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ENER-G Heat pump technology CPD

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An introductory presentation on ENER-G ground source and gas absorption heta pumps

An introductory presentation on ENER-G ground source and gas absorption heta pumps

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  • Good Morning/Afternoon, thankyou for inviting me here to give this CIBSE approved CPD presentation on Gas absorption Heat pumps. Before we start to enable me to generate certificates for you all please can you fill in your name and job title on this sheet which I will use to generate the certificates. Ok, As you can see my name is Mark and I work for ENER-G
  • Navigation Bar – In Corporate Presentation Only – Links to separate solution presentations
  • Explain COP
  • Advertising and PR – all about brand awareness First time the business has done any advertising in industry publications PR: Riskmanager, promoting Quick guides, renewal reminder services, wider energy management offer – CMR and solutions services.
  • GSHP & CHP Combined
  • Advertising and PR – all about brand awareness First time the business has done any advertising in industry publications PR: Riskmanager, promoting Quick guides, renewal reminder services, wider energy management offer – CMR and solutions services.
  • GSHP & CHP Combined
  • Good Morning/Afternoon, thankyou for inviting me here to give this CIBSE approved CPD presentation on Gas absorption Heat pumps. Before we start to enable me to generate certificates for you all please can you fill in your name and job title on this sheet which I will use to generate the certificates. Ok, As you can see my name is Mark and I work for ENER-G
  • This CPD presentation will take us through the history of Gas Absorption heat pumps leading to the technology behind gas absorption heat pumps and the ABSORPTION cycle to the different types and thier use. Then onto the benefits of using the technology with some comparisons with electric air source heat pumps as regards running costs and CO2 emissions and onto integration with other heat sources.
  • Of the four technologies being promoted as holding the key to the future of environmentally sustainable buildings - Solar, Biomass, Combined Heat and Power and Heat Pumps - it is the Heat Pump that has been around the longest. Following the successful application of absorption technology to domestic refrigeration in the 1950s and 60s, when over 4 million units were sold, the first commercial gas-fired chiller was produced in the USA by the Arkansas & Louisiana Gas Company (Arkla) in 1968. Between 1968 and 1991, over 300,000 of these chillers were sold. The modern era for gas heat pumps began in earnest in 1991, when the highly respected Italian heating equipment manufacturer Robur acquired the gas chiller business of US manufacturer Electrolux. After moving production to Europe, the process of continuous product development and improvement eventually led in 2004 to the commercial launch of the first gas absorption heat pump.
  • To explain the differences in the technology we must first look at an electric heat pump cycle. Conventional heat pump technology uses electrical power to drive a compressor powered thermodynamic cycle. The thermodynamic cycle is a closed system comprising of two heat exchangers, one outside of the building to recover heat from the outside air and a second inside the building to heat either inside air or water for circulating around the building. The two heat exchangers are piped together and heat is moved via a working fluid which is pumped (in gaseous form) between the two heat exchangers by the compressor. The working fluid flow is regulated by an expansion device. Typically, for every kW of electricity used to power the heat pump 2 to 3kW of heat are produced. This ratio is called the Coefficient of Performance (COP) and a COP of 2 to 3 is not uncommon for an electric heat pump.
  • The technology in a GAHP contains significant advantages over electric heat pumps. The sealed circuit should never need to be touched. The use of a natural ammonia/water mixture as the working fluid instead of the HFC refrigerant working fluids used by electric heat pumps gives the gas absorption option another plus in the battle against global warming and acts a useful counter to the Fgas Regulations (Regulation EC 842/2006). As well has having an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of zero, Ammonia has a global warming potential (GWP) of zero with an atmospheric life cycle of less than a week compared with the current generation of HFCs with GWPs of over 2,000 and atmospheric life cycles of 30 years or more. Even the smallest HFC leak from an electric heat pump can undo a large part of the environmental benefits achieved through the operating efficiencies. In contrast, the factory sealed system of the gas heat pump means that the opportunities for refrigerant leakage are much less than those of a conventional electric heat pump and, despite that, should the gas heat pump suffer a catastrophic leak, there will be no detrimental effect to the environment.
  • This CPD presentation will take us through the history of Gas Absorption heat pumps leading to the technology behind gas absorption heat pumps and the ABSORPTION cycle to the different types and thier use. Then onto the benefits of using the technology with some comparisons with electric air source heat pumps as regards running costs and CO2 emissions and onto integration with other heat sources.
  • The technology can be used in ground source and because of the basic COP ( which I will come onto later) they require upto 60% less bore holes which obviously greatly reduces civils costs.
  • Advertising and PR – all about brand awareness First time the business has done any advertising in industry publications PR: Riskmanager, promoting Quick guides, renewal reminder services, wider energy management offer – CMR and solutions services.
  • The standard air source versions are heating only. Air source versions of GAHP’s are designed outdoor instalation which reduces plantroom/ wall space required.
  • As you can see there is minimal drop off in output and efficiency when the temperature is colder outside
  • You can also have an alternate heating and cooling version of the gas heat pump. This isn’t quite as efficient in cooling mode as it is in heating.
  • Where you require heating and cooling simultaneously you can get considerable added value out of a GAHP as the cooling is effectively free.
  • This CPD presentation will take us through the history of Gas Absorption heat pumps leading to the technology behind gas absorption heat pumps and the ABSORPTION cycle to the different types and thier use. Then onto the benefits of using the technology with some comparisons with electric air source heat pumps as regards running costs and CO2 emissions and onto integration with other heat sources.
  • So a saving over 1 year in CO2 of 6.5 tonnes
  • The 3 comes from a the SAP 2009 report. Table 12 The 2.25 COP comes from an independent field trial report done by The Energy Saving Trust in September 2010. I have put the web address below.
  • The 3 comes from a the SAP 2009 report. Table 12 The 2.25 COP comes from an independent field trial report done by The Energy Saving Trust in September 2010. I have put the web address below.
  • So a saving over 1 year in CO2 of 5.7 tonnes
  • 1 tonne of CO2 is 556.2m3 Olympic swimming pool 50m*25m*2m = 250m3 556.2 * 6.5 + 3615.30 / 250 = 14.46 Would Rebecca Adlington swim through that to get another gold medal?
  • Estimates attribute 13% of ALL of the world’s Global Warming to refrigerants in the atmosphere. The F-Gas refrigerant used in conventional electric air conditioners and heat pumps is an extremely strong greenhouse gas. For example R410a has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 1725 times that of CO2. The Robur heat pump uses the environmentally benign water/ammonia mixture that has an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of zero and a global warming potential (GWP) of zero with an atmospheric life cycle of less than a week. In addition the sealed working fluid circuit means the opportunity for refrigerant leakage is much less than with a conventional heat pump system. 2.6 tonnes = 1446.12 m3 / 250 = 5.78
  • On to costs of running against a conventional boiler or an electric heat pump. Using a Gas Absorption Heat Pump in this scenario would have saved you approximately £700 against a condensing boiler and £1200 against an electric heat pump. Who would have thought that an electric air source heat pump using utilising renewable energy would cost more to run than a gas boiler!!!
  • As you can see running the heat pump for as much time as possible gives the best cost savings and the best CO2 savings.
  • To maximise usage of renewable energy with a gas absorption heat pump endeavour to size so that the base load is covered by the heat pumps so you get maximum run hours out of the units and therefore maximum cost and CO2 savings. In this example the building load is 110kW @ -4 degrees so the heat pump will cover the base load from April through to October and then gas condensing boilers will take up the reminder of the load for the coldest 4 months of the year.
  • This CPD presentation will take us through the history of Gas Absorption heat pumps leading to the technology behind gas absorption heat pumps and the ABSORPTION cycle to the different types and thier use. Then onto the benefits of using the technology with some comparisons with electric air source heat pumps as regards running costs and CO2 emissions and onto integration with other heat sources.
  • Due to higher flow temperatures you get from a GAHP they are more versatile and can fully integrate with condensing boilers, you can even get matched boilers to sit on the same skid for outdoor installation. Also because of being able to run at these temperatures then you can use them for DHW as these temperatures will stop legionella formation. With these higher flow temps they can also be used in retrofit situations, in most cases without having to alter the pipe work or heat sources on the secondary side. To maximise renewables they are also suited to combine with solar panels to give DHW year round.
  • Transcript

    • 1. CPDGround Source Heat Pumps Jason Cox – National Sales Manager
    • 2. CPD ENER-G Group Overview
    • 3. Products & Solutions
    • 4. ENER-G Sustainable Technologies Heat pumps
    • 5. Heat Pumps Design Supply Install Commission Maintenance
    • 6. Technology Principles
    • 7. Standard Rating Conditions GSHP – Brine 0C & Water @ 35/30C ASHP – Air @ 7C & Water @ 35/30C EN14511
    • 8. ASHP Performance CurvesHeat Output kW Entering Water Temperature 35°C 50 °C
    • 9. ASHP Performance Curves C.O.P. Entering Water Temperature 35 °C 50 °C
    • 10. Standard Rating Conditions GSHP – Brine 0C & Water @ 35/30C ASHP – Air @ 7C & Water @ 35/30C EN14511
    • 11. GSHP Performance CurvesHeat Output kW Entering Water Temperature 35 °C 50 °C
    • 12. GSHP Performance Curves C.O.P. Entering Water Temperature 35 °C 50 °C
    • 13. Ground Source ApplicationsCollector Options•Borehole Installation•Slinky / HorizontalInstallation•Lake / Pond Loops•Energy Pile Installations
    • 14. Vertical & Horizontal Loops
    • 15. Collectors & Chambers
    • 16. Ground Loop DesignDesign Data•Peak loads•Load profile•Geology•Available space
    • 17. Assumptions Output 99kW Natural gas 3.1pkWh Electricity 11.46p kWh Running hours 1250 Electricity *0.524g/kWh Natural gas *0.183g/kWh Full load hours x Output (kW) = kWh divided by efficiency = Input Input x Cost of energy = Annual running cost *http://www.bre.co.uk/filelibrary/SAP/2009/SAP-2009_9-90.pdf
    • 18. Ground Source Heat PumpsSystem Capital Cost (£) Annual Running Cost (£) Carbon OutputGSHP 98,000 3,545 16,211 (RHI £5,375) 1250 kWh x 99kW = 123,750kWh per annum divided by 4 C.O.P = 30,938kWh 30,938kWh x 11.46ppkWh = £3,545 Annual Running Cost RHI @ 4.3pkWh for installation less than 99kW
    • 19. Comparison Table (99kW)System Efficiency Capital Cost (£) Annual Running Cost Carbon Output (COP) (£)Boiler 0.9 15,000 4,262 25,162ASHP *2.2 60,000 6,446 29,475GSHP 4.0 98,000 3,545 16,211 (RHI £5,375) *http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Media/node_1422/Getting- warmer-a-field-trial-of-heat-pumps-PDF
    • 20. Longfield Academy case studyNew-build high school combines ground source heat pumps and solar thermal technology for renewable heating andcooling The project The construction of a new academy building for 1,150 students combines ground source heat pumps, with solar thermal technology to maximise renewable energy efficiency. The solution ENER-G has installed 35 boreholes and completed work on the plant room, to accommodate four ground source heat pumps with a combined capacity of 200kW. A total of 22 solar thermal panels have been installed, covering 44 square metres of the Academy’s flat roof. The benefits •It is expected to achieve a minimum ‘Very Good’ rating under BREEAM for schools, as a result of using renewable power sources, and extensive use of insulation to secure a thermal performance 15% beyond current standards. •The installed renewable technologies will supply heating and hot water to the academy, together with passive under-floor cooling in the summer months. This is projected to reduce the Academy’s carbon dioxide emissions from its heating system by up to 40%.
    • 21. Malvern Community Hospital case studyNew hospital combines ground source heat pumps and a combined heat and power system to generate its own greenpower. The project The new-build Malvern Community Hospital opened in autumn 2010 and provides both in-patient and out-patient services. ENER-G delivered a solution that was considered the most efficient means of meeting the building’s heating demands combining two low carbon technologies – a ground source heat pump system and a combined heat and power (CHP) unit. This is the first time that these technologies have been used in combination in the UK’s healthcare sector. The solution The ground source system comprises 25 boreholes and two heat pumps with combined capacities of 125kW for both heating and cooling. The ENER-G CHP system is a reciprocating gas engine rated at 33kW of electrical output generating 55kW of useful thermal output for the building and the ground loop for the heat pump. The benefits • The hospital has achieved BREEAM rating ‘Excellent’ and is projected to save on its energy bills and reduce its carbon emissions by 15 tonnes per annum. • A low maintenance option, with the ground source system having a lifetime in excess of 50 years, and the heat pumps lasting up to 25 years. • With the presence of a CHP system at the same site the electricity generated by the CHP unit can be utilised to power the heat pump
    • 22. Summary  Feasibility  Project Management  In-house drilling rigs & teams  In-house heat pump install team  Single point responsibility
    • 23. Thank Youwww.energ.co.uk
    • 24. CPDGas Absorption Heat Pumps Mark Wilson – National Product Manager
    • 25. ContentsGas Absorption Heat Pumps- Absorption Technology- Different types of GAHP- Benefits- Integration
    • 26. Gas Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Technology Different types of GAHP Benefits Integration
    • 27. Development of GasAbsorption Heat Pumps
    • 28. Principle of compressionPrinciple of Compression Heat Pumpheat pump
    • 29. Principle of gas absorptionheat pump Expansion valve Low temperature gas Hot gas Heat pump USEFUL EFFECT Heating return Very cold Cold liquid liquid Expansion valve
    • 30. How does a GAHP work?1. Gas burner heats ammonia and water solution.2. Ammonia gas enters condenser, condenses and releases heat.3. High pressure ammonia liquid converted into low pressure ammonia liquid.4. Ammonia liquid evaporates and draws in heat.5. Ammonia gas absorbs into ammonia water solution.6. Solution pump powers process.
    • 31. How does a GAHP work?1. GeneratorWithin the generator, thelow Nox gas-fired burnerheats the ammonia/water Expansion valvesolution via a heatexchanger, increasing the 6temperature and pressure. 1The strong ammoniavapour travels to thecondenser (2) whilst the Low temperature 5weak ammonia solution iscirculated to the Absorber gas 7(5) Hot gas Heat pump 4 2 Heating return Very cold Cold liquid liquid Expansion valve 3
    • 32. How does a GAHP work?2. CondenserThe high temperature,high pressure ammoniavapour releases its heat Expansion valveinto the heating systemin the condenser. The 6vapour becomes a liquid 1and travels to theexpansion valve (3) onits way to the Low temperature 5evaporator (4) gas 7 Heat pump Hot gas 4 2 Heating return Very cold Cold liquid liquid Expansion valve 3
    • 33. How does a GAHP work?3. Expansion valveThe high pressureammonia passesthrough the expansionvalve where the Expansion valvepressure falls. The 6ammonia now has areduced boiling point 1and the liquid changesback to a vapour. Thisvapour passes on to Low temperature 5the Evaporator (4) gas 7 Heat pump Hot gas 4 2 Heating return Very cold Cold liquid liquid Expansion valve 3
    • 34. How does a GAHP work?4. EvaporatorA fan draws ambient airthrough the evaporator.The ambient air captured Expansion valveby the ammonia vapour,contains a high amount of 6free, renewable energy. 1The now heated, lowpressure vapour passes onto the Absorber (5) Low temperature 5 gas 7 Heat pump Hot gas 4 2 Heating return Very cold Cold liquid liquid Expansion valve 3
    • 35. How does a GAHP work?5. AbsorberIn the absorber the weakammonia solutionrecombines with the heated Expansion valvevapour, changing its state 6into a liquid. This releasesfurther heat to the heating 1system. The nowrecombined ammoniasolution is pumped (7) back Low temperature 5to the generator. gas 7 Heat pump Hot gas 4 2 Heating return Very cold Cold liquid liquid Expansion valve 3
    • 36. How does a GAHP work?6. Second expansion valveThis second valve controls theflow of weak ammoniabetween the Generator (1) and Expansion valvethe Absorber (5) 6 1 Low temperature 5 gas 7 Heat pump Hot gas 4 2 Heating return Very cold Cold liquid liquid Expansion valve 3
    • 37. How does a GAHP work?7. Heat pumpThe pump moves the ammonia Expansion valvesolution from the Absorber (5)back to the Generator (1) where 6the process starts again. 1 Low temperature 5 gas 7 Heat pump Hot gas 4 2 Heating return Very cold Cold liquid liquid Expansion valve 3
    • 38. The Technology• Water-ammonia sealed circuit : notop-up, no drain, extremely simplemaintenance;• Natural refrigerant : no CFC, HCFC,HFC;• One single moving component(solution pump) : very high reliability;• Exhaust flue gas water vapourcondensation: reduced energy lossesin the exhaust gas;• Very low electrical consumption1/10 of an equivalent electrical heatpump.
    • 39. Gas Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Technology Different types of GAHP Benefits Integration
    • 40. GAHP GS: Ground sourceapplications• Nominal efficiency 170% by means of heat recovery from renewable source (ground)• LT or HT versions (55 °C / 65 °C)• Domestic Hot Water production up to 70°C• Indoor installation• Reduction in borehole quantity by up to 60%• Cheaper civils costs against electric ground source
    • 41. Ground Source applicationsCollector Options•Borehole Installation•Slinky / HorizontalInstallation•Lake / Pond Loops•Energy Pile Installations
    • 42. The Open UniversityThe UK’s largest closed-loop ground source, gas absorption heat pump project,providing low carbon heat and reducing energy consumption by up to 50%The projectBuilding 12 is a 2,000m2 new-build development that forms part of the Walton HallCampus. The new building is targeting a BREEAM ‘Outstanding’ rating. It incorporatesnatural ventilation, night time cooling, solar chimneys, automatic lighting controls, a greenroof, solar water heating and photovoltaic panels.The solutionENER-G drilled 13 boreholes to a depth of more than 100 metres to install a ground loopsystem that feeds four gas absorption heat pumps, with a combined capacity of 140kW heatoutput. This system supplies the building’s heating requirements and will achieve carbondioxide savings of approximately 45%, in comparison to a system heater via a condensingboilerThe benefits•Energy consumption reductions of up to 50%•Exemption from the climate change levy•Cost savings relating to the Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) energy efficiency schemeand improved Building Energy Certificate ratings (EPC and DEC)•Reduced regulatory costs as a result of low emissions, enabling points for BREEAMassessment and compliance with Part L2A and Part L2B of the building regulations
    • 43. GAHP A: Air sourceapplications•Nominal efficiency 165% by means of heat recovery from renewable source (air)• LT or HT versions (55 °C / 65 °C)• Domestic Hot Water production up to 70°C• Outdoor installation to free up plant room space• Minimal drop off of output and efficiency in low ambient temperatures against electric heat pumps
    • 44. GAHP A: Air source
    • 45. GAHP AR: Alternate heatingand cooling• Heating or cooling from the same unit• 2-1 ratio of heating to cooling• Efficiency in excess of 144%• Outdoor installation to free up plant roomspace
    • 46. GAHP ACF & WS: Simultaneousproduction of hot/cold water• Heating to cooling ratio 2.5 to 1• Efficiency in excess of 227%• Indoor installation• Very low electrical consumption
    • 47. Gas Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Technology Different types of GAHP Benefits Integration
    • 48. Direct use of energy CO₂savings h t t p : / / w w w
    • 49. Direct use of energy CO₂savings• Gas produces 0.1836 kgCO₂ / kWh• Electricity from the grid produces 0.5246 kgCO₂ /kWh http://www.carbontrust.com/media/18223/ctl153_conversion_factors.pdf*
    • 50. Direct use of energy CO₂savings• Utilized electricity from the grid produces 3* times the CO₂ of natural gas• Electric HP Seasonal COP 2.25**• GAHP Seasonal GUE 1.4 Therefore a gas absorption heat pump produces 46 % less CO₂/kWh than a air source heat pump.• If we use an example of 60 hours per week 6 months of the year….. http://www.carbontrust.com/media/18223/ctl153_conversion_factors.pdf* **http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Media/node_1422/Getting-warmer-a-field-trial-of-heat-pumps-PDF
    • 51. Direct use of energy CO₂savingsExample: GAHP-A Air Source Heat Pump (36.2kW)(Running 60 hours per week / 6 months per year)Robur Gas Heat Pump= 1560 (hrs) x 25.7 (kW gas) x 0.1836 (kgCO2/kWh gas)= 7.3 Tonnes of CO2 per yearElectric Air Source Heat Pump (seasonal COP of 2.25)= 1560 (hrs) x 16 (kW electricity) x 0.5246 (kgCO2/kWh elec)= 13 Tonnes of CO2 per year To put that into perspective……..
    • 52. 1 year’s CO₂ difference would fill the Olympic swimming pool at the 2012 games 12 times!
    • 53. Also take into account… No use/leakage of F-GasesA typical 37kW air to air electric heat pump contains about 14kg of R410a gas.If the leakage from the system is for example 10% of the charge per year *(estimates put the Global Annual leakage rates of refrigerants at 27.8% !!)This is equivalent to 2.5 Tonnes of CO2 per year Another 5 swimming pools worth! * Institute of refrigeration report 2008 (New high pressure Low GWP refrigerant blends)
    • 54. Annual running costs Example : GAHP-A Air Source Heat Pump (36.2kW) (Running 60 hours per week / 6 months per year)Robur Gas Heat Pump Condensing Boiler Electric Air Source(seasonal efficiency of (seasonal efficiency of Heat Pump (seasonal 140%) 90%) COP of 2.25) = [1560(hrs) x 0.75(LF) x = [1560(hrs) x 0.75(LF) x = [1560(hrs) x 0.75(LF) x36.2(kW) x 3.1(p/kWh)] / 36.2(kW) x 3.1(p/kWh)] / 36.2(kW) x 11.46(p/kWh)] / 1.40 0.90 2.25 = £ 938 per year = £ 1,459 per year = £ 2,157 per year Saving £500 over a condensing boiler or £1200 over an Electric Heat Pump Note: gas and electricity prices from SAP 2009 http://www.bre.co.uk/filelibrary/SAP/2009/SAP-2009_9-90.pdf
    • 55. Annual running costs There are significant running cost savings to be achieved by using a Gas Absorption Heat Pump.
    • 56. GSHP GAHP Covering Base Load Covering Base Load 140 130 120Heating Load [kW] 110 100 90 Boiler 80 70 60 50 Boiler 40 30 20 GAHP 10 0 October November December January Febtuary March April Month
    • 57. Gas Absorption Heat Pumps Absorption Technology Different types of GAHP Benefits Integration
    • 58. Integration of other heatsources
    • 59. Thank Youwww.energ.co.uk