Energia Y Desarrollo Social

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Describe la relacion entre la energia y el desarrollo social.

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Energia Y Desarrollo Social

  1. 1. International Energy Agency © OECD/IEA - 20082008 © OECD/IEA -
  2. 2. Linking Energy and Development:  IEA’s Input Energy‐poverty data for an informed debate  Quantitative analysis and projections of energy  Setting the energy poverty questions in the global  S tti th t ti i th l b l energy context Outreach to OECD governments and financial  O t h t OECD t d fi i l communities © OECD/IEA - 2008
  3. 3. Energy and Development in  Th W ld E O tl k’ i The World Energy Outlook’s series: WEO 2002: Energy and Poverty (WSSD) WEO 2003: Universal Electricity Access WEO 2004: Chapter on Energy and Development WEO 2005: Electricity and Water Outlook  in Middle East & North Africa WEO 2006: Energy for Cooking in Developing Countries WEO 2007: Energy Poverty in India WEO 2008: Energy Poverty in Resource‐ Rich Sub  Saharan African Countries WEO 2009: Electricity access database and impact of current policy  on energy and poverty (just released) © OECD/IEA - 2008
  4. 4. Energy Use & Human Development Energy is a prerequisite to economic & human  development, it has impact: On meeting basic need for food and shelter On social development through education and On social development through education and public health The link between human development  and energy use  is complex, we have identify 3 key indicators:  1. The  access to electricity 1 The access to electricity 2. The amount of energy used per capita 3. The  level of transition to modern energy services © OECD/IEA - 2008
  5. 5. © OECD/IEA - 20082008 © OECD/IEA -
  6. 6. Electrification rates and population without  t l t i it access to electricity 90% Malawi Electrification rate Uganda 80% Bu rkina Faso Ave rage e lectrificatio n rate in developing co untries = 72% DR o f Co ngo 70% Tan zania E Mo zambique 60% Myan mar Afgh anistan 50% Ke nya Eth iopia 40% An gola Came roon 30% Su dan Ye men 20% Bangladesh Nige ria 10% Pakistan Indonesia 0% India 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1 000 1 100 1 200 1 300 1 400 1 456 Oth e rs Po pulation without access to electricity (million) © OECD/IEA - 2008
  7. 7. Number of People without Electricity 2008 2030 Electricity, 2008- © OECD/IEA - 2008
  8. 8. Key messages for Electricity Access •There is a strong link between people with access to electricity and poverty •In absence of vigorous policies, the number of people who will be denied electricity access will growth in the future, to reach 1.3 billion in 2030 • Priorities for poor countries are Infrastructure: An adequate size of electricity  market is a prerequisite to attract private investors.  k i ii i i Affordability: once the infrastructure is in place, the  main problem to overcome is households’ capability  i bl t i h h ld ’ bilit to assume up‐front costs.  © OECD/IEA - 2008
  9. 9. © OECD/IEA - 20082008 © OECD/IEA -
  10. 10. The link between Energy Use per Capita & Human Development Index 1.0 0.8 0.6 06 HDI 0.4 0.2 OECD Non-OECD 0.0 00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Primary energy demand per capita (toe/cap) There is a strong link between per capita energy use & the UN’s HDI - particularly for the least developed countries © OECD/IEA - 2008
  11. 11. Per Capita Energy Consumption & Poverty 3 apita mary energy demand per ca 2 d (toe) 1 average prim 0 >75 40-75 5-40 <5 percentage of population living with less than $2 a day Commercial energy Traditional biomass The link between per capita energy use & human development is much stronger when considering commercial energy alone © OECD/IEA - 2008
  12. 12. Per- Per-capita primary energy demand, 2030 In 2030, disparities in per‐capita energy consumption remain stark, ranging from  7 toe in Russia to 0.5 toe in sub‐Saharan Africa © OECD/IEA - 2008
  13. 13. © OECD/IEA - 20082008 © OECD/IEA -
  14. 14. Energy Development Steps nced ICT Advan Electricity Cooling Other Appliances Lighting Kerosene Candles Lighting Electricity Refrigeration Refrigeration Electricity, B i A li Basic Appliances Basic Appliances Batteries Oil Transport Oil Transport Cooking Biomass Gas, Cooking Cooking Heating Biomass Kero/LPG Electricity biogas Biomass Gas, , Electricity Candles Heating H i Heating Coal Coal © OECD/IEA - 2008
  15. 15. The transition to Modern Fuels 1,400 pita ption per cap LPG + Kerosene K 1,200 1,000 erage Total Final Consump 800 (kgoe) 600 400 200 Ave 0 >75% 40-75% 5-40% <5% percentage of the population living with less than 2$ a day Biomass Electricity Gas Coal LPG & kerosene Other oil © OECD/IEA - 2008 Use of modern energy sources grows with income
  16. 16. Share of Traditional Biomass in R id ti l Consumption, 2005 Residential C ti 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Sub-Saharan India Rest of Rest of East Indonesia China Latin North Africa Africa South Asia Asia America Biomass Other Today Biomass accounts for almost 70% of residential energy consumption in Developing Countries © OECD/IEA - 2008
  17. 17. Outlook for Number of People Relying on Traditional Biomass for Cooking g The population relying on traditional biomass is set to increase from 2.5 billion today to 2.7 billion in 2030 © OECD/IEA - 2008
  18. 18. Rural and Urban consumption patterns  Cooking fuel mix in India Rural Urban 100% Electricity LPG 80% Kerosene Dung Coke and coal 60% Fuelwood 40% 20% 0% 2000 2005 2015 2030 2000 2005 2015 2030 The existing great disparities in energy access between rural and urban zones will persist © OECD/IEA - 2008
  19. 19. Key messages for Access to Modern Fuels Fuel consumption level and choices are strongly  p correlated with income, but also depends on  availability of alternative fuels Poor people rely (and will do so in the next  decades) mostly on biomass to meet their energy  decades) mostl on biomass to meet their energ needs p Great disparities between rural and urban zones  will persist Biomass issues should be addressed within a  wider framework of energy needs; recognising  id f k f d ii that its use is often a response to lack of energy  alternatives There is a vicious circle that traps people in  poverty © OECD/IEA - 2008
  20. 20. © OECD/IEA - 20082008 © OECD/IEA -
  21. 21. Traditional Biomass Use The use of biomass in traditional and inefficient ways has  significant implications for: f l f Health Environment Women& Children © OECD/IEA - 2008
  22. 22. Energy Poverty & Health: Annual Deaths from Indoor Air Pollution 3 2.8 2 1.6 16 millions 1.2 1.3 1 0 Malaria Smoke from Tuberculosis HIV/AIDS biomass Worldwide 1.3 million premature deaths per year are directly 13 attributable to indoor air pollution from the use of biomass, with more than half of these deaths children © OECD/IEA - 2008 under five years of age
  23. 23. Energy Poverty & Environment: Effects of  Traditional Biomass Use Local deforestation from charcoal  production Local & regional air pollution Local & regional air pollution Greenhouse gas emissions © OECD/IEA - 2008
  24. 24. Energy Poverty & Women: Distance Travelled to Collect Fuelwood Distance Travelled to Collect Fuelwood © OECD/IEA - 2008
  25. 25. © OECD/IEA - 20082008 © OECD/IEA -
  26. 26. Key messages •There is a strong link between fuel consumption level, people with access to electricity and poverty •In absence of vigorous policies, the number of people who will be denied electricity access and who will rely mostly on biomass to meet their energy needs will growth in the future •Great disparities between rural and urban zones will persist • Energy Access issues should be addressed within a wider framework of energy needs, the priority being to accelerate the process to provide affordable, reliable energy access to all © OECD/IEA - 2008
  27. 27. © OECD/IEA - 20082008 © OECD/IEA -

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