETWN TURBINE PANEL, TURBINE OUTPUT AND AC MAIN SERVICE BATTERY CHARGING ONLY; NOT GRID CONNECTED 1.8kW PANEL ) 2074 FT. 4 AWG 1305 FT. 6 AWG NACELLE 823 FT. 8 AWG 516 FT. 10 AWG 325 FT. 12 AWG CABLE EXAMPLEB "SKYSTREAM" INDICATES #10 AWG AC MAIN 204 FT. 14 AWG B WIND TURBINE CABLE BASED ON 45 FT. SERVICE 2 X OUTBACK FX SERIES FROM TOWER TO PANEL SAFETY SWITCH, 471 FT. 200A FROM SWITCH TO MAIN 120/240V MATE/HUB PANEL. TOTAL = 516 FUSE FOR LONGER LENGTHS + SEE WIRE CHART. AC HOT OUT NACELLE 48V 10-3 UF-B DIRECT 40 A 40 A CHASSIS AC NEUTRAL OUT ELECTRICALLY BURIAL CABLE W/#10 CONNECT NEUTRAL AND GROUND - CONNECTED GND FROM YAW LUG ONLY IN AC MAIN PANEL 20 A CHASSIS GROUND TO YAW, WHICH CONNECT TO SAFETY AND NOT IN SUB-PANEL. MUST BE SWITCH 240V, SPLIT 20 A ELECTRICALLY PHASE 60HzC CONNECTED TO #10/3 W/#10 GND THWN-2 C THE TOWER MATE/HUB CABLE FROM SAFTY SWITCH TO MAIN SERVICE + PANEL LENGTH < 471 FT AC HOT OUT 48V N AC NEUTRAL OUT - 2 4 5 7 CHASSIS GROUND 6 SAFETY SWITCH TOWER 2-POLE, 30A, 240VAC, G (APPROX. G N L2 L1 SQUARE D #DU221RB 35 FT. HIGH) AT TOWER BASE N (white) N + N L1 (black) TO BATTERY BANK G L1 -D L1 L2 (red) L2 D L2 G (green) GND G 12 INCH MAX. 10 INCH MIN. + - GROUND DEDICATED WIND POWER SYSTEM 3 SYSTEM KILOWATT-HOUR SOUTHWEST METER WINDPOWER GROUND LEVEL BATTERY SENSOR (communicatesE 6" MIN. E wirelessly with HUB the Skystream TOWER GROUND 3.7 wind turbine) SYSTEM RUN FROM JNC. BOX AT 24 INCH MIN. TOWER BASE TO HOME MATE TOWER FOUNDATION TOP * NOTES: SURFACE TO BE MIN. 6" ABOVE 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC ARTICLE 705. GROUND LVL. 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN PER NEC 690-17 READING "WARNING-ELECTRIC Unless otherwise specified CAD-generated drawingF dimensions are in mm. do not manually update REFER TO SWWP SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. FOUNDATION DWG. AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION". tolerances are : 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". distances angles APPROVALS DATE Battery charging in a 240V 1" DIA. SCHED. 40 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; X. ± .5 ± 30 DRAWN N.Agrawal 18 Sep 06 system REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". .X ± .2 RIGID PVC CONDUIT; 5. LABEL "REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". .XX ± .1 CHECKED P. Thomas 18 Sep 06 with two 120V inverters SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; 6. ONLY COPPER WIRES MUST BE USED AT TURBINE TERMINALS. RESP ENG D. Calley 18 Sep 06 CAD file : 3-CMLT-1087 Rev A BATTERY CHARGING - ELECTRICA UL LISTED 7. USE APPROPRIATE AWG WIRE FOR BATTERY CONNECTIONS. - Skystream MATERIAL - NEXT ASSY USED ON FINISH -- MFG ENG doc. n° 3-CMLT-1087 1 2 4 5 QUAL ENG 3 APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING scale none rev. A size A3 sheet 1 of 38 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams
  • 40. Fig. 7. Battery Backup Option B: 120/240 V Battery Charging System Using Autotransformer and Inverter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SPAN BETWN TOWER TOP USABLE AWG FOR 4% TO AC MAIN PANEL (FOR LINE-LINE VOLTAGE THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE CU WIRE), ASSUMING DROP BETWN TURBINE 240VAC (L-L) AT AC MAIN AND AC MAIN SERVICE PANEL, TURBINE OUTPUT PANEL)A VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN 1.8kW A ACCORDANCE WITH NEC GUIDELINES 2074 FT. 4 AWG 1305 FT. 6 AWG BATTERY CHARGING ONLY; NOT GRID CONNECTED 823 FT. 8 AWG 516 FT. 10 AWG NACELLE 325 FT. 12 AWG 204 FT. 14 AWGB "SKYSTREAM" AC MAIN B WIND TURBINE SERVICE OUTBACK PSX-240 OR OUTBACK FX SERIES PANEL XANTREX/TRACE T240 200A 120/240V MATE/HUB CONNECT NEUTRAL AND GROUND FUSE 10-3 UFB DIRECT LUG ONLY IN AC MAIN PANEL L1 BURIAL CABLE W/#10 AND NOT IN SUB-PANEL. + AC HOT OUT NACELLE GND FROM YAW 48V 40 A 40 A CHASSIS CONNECT TO SAFETY AC NEUTRAL OUT ELECTRICALLY SWITCH CABLE EXAMPLE - CONNECTED INDICATES #10 AWG 20 A CHASSIS GROUND CABLE BASED ON 45 FT. N TO YAW, WHICH MUST BE FROM TOWER TO 20 A ELECTRICALLY SAFETY SWITCH, 471 FT.C CONNECTED TO FROM SWITCH TO MAIN C THE TOWER PANEL. TOTAL = 516 FOR LONGER LENGTHS SEE WIRE CHART. L2 #10/3 W/#10 GND THWN-2 N G 2 4 5 7 CABLE FROM SAFTY 6 SAFETY SWITCH SWITCH TO MAIN SERVICE TOWER 2-POLE, 30A, 240VAC, PANEL LENGTH < 471 FT G (APPROX. G N L2 L1 SQUARE D #DU221RB 35 FT. HIGH) AT TOWER BASE N (white) N + 120V TO BATTERY BANK N L1 (black) L1 G -D L1 L2 (red) L2 D L2 G (green) GND G 12 INCH MAX. 10 INCH MIN. + - GROUND DEDICATED WIND POWER SYSTEM 3 SYSTEM KILOWATT-HOUR SOUTHWEST METER WINDPOWER GROUND LEVEL BATTERY SENSOR (communicatesE 6" MIN. E wirelessly with the Skystream TOWER GROUND 3.7 wind turbine) SYSTEM RUN FROM JNC. BOX AT 24 INCH MIN. TOWER BASE TO HOME * NOTES: TOWER 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC ARTICLE 705. FOUNDATION TOP 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN PER NEC 690-17 READING "WARNING-ELECTRIC SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE SURFACE TO BE AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION". F MIN. 6" ABOVE 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER".F GROUND LVL. 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; REFER TO SWWP REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". FOUNDATION DWG. 5. LABEL "REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". 6. ONLY COPPER WIRES MUST BE USED AT TURBINE TERMINALS. Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. 1" DIA. SCHED. 40 7. USE APPROPRIATE AWG WIRE FOR BATTERY CONNECTIONS. Battery charging with a 120VAC RIGID PVC CONDUIT; inverter and 120/240V SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; Autotransformer UL LISTED doc. n° 3-CMLT-1087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 scale 1 : 1 rev. A size A sheet 2 of 3 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams 9
  • 41. Fig. 8. Battery Backup Option C: 120 V Battery Charging System Using Single Inverter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SPAN BETWN TOWER TOP USABLE AWG FOR 8% THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE TO AC MAIN PANEL (FOR CU WIRE), ASSUMING LINE-NEUTRAL VOLTAGE DROP 120VAC (L-N) AT BETWN TURBINE ANDA VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN INVERTER TERMINALS, PEAK OUTPUT 3.0kW INVERTER A ACCORDANCE WITH NEC GUIDELINES 646 FT. 4 AWG BATTERY CHARGING ONLY; NOT GRID CONNECTED 407 FT. 6 AWG 256 FT. 8 AWG 161 FT. 10 AWG "SKYSTREAM" NACELLE WIND TURBINE 101 FT. 12 AWG 64 FT. 14 AWGB CABLE EXAMPLE INDICATES #10 AWG B CABLE BASED ON 45FT FROM TOWER TO SWITCH, 116 FT FROM SWITCH TO AC MAIN OUTBACK FX SERIES MAIN PANEL. TOTAL =161 FT. FOR LONGER SPANS SEE WIRE CHART. SERVICE 200A PANEL 120/240V MATE/HUB FUSE CONNECT NEUTRAL AND GROUND + LUG ONLY IN AC MAIN PANEL AC HOT OUT NACELLE AND NOT IN SUB-PANEL. 48V #10-2 UF-B DIRECT AC NEUTRAL OUT 40 A 40 A CHASSIS ELECTRICALLY BURIAL CABLE - CONNECTED W/#10 GND FROM 20 A CHASSIS GROUND TO YAW, WHICH YAW CONNECTION TO MUST BE SAFETY SWITCH 20 A ELECTRICALLYC CONNECTED TO C THE TOWER #10-2 W/#10 GND THWN-2 CABLE FROM SAFETY SWITCH TO MAIN SERVICE CABLE LENGTH < 116FT N 2 4 5 7 6 SAFETY SWITCH TOWER 2-POLE, 30A, 240VAC, G (APPROX. G N L1 SQUARE D #DU221RB 35 FT. HIGH) AT TOWER BASE N (white) N + N TO BATTERY BANK G L1 (black) L1 -D L1 D L2 G (green) GND G 12 INCH MAX. 10 INCH MIN. + - GROUND DEDICATED WIND POWER SYSTEM 3 SYSTEM KILOWATT-HOUR SOUTHWEST METER WINDPOWER GROUND LEVEL BATTERY SENSOR (communicates EE 6" MIN. E wirelessly with the Skystream TOWER GROUND 3.7 wind turbine) SYSTEM RUN FROM JNC. BOX AT 24 INCH MIN. TOWER BASE TO HOME * NOTES: 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC ARTICLE 705. TOWER 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN PER NEC 690-17 READING "WARNING-ELECTRIC FOUNDATION TOP SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE SURFACE TO BE AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION". 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". F MIN. 6" ABOVE 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH;F GROUND LVL. REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". REFER TO SWWP 5. LABEL "REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". FOUNDATION DWG. 6. ONLY COPPER WIRES MUST BE USED AT TURBINE TERMINALS. 7. USE APPROPRIATE AWG WIRE FOR BATTERY CONNECTIONS. Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. 1" DIA. SCHED. 40 Battery charging with a RIGID PVC CONDUIT; 120VAC inverter SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; UL LISTED doc. n° 3-CMLT-1087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 scale 1 : 1 rev. A size A sheet 3 of 310 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams
  • 42. Fig. 9. Battery Backup Option D: 230 V, 1 Phase, Junction Box at Tower 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is REVISIONS submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- REV. DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower. THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE NC A ECO 1180 ECO 1212 4/16/07 5/24/07 - - SPAN BETWN TOWER TOP TO AC MAIN PANEL (FOR USABLE AWG FOR 2%A VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN ACCORDANCE WITH CU WIRE), ASSUMING LINE-NEUTRAL A VOLTAGE DROP LOCAL EUROPEAN ELECTRICAL WIRING GUIDELINES 230VAC (L-N) AT INVERTER TERMINALS, BETWN TURBINE AND TURBINE OUTPUT 1.8kW INVERTER 934 FT. 4 AWG (25mm^2) BATTERY CHARGING ONLY; NOT GRID CONNECTED 588 FT. 6 AWG (16mm^2) 371 FT. 8 AWG (10mm^2) NACELLE 232 FT. 10 AWG (6mm^2) 146 FT. 12 AWG (4mm^2) 92 FT. 14 AWG (2.5mm^2)B B 230V, 1-ph, OUTBACK FX SERIES AC MAIN "SKYSTREAM" SERVICE 200A WIND TURBINE PANEL MATE/HUB FUSE CONNECT NEUTRAL AND GND + LUG ONLY IN AC MAIN PANEL AC HOT OUT AND NOT IN SUB-PANEL. 48V 40 A NACELLE CHASSIS CABLE EXAMPLE AC NEUTRAL OUT ELECTRICALLY INDCATES #10 AWG - CONNECTED BASED ON 45 FT 20 A CHASSIS GROUND TO YAW, WHICH FROM TOWER TO MUST BE SWITCH, 187 FT ELECTRICALLY FROM SWITCH TO #10-2 UF-B DIRECT other loadsC CONNECTED TO MAIN PANEL. C THE TOWER BURIAL CABLE W/#10 TOTAL =232FT. GND FROM YAW FOR LONGER SPANS CONNECTION TO SAFTY SEE WIRE CHART SWITCH 230V 1-PH, 50 Hz #10-2 W/#10 GND THWN-2 N 2 4 5 7 CABLE FROM SAFETY SWITCH 6 SAFETY SWITCH TO MAIN SERVICE CABLE. TOWER 2-POLE, 30A, 240VAC, LENGTH < 187FT G (APPROX. G N L1 SQUARE D #DU221RB 35 FT. HIGH) AT TOWER BASE N (blue) N + N TO BATTERY BANK G L1 (brown) L1 -D L1 D L2 GND (yellow +green) GND G 12 INCH MAX. 10 INCH MIN. DEDICATED WIND + - POWER SYSTEM 3 GROUND KILOWATT-HOUR SYSTEM SOUTHWEST METER WINDPOWER GROUND BATTERY SENSOR LEVEL 3-CMBP-3083 * NOTES: 6" MIN. (communicates EE E 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE LOCAL EUROPEAN ELECTRICAL wirelessly with WIRING REGULATIONS. TOWER 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN READING "WARNING - ELECTRIC SHOCK HAZARD - DO NOT the Skystream GROUND RUN FROM JNC. BOX AT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED 3.7 wind turbine) SYSTEM 24 INCH MIN. IN THE OFF POSITION". TOWER BASE TO HOME 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". 5. LABEL "REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". 6. ONLY COPPER WIRES MUST BE USED AT TURBINE TERMINALS. TOWER 7. USE APPROPRIATE GAUGE WIRE FOR BATTERY CONNECTIONS. FOUNDATION TOP SURFACE TO BE MIN. 6" ABOVE GROUND LVL. Unless otherwise specified CAD-generated drawingF REFER TO SWWP dimensions are in mm. do not manually update tolerances are : Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. FOUNDATION DWG. distances angles APPROVALS DATE Battery charging in a 230V 1" DIA. SCHED. 40 X. ± .5 ± 30 DRAWN N.Agrawal 8 Mar 07 Single phase system RIGID PVC CONDUIT; .X ± .2 CHECKED - .XX ± .1 - SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; RESP ENG CAD file : 3-CMLT-1086 Rev A BATTERY CHARGING 230V 1 PH E - - UL LISTED - Skystream MATERIAL - NEXT ASSY USED ON FINISH -- MFG ENG doc. n° 3-CMLT-1086 1 2 4 5 QUAL ENG 3 APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING scale none rev. A size A3 sheet 1 of 1 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams 11
  • 43. Fig. 10. Battery Charging, Grid Connected, Option A: 120/240 V Battery Charging, Grid Connected Using Dual Inverters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is REVISIONS submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- REV. DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE NC ECO 1188 4/27/07 POT in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any A ECO 1212 5/24/07 other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower.A VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN SPAN BETWN TOWER TO AC MAIN PANEL (FOR TOP USABLE AWG FOR 4% A ACCORDANCE WITH NEC GUIDELINES CU WIRE), ASSUMING 240VAC (L-L) AT AC MAIN LINE-LINE VOLTAGE DROP BETWN TURBINE PANEL, TURBINE OUTPUT AND AC SUB SERVICE 1.8kW PANEL) BATTERY CHARGING, GRID CONNECTED 2074 FT. 4 AWG 1305 FT. 6 AWG (INVERTER CONNECTIONS ARE 823 FT. 8 AWG NACELLE FOR ILLUSTRATION ONLY. FOR 516 FT. 10 AWG EXACT CONNECTIONS REFER TO 325 FT. 12 AWG THE SPECIFIC INVERTER MANUAL) 204 FT. 14 AWGB "SKYSTREAM" (TO BATTERY BANK) B WIND TURBINE + - (2X) OUTBACK GFX SERIES CABLE EXAMPLE OR XANTREX SW SERIES INDICATES #10 AWG CABLE BASED ON 45 FT. 200A MATE/HUB FROM TOWER TO FUSE HUB SAFETY SWITCH, 471 FT. + AC HOT IN FROM SWITCH TO SUB NACELLE PANEL. TOTAL = 516 FT. AC NEUTRAL IN CHASSIS 10-3 UF-B DIRECT 48V BURIAL CABLE W/#10 FOR LONGER LENGTHS MATE ELECTRICALLY SEE WIRE CHART. - CHASSIS GROUND CONNECTED GND FROM YAW TO YAW, WHICH CONNECT TO SAFETY AC HOT OUT MUST BE ELECTRICALLY SWITCH 240V, SPLIT + - AC NEUTRAL OUT PHASE 60Hz #10-3 W/#10 GND SOUTHWESTC CONNECTED TO AC MAIN SERVICE C THE TOWER THWN-2 CABLE FROM WINDPOWER SAFETY SWITCH TO BATTERY SENSOR PANEL 120/240V SUB SERVICE PANEL LENGTH < 471 FT (communicates MATE/HUB MAIN wirelessly with BREAKER the wind + AC HOT IN 40 A 40 A 2 4 5 7 turbine) 48V AC NEUTRAL IN 6 SAFETY SWITCH TOWER - CHASSIS GROUND 20 A L2 2-POLE, 30A, 240VAC, (APPROX. G N L2 L1 SQUARE D #DU221RB 35 FT. N (white) N AC HOT OUT N L1 AT TOWER BASE 20 A HIGH) AC NEUTRAL OUT N L1 (black) L1 G HOUSEHOLD LOADS L1 L2 UTILITYD L1 L2 (red) L2 MAIN METER D L2 SUB PANEL BREAKER G (green) GND 120/240V 40 A 40 A G 12 INCH MAX. 10 INCH MIN. 20 A N G DEDICATED WIND 20 A POWER SYSTEM 3 KILOWATT-HOUR G METER GROUND LEVEL HOUSEHOLD LOADSE 6" MIN. E N TOWER GROUND SYSTEM RUN FROM JNC. BOX AT 24 INCH MIN. TOWER BASE TO HOME G GROUND 240VAC SYSTEM TO SERVICE TRANSFORMER, UTILITY GRID TOWER FOUNDATION TOP * NOTES: SURFACE TO BE MIN. 6" ABOVE 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC ARTICLE 705. GROUND LVL. 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN PER NEC 690-17 READING "WARNING-ELECTRIC Unless otherwise specified CAD-generated drawingF dimensions are in mm. do not manually update REFER TO SWWP SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. FOUNDATION DWG. AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION". tolerances are : 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". distances angles APPROVALS DATE Battery charging in a 240V 1" DIA. SCHED. 40 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; X. ± .5 ± 30 DRAWN N.Agrawal 18 Sep 06 Grid Tied system REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". .X ± .2 RIGID PVC CONDUIT; 5. LABEL "REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". .XX ± .1 CHECKED P. Thomas 18 Sep 06 with two 120V inverters SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; 6. ONLY COPPER WIRES MUST BE USED AT TURBINE TERMINALS. RESP ENG D. Calley 18 Sep 06 CAD file : 3-CMLT-1088 Rev A BATTERY CHARGING WITH GRID T UL LISTED 7. USE APPROPRIATE AWG WIRE FOR BATTERY CONNECTIONS. - Skystream MATERIAL - NEXT ASSY USED ON FINISH -- MFG ENG doc. n° 3-CMLT-1088 1 2 4 5 QUAL ENG 3 APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING scale none rev. A size A3 sheet 1 of 312 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams
  • 44. Fig. 11. Battery Charging, Grid Connected, Option B: 120/240 V Battery Charging, Grid Connected Using Autotransformer and Inverter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SPAN BETWN TOWER TOP USABLE AWG FOR 4% TO AC MAIN PANEL (FOR LINE-LINE VOLTAGE THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE CU WIRE), ASSUMING DROP BETWN TURBINE 240VAC (L-L) AT AC MAIN AND AC SUB SERVICE PANEL, TURBINE OUTPUT PANEL)A VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN 1.8kW A ACCORDANCE WITH NEC GUIDELINES 2074 FT. 4 AWG 1305 FT. 6 AWG 823 FT. 8 AWG BATTERY CHARGING, GRID CONNECTED 516 FT. 10 AWG NACELLE 325 FT. 12 AWG 204 FT. 14 AWGB "SKYSTREAM" AC SUB B WIND TURBINE SERVICE OUTBACK PSX-240 OR OUTBACK GFX SERIES PANEL XANTREX/TRACE T240 OR XANTREX SW SERIES CABLE EXAMPLE 120/240V 200A INDICATES #10 AWG L1 MATE/HUB 10-3 UFB DIRECT CABLE BASED ON 45 FT. MAIN FUSE BURIAL CABLE W/#10 FROM TOWER TO SAFETY BREAKER AC HOT OUT + NACELLE GND FROM YAW SWITCH, 471 FT. FROM 40 A 40 A CHASSIS CONNECT TO SAFETY SWITCH TO SUB PANEL. AC NEUTRAL OUT 48V ELECTRICALLY SWITCH TOTAL = 516 FOR CONNECTED CHASSIS GROUND - TO YAW, WHICH LONGER LENGTHS SEE 20 A N MUST BE WIRE CHART. AC NEUTRAL IN ELECTRICALLY 20 AC CONNECTED TO AC HOT IN C THE TOWER HOUSEHOLD LOADS #10/3 W/#10 GND L2 THWN-2 CABLE FROM SAFETY SWITCH TO + SUB SERVICE PANEL G TO BATTERY + - 2 4 5 7 N BANK SWWP LENGTH < 471 FT BATTERY SENSOR 6 SAFETY SWITCH - TOWER 2-POLE, 30A, 240VAC, (APPROX. G (communicates G N L2 L1 SQUARE D #DU221RB wirelessly with the 35 FT. AT TOWER BASE N (white) N HIGH) Skystream 3.7 wind 120V turbine) N L1 (black) L1 AC MAIN SERVICE G PANEL 120/240VD L1 L2 (red) L2 D MAIN L2 BREAKER G (green) GND G 40 A 40 A 12 INCH MAX. 10 INCH MIN. 20 A L2 DEDICATED WIND GROUND POWER SYSTEM 3 N L1 KILOWATT-HOUR SYSTEM 20 A HOUSEHOLD LOADS METER GROUND LEVEL UTILITY METERE 6" MIN. E TOWER GROUND SYSTEM RUN FROM JNC. BOX AT 24 INCH MIN. N TOWER BASE TO HOME G G 240VAC TOWER TO SERVICE FOUNDATION TOP * NOTES: TRANSFORMER, SURFACE TO BE 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC ARTICLE 705. UTILITY GRID F MIN. 6" ABOVE 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN PER NEC 690-17 READING "WARNING-ELECTRICF GROUND LVL. SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE REFER TO SWWP AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION". FOUNDATION DWG. 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". GROUND E 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; SYSTEM Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. 1" DIA. SCHED. 40 REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". Battery charging with a 120VAC 5. LABEL "REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". RIGID PVC CONDUIT; 6. ONLY COPPER WIRES MUST BE USED AT TURBINE TERMINALS. inverter, 120/240V Autotransformer SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; with 240VAC Grid Tie 7. USE APPROPRIATE AWG WIRE FOR BATTERY CONNECTIONS. UL LISTED doc. n° 3-CMLT-1088 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 scale 1 : 1 rev. A size A sheet 2 of 3 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams 13
  • 45. Fig. 12. Battery Charging, Grid Connected, Option C: 120 V Battery Charging, Grid Connected Using Single Inverter 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SPAN BETWN TOWER TOP USABLE AWG FOR 8% THIS DRAWING IS FOR REFERENCE TO AC MAIN PANEL (FOR CU WIRE), ASSUMING LINE-NEUTRAL VOLTAGE DROP 120VAC (L-N) AT BETWN TURBINE ANDA VARIATIONS MAY BE MADE IN INVERTER TERMINALS, PEAK OUTPUT 3.0kW SUB SERVICE PANEL A ACCORDANCE WITH NEC GUIDELINES 646 FT. 4 AWG 407 FT. 6 AWG "SKYSTREAM" BATTERY CHARGING, GRID CONNECTED 256 FT. 8 AWG WIND TURBINE 161 FT. 10 AWG NACELLE 101 FT. 12 AWG (TO BATTERY BANK) CABLE EXAMPLE INDICATES #10 AWG 14 AWG CABLE BASED ON 45FT FROM TOWER + - 64 FT.B TO SWITCH, 116 FT FROM SWITCH TO B SUB PANEL. TOTAL =161 FT. FOR LONGER SPANS SEE WIRE CHART. 200A (INVERTER CONNECTIONS ARE FUSE FOR ILLUSTRATION ONLY. FOR OUTBACK GFX SERIES EXACT CONNECTIONS REFER TO OR XANTREX SW SERIES THE SPECIFIC INVERTER MANUAL) NACELLE MATE/HUB CHASSIS #10-2 UF-B DIRECT ELECTRICALLY BURIAL CABLE + - + AC HOT IN CONNECTED W/#10 GND FROM SOUTHWEST AC MAIN SERVICE TO YAW, WHICH WINDPOWER 48V AC NEUTRAL IN YAW CONNECTION TO PANEL 120/240V MUST BE SAFETY SWITCH BATTERY SENSOR - CHASSIS GROUND ELECTRICALLYC CONNECTED TO (communicates AC HOT OUT MAIN C THE TOWER wirelessly with BREAKER #10-2 W/#10 GND the wind AC NEUTRAL OUT 40 A 40 A THWN-2 CABLE FROM turbine) SAFETY SWITCH TO SUB SERVICE PANEL; 20 A L2 2 4 5 7 CABLE LENGTH < 116FT L1 L2 N L1 6 SAFETY SWITCH SUB PANEL 20 A HOUSEHOLD LOADS TOWER 2-POLE, 30A, 240VAC, 120/240V MAIN (APPROX. G N L1 SQUARE D #DU221RB BREAKER 35 FT. AT TOWER BASE UTILITY 40 A 40 A HIGH) N (white) N METER N G 20 A L1 (black) L1D L1 D 20 A L2 G (green) GND N G G 12 INCH MAX. 10 INCH MIN. HOUSEHOLD G LOADS DEDICATED WIND POWER SYSTEM 3 KILOWATT-HOUR METER GROUND N LEVEL GE 6" MIN. E TOWER GROUND 240VAC GROUND RUN FROM JNC. BOX AT SYSTEM TO SERVICE SYSTEM 24 INCH MIN. TRANSFORMER, TOWER BASE TO HOME UTILITY GRID * NOTES: TOWER 1. EQUIPMENT SHALL BE INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEC ARTICLE 705. FOUNDATION TOP 2. PROVIDE WARNING SIGN PER NEC 690-17 READING "WARNING-ELECTRIC SURFACE TO BE SHOCK HAZARD-DO NOT TOUCH TERMINALS - TERMINALS ON BOTH THE LINE F MIN. 6" ABOVE AND LOAD MAY BE ENERGIZED IN THE OFF POSITION".F GROUND LVL. 3. LABEL "WIND POWER SYSTEM DEDICATED kW-HR METER". REFER TO SWWP 4. LABEL SWITCH AS "WIND GENERATOR SAFETY DISCONNECT SWITCH; FOUNDATION DWG. REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". 5. LABEL "REMOVING AC POWER TO TURBINE ACTIVATES ITS SAFETY BRAKE". Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. 6. ONLY COPPER WIRES MUST BE USED AT TURBINE TERMINALS. 1" DIA. SCHED. 40 7. USE APPROPRIATE AWG WIRE FOR BATTERY CONNECTIONS. Battery charging with a RIGID PVC CONDUIT; 120VAC inverter with grid tie SUNLIGHT RESISTANT; UL LISTED doc. n° 3-CMLT-1088 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 scale 1 : 1 rev. A size A sheet 3 of 314 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams
  • 46. Fig. 13. Skystream Block Diagram 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is REVISIONS submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- REV. DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED X initial release 11/02/06 - in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any XA relay board detail added 11/17/06 - other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower.A A ALTERNATOR SAFETY CURRENT INVERTER YAW RELAY SENSE Y3 BOARD BOARD brushes carry power from the yaw board to Y2 the turbine terminals Ym2 RELAY CONTROLB Center B RL_G RECTIFY BOOST INVERT DPDT F4 L1 L1(black) Ym1 Y1 + + L1 YAW BRUSH DC DC N N (white) 400V N ASSY. and Y2 _ _ F3 FILTER L2 TURBINE L2 (red) Y1 Y3 DC AC L2 TERMINALS G G (green) Ym3C C COMMUNICATIONS TO GRID UP-TOWER RF BOARD NACELLED NACELLE GROUND D ANTENNA BROUGHT TO YAW Simple Detail of Relay board BOARD VIA SCREWS Ym3 RF LINK Ym2 ANTENNA RECTIFY Ym1 +E Y1 E Y2 _ Z RF DISPLAY Y3 UNIT Center LATCHING RELAY, RL4 RL1 RL2 RL3 NC NC NC Unless otherwise specified CAD-generated drawingF dimensions are in mm. do not manually update Control tolerances are : Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. voltage distances X. ± .5 angles ± 30 APPROVALS DATE DRAWN N. Agrawal 17 Nov 06 SKYSTREAM from .X ± .2 CHECKED BLOCK DIAGRAM inverter .XX ± .1 P. Thomas 17 Nov 06 RESP ENG CAD file : Skystream_block_diagram_revXB - Skystream MATERIAL - NEXT ASSY USED ON FINISH -- MFG ENG G. T. dwg. n° 1 2 4 5 QUAL ENG 3 APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING K. G. scale 1 : 1 rev. XB size A3 sheet 1 of 1 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix A: Electrical Diagrams 15
  • 47. TMAPPENDIX BTOWER GROUNDING Skystream Monopole Towers Southwest Windpower, Inc. 1801 West Route 66 Flagstaff, Arizona 86001 Phone: 928.779.9463 Fax: 928.779.1485 www.skystreamenergy.com  July 2007 Southwest Windpower, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 48. Skystream 3.7 Owner’s Manual Appendix B: Tower Grounding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is REVISIONS submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- REV. DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED NC Original release 01/29/06 POT in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower. Important Safety Instructions ______________________________ 3A A 1) INTRODUCTION _____________________________________ 4 External bond to tower 2) GROUNDING TECHNIQUES___________________________ 4 2-1 Copper Clad Electrodes Driven Into Soil _______________ 4B B Internal bonding to tower bolts using listed or approved clamp 2-1-1 Grounding Electrode Installation _______________ 5 2-1-2 Electric Resistance to Ground _________________ 5 2-1-3 Grounding Electrode Conductor: Material, Size,C C 4AWG or larger copper wire Bonding to Electrode & Bonding to Tower ____________ 6 SOIL CONCRETE 2-1-4 Conductor Size _____________________________ 6D 2-1-5 Bonding the Grounding Electrode Conductor to D the Earth Electrode _______________________________ 6 2 inch min. 2-1-6 Bondng the Grounding Electrode Conductor to the at foundationE bottom Tower __________________________________________ 6 E 2-1-6-1 Using a Tower Bolt/Nut Assembly ___________ 6 20ft of 1/2 inch dia. Listed or approved clamp for re-bar OR 4AWG connecting Copper to steel. 2-1-6-2 Using a Grounding Lut at Tower Base ________ 7 or larger bare Clamp is generally tin plated andF Copper conductor must prevent direct contact between Unless otherwise specified CAD-generated drawing dimensions are in mm. do not manually update 2-1-6-3 Using Exothermic Welding __________________ 7 Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. tolerances are : Cu and steel to prevent corrosion distances angles APPROVALS DATE Concrete encased X. ± .5 .X ± .2 .XX ± .1 ± 30 DRAWN CHECKED 2-2 Electrodes Encased in the Concrete of the Tower Foundation electrode N.Agrawal 26 Jan 07 P. Thomas 26 Jan 07 CAD file : Tower_Grounding RESP ENG D. Calley 26 Jan 07 - Skystream MATERIAL - dwg. n° 3-CMBP-3026 2-3 Bolting Grounding Lug to Tower Base ________________ 8 NEXT ASSY USED ON FINISH -- MFG ENG 1 2 3 4 5 APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING QUAL ENG scale none rev. A size A3 sheet 1 of 2 2 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix B: Tower Grounding
  • 49. IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONSREAD THESE INSTRUCTIONS IN THEIR ENTIRETY BEFORE INSTALLING. Professional installation highly recommended 1) SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS. This manual contains important instructions for grounding your Skystream monopole tower. In this guide 2) Read these instructions in their entirety before beginning. 3) Do not start installation unless all required equipment and tools are on site. TIP: Helpful information to ease the installation Professional installation highly recommended Warning: Risk of injury or death - proceed with extreme caution Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix B: Tower Grounding 3
  • 50. One - IntroductionEven though the wind turbine is grounded at the service panel it mustalso be grounded at the tower base. Grounding the tower at its basemay prevent electrical shocks, voltage surges and static charge build up.Proper tower grounding may also limit or minimize damage due to lightningstrikes.This document provides recommendations for grounding small wind tur-bine systems with rated line currents of less than 200A to achieve com-pliance with the 2005 USA National Electrical Code (NEC) as well asIEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standard 60364-5-54Selection and Erection of Electrical Equipment – Earthing Arrangements,Protective Conductors and Protective Bonding Conductors.The grounding information contained in this document is provided as areference. Please refer to the aforementioned NEC and IEC standardsfor complete detailed information. Local building codes and electricalstandards may differ from the information presented here and haveprecedence over this document.Two - Grounding TechniquesThere are several tower grounding techniques compliant with NEC Fig. 1 Electrode driven into ground.and IEC standards, this document presents two of the most commonapproaches: The tower may be grounded using a copper-clad electrode(s) of appro priate diameter and length. See the section entitled “Electrode resi- • Copper clad electrodes driven into the soil tance to ground” to determine the dimensions of the rod. The electrode shall be free from non-conductive coatings such as paint or enamel. Rod • Electrodes encased in the concrete of the tower foundation and pipe electrodes shall not be less than 8 ft (2.5 m) in length and shall consist of the following materials:2-1 Copper Clad Electrodes Driven Into the Soil a) Electrodes of pipe or conduit (hollow electrodes) shall not be smallerThe figure 1 depicts a typical tower grounded using an electrode driven than metric designator 21 (trade size 3/4) and, where of iron or steel,into the soil. shall have the outer surface galvanized or otherwise metal-coated for corrosion protection.4 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix B: Tower Grounding
  • 51. b) Electrodes of rods of iron or steel shall be at least 15.87 mm (5/8 in) 2-1-2 Electrode Resistance to Ground in diameter. Stainless steel rods less than 16 mm (5/8 in) in diameter, nonferrous rods, or their equivalent shall be listed* and shall not be The resistance to earth of a single ground rod can be calculated using less than 13 mm (1/2 in) in diameter. Dwight’s equation: R = [r/(2πL)]x[ln(4L/R)-1], where r is the soil resistivity, L is the length of the rod buried inside the earth and R = radius of the rod; ln stands for Other grounding electrode types may be used as recommended in the natural logarithm. 2005 NEC section 250.52 and in accordance with the user’s local electrical code authority. For calculating the resistance of the rod to ground, one must know the value of soil resistivity. This may be found in the local electrical code or *Be included in a list published by an organization (or marked as building inspector’s office/municipal office or by an actual soil resistivity such) that is acceptable to the local authority having jurisdiction in test. the area. For example, UL/CSA listed in USA/Canada. The resistance of a rod electrode to ground may be lowered by increasing2-1-1 Grounding Electrode Installation the rod diameter, increasing the buried length of the rod or by treatment of the soil to reduce its resistivity.The following information is excerpted from the 2005 NEC article 250.53(G). Refer to code for additional detailed information. If the single chosen electrode does not have a resistance to ground of 10 ohm or less, it shall be augmented by additional electrodes as necessary.The electrode shall be installed such that at least 8 ft (2.44 m) of length The overall resistance of multiple rods to ground would roughly equal theis in contact with the soil. It shall be driven into undisturbed soil within 1 resistance of a single rod to ground divided by the number of rods. Whereft of the tower foundation. It shall be driven to a depth of not less than 8 multiple such electrodes are installed to meet the above requirement, theyft (2.44 m) except that, where rock bottom is encountered, the electrode shall not be less than 6 ft (1.8 m) apart. The multiple rods must be bond-shall be driven at an oblique angle not to exceed 45 degrees from the ver- ed together using the grounding electrode conductor.tical or, where rock bottom is encountered at an angle up to 45 degrees,the electrode shall be permitted to be buried in a trench that is at least30 in (750 mm) deep. The upper end of the electrode shall be flush withor below ground level unless the aboveground end and grounding elec-trode conductor are protected against physical damage as specified below(quoted from 2005 NEC article 250.10): a) In installations where they are not likely to be damaged. b) Where enclosed in metal, wood, or equivalent protective covering. Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix B: Tower Grounding 5
  • 52. 2-1-3 Grounding Electrode Conductor: 2-1-6 Bonding the Grounding Electrode Conductor to the TowerMaterial, Size, Bonding to Electrode and Bonding to Tower The grounding conductor may be connected to the tower by any one theMaterial (Ref. 2005 NEC articles 250.62, 250.96(A). following means:The grounding electrode conductor shall be of copper, aluminum, or cop- 2-1-6-1 Using a Tower Bolt/Nut Assemblyper-clad aluminum. The material selected shall be resistant to any cor-rosive condition existing at the installation or shall be suitably protected a) Pre-assemble the extra nut (supplied in the tower bolt kit) on oneagainst corrosion. The conductor shall be solid or stranded, insulated, cov- of the tower bolts containing nuts “A” or “B” as shown in fig. 2C ofered or bare. Any non-conductive paint, enamel, or similar coating shall be Skystream Foundation and Tower Installation Manual. Move the extraremoved at threads, contact points, and contact surfaces or be connected nut towards the bottom of the bolt so that it does not interfere withby means of fittings designed so as to make such removal unnecessary. the nut to go on top of it.Note: Many local electrical standards do not permit the use of aluminum b) Assemble the nut and washer on top as explained in the Installationor copper-clad aluminum conductor and strictly require the use of copper Manual. Generously apply a listed “joint compound” to the sandwichingconductors. surfaces of the two nuts as well as to the tower bolt in question. The joint compound must be of the type to prevent corrosion between cop-2-1-4 Conductor Size per and galvanized steel.(Ref. 2005 NEC article 250.66(A)): c) Take one end of the grounding conductor and loop it once around the tower bolt containing the extra nut, between the upper and lowerWhere the grounding electrode conductor is connected to rod, pipe or nut. Generously apply joint compound to the grounding conductorplate electrodes, that portion of the conductor that is the sole connection and cable clamp in the area of attachment. Secure the conductorto the grounding electrode shall be a minimum of 6AWG copper wire or with a cable clamp around the loop so that it just clears the tower4AWG aluminum wire. nuts and keeps the loop snug around the tower bolt (see fig. 3). The cable clamp is required so that the ground wire does not slip out from2-1-5 Bonding the Grounding Electrode Conductor to the Earth between the nuts when the lower nut is tightened.Electrode d) Ensure that surfaces of the lower and upper nuts facing each other(Ref. 2005 NEC article 250.70): are free of dirt and have very clean surfaces. If necessary, wash and clean these surfaces. This is essential for a good electrical connectionThe grounding or bonding conductor shall be connected to the grounding between the ground conductor and the tower. Tighten the lower nutelectrode by exothermic welding, listed lugs, listed pressure connectors, towards the upper nut applying sufficient torque (50 lb-ft or 68 N-mlisted clamps, or other listed means. Connections depending on solder minimum) to securely clamp the grounding wire (see fig. 3).shall not be used. Ground clamps shall be listed (approved) for the materi-als of the grounding electrode and the grounding electrode conductor and, e) Erect the tower and level it as required by adjusted any or all of thewhere used on pipe, rod or other buried electrodes, shall also be listed for tower nuts. You may have to loosen the ground wire nut during thisdirect soil burial. adjustment. After finished adjusting the tower level, re-tighten the lower nut to the suggested torque to make sure the ground wire is securely sandwiched and bound between the two nuts.6 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix B: Tower Grounding
  • 53. Ensure that the grounding conductor has no sharp bends in it. This is important to keep its inductance low. The grounding conductor may be buried or contained in a conduit as explained in 2005 NEC article 250.64. 2-2 Electrodes encased in the concrete of the tower foundation (reference 2005 NEC article 250.52(A)(3)) A grounding electrode may also be encased in the concrete of the tower foundation. The electrode is located at the bottom of the foundation and connects to the tower mounting “J” bolts and to the tower base by means of a grounding conductor. Because the grounding electrode will be encased in concrete it should be A inspected and approved prior to pouring the foundation to avoid conflicts with local construction inspectors. DETAIL A SCALE 1 : 1 Two types of electrodes, their locations and their connection to the elec- trode grounding conductor are described below: a) The Electrode must be at least 20 ft (6.0 m) of one or more (electri-Fig. 2 Attaching the grounding wire to the tower base. cally connected by steel tie wires) bare or zinc galvanized steel or other electrically conductive coated steel reinforcing bars or rods of not less than 1/2 in (13 mm) in diameter, located near the bottom of2-1-6-2 Using a Grounding Lug at Tower Base the concrete foundation that is in direct contact with the earth. The electrode must be encased by at least 2 in (50 mm) of concrete asBond the grounding conductor to the tower base flange through a ground shown in figure 4. The reinforcing bars, if bare, must not be rusted atterminal lug attached to the tower base as shown in figure 2. Use a 1/4- the time of installation to prevent bad electrical connection between20 x 1.75 in long stainless steel bolt through a hole in the tower base and bars and with the grounding electrode conductor. The reinforcinga Nyloc stainless steel nut to fasten the ground lug to the underside of the bars must be electrically connected to the anchor bolts either usingtower base. The ground lug must be UL listed and must be type to that the steel tie wires or using the grounding electrode conductor. Theaccommodates up to 1/ 0 AWG wire minimum. grounding electrode conductor must not be smaller than 4AWG cop- per and must be electrically bonded to the bottom reinforcing bars2-1-6-3 Using Exothermic Welding using listed/approved means that is suitable for concrete encasement. Sufficient extra length of the conductor must be available to bring itBond the grounding conductor to the tower base flange by exother weld- out of the foundation top and at least 18 in above the foundation top.ing of the conductor to the base flange. Make exothermic welds strictly in It should then be bonded to the tower as described in section 1.5 ofaccordance with the weld manufacturer’s written recommendations. this document. b) The Electrode must be least 20 ft (6.0 m) of bare copper conductorElectrode conductor routing and placement / installation: not smaller than 4AWG. The copper conductor, which may be in the Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix B: Tower Grounding 7
  • 54. form of a coil, must lie at the bottom of the foundation with either a 2-in thick (maximum) tamped fill of earth covering the grounding coil or covered in concrete a maximum of 2 in above the soil at the bottom of the foundation. Sufficient extra length must be present in the copper conductor to bring it at least 18 inch above the foundation top where it should be bonded to the tower as described in section 1.5 of this document. On its way up, the copper conductor must also be bonded Tower bolt to the tower anchor bolts using a clamp listed or approved means that is suitable for concrete encasement and also suitable for connecting copper to steel. This listed clamp is generally tin plated and must be of the type to prevent direct contact between copper and steel to prevent corrosion.2-3 Bolting Grounding Lug to Tower BaseAn alternate method of attaching the electrode grounding conductor tothe tower is to drill a hole thorough the base and utilize a commerciallyavailable lug as depicted in figure 2. To connect the grounding conductor Cable clampto the tower base using this approach drill a 0.25 in (6 mm) hole throughthe tower base. After joining the grounding conductor to the listed lugaccording to the lug manufacturer’s instructions, bolt the lug to the towerbase with a stainless steel bolt and self locking nut. The listed lug is gen-erally tin plated and prevents corrosion between the galvanized steel towerand the copper conductor. Ground Electrode Conductor Lower Nut Fig. 3 Tower foundation bolt.8 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix B: Tower Grounding
  • 55. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proprietary rights are included in the information disclosed herein. This information is REVISIONS submitted in confidence and neither the document nor the information disclosed here- REV. DESCRIPTION DATE APPROVED NC Original release 01/29/06 POT in shall be reproduced or transferred to other documents for manufacturing or for any other purpose except as specifically authorized in writing by Southwest Windpower.A A External bond to towerB B Internal bonding to tower bolts using listed or approved clampC C 4AWG or larger copper wire SOIL CONCRETED D 2 inch min. at foundationE bottom E 20ft of 1/2 inch dia. Listed or approved clamp for re-bar OR 4AWG connecting Copper to steel. or larger bare Clamp is generally tin plated andF Copper conductor must prevent direct contact between Unless otherwise specified CAD-generated drawing dimensions are in mm. do not manually update Flagstaff, Arizona U.S.A. tolerances are : Cu and steel to prevent corrosion distances X. ± .5 angles ± 30 APPROVALS DRAWN DATE Concrete encased .X ± .2 CHECKED N.Agrawal 26 Jan 07 electrode .XX ± .1 P. Thomas 26 Jan 07 Fig. 4 Concrete encased electrode. RESP ENG CAD file : Tower_Grounding - D. Calley 26 Jan 07 - Skystream MATERIAL NEXT ASSY USED ON FINISH -- MFG ENG dwg. n° 3-CMBP-3026 1 2 3 4 5 APPLICATION DO NOT SCALE DRAWING QUAL ENG scale none rev. A size A3 sheet 1 of 2 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix B: Tower Grounding 9
  • 56. TMAPPENDIX CCERTIFICATION/COMPLIANCE Southwest Windpower, Inc. 1801 West Route 66 Flagstaff, Arizona 86001 Phone: 928.779.9463 Fax: 928.779.1485 www.skystreamenergy.com  April 2007 Southwest Windpower, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 57. 2. UL Certificate of Compliance (US & Canada)2 Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix C: Certification/Compliance
  • 58. 2. CE Declaration of Conformity (Europe) Skystream 3.7TM Owner’s Manual Appendix C: Certification/Compliance 3
  • 59. TMSouthwest Windpower, Inc. 1801 West Route 66 Flagstaff, Arizona 86001 Phone: 928.779.9463 Fax: 928.779.1485www.skystreamenergy.com

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